Correlation Analysis of Cultural Development and Social Security
In recent years, politicians have paid more attention to planning methods
considering environmental, economical, social and cultural potentials
of place. According to general principles and experiences has been achieved
by the developed countries, there is a direct link between social security
and cultural development. Where the society and region is culturally more
developed, social security level is higher and vice versa. Considering
this leading point, this research aims to establish a rational correlation
between the provinces of Iran considering cultural development ranking
and social security levels using planning models and analysis. To reach
this goal, different variables in various sectors such as physical, social,
economical, etc. were classified leading to developmental indicators of
the provinces in the related sectors. In addition to this, many variables
concerning the social security levels in provinces such as homicide, robbery,
suicide, etc. were also classified to identify the social security level
in each province. According to the results, more culturally developed
and wealthier provinces, like Tehran, Khorasan, Fars, have lower social
security degree and less culturally developed provinces, like Sistan va
Baloochestan, Kurdistan, Elam have higher social security level. In other
words, the mentioned principle, the correlation between social security
and cultural development, does not work in the same direction in Iranian
Misdemeanor and crime is a general phenomenon that exists in all societies.
But this is more prevalent in urban areas than rural areas. The rate of
violent crimes per person is almost eight times greater in the largest
cities than in extremely rural areas and the rate of murders is three
times as high (Bell et al., 1990). It was recognized as a development
issue (UNODC and the World Bank, 2007) because economics relates it to
the indicators of economic activity and law enforcement deterrence and
sociologists to the role of stratification and socialization in regional
crime determination (Rephann, 1999). Although, the definition of crime
is strongly influenced by location and time characteristics, cultural
contexts, social conditions, economical structure, political considerations
and ideological obligations, the way to deal with it is also conditioned
by these factors. That is why the addict is guilty and deserves legal
prosecution in some countries and in some others it is assumed as disease
that should be treated. In Iran, less attention has been paid to the contextual
aspects of crime (socio-spatial ones) and it dealt merely from the disciplinary-judicial
point of view. Therefore, the punishment of criminals has more priority
than other socio-economical efforts.
According to the latest unpublished official statistics in Iran, in each
100 thousands people, 247 people are in jail. This is 220 people for Thailand,
125 people for England, 95 people for Turkey, 90 people for France, 60
people for Egypt. In comparison with previous years, the rate of law breaking
and social harm are increasing. For example, the number of judged judicial
documents of country has been increased from 1702376 in 1995 to 3120589
in 2002. For more detail of this, the survey can be extended to the local
level across the provinces. To do this and link the data with cultural
development, the research aims to establish a rational correlation between
the cultural development ranking and social security level across the
provinces using planning models and analysis. Considering this, the research
also intends to examine the reliability of the following general principle
has been achieved by developed countries: where the society and region
is culturally more developed, social security level is higher and vice
versa. Does this work in the same direction in Iranian context? If not,
what make it different?
MATERIALS AND METHODS
While mathematics is generally thought to be the language of science,
data analysis is the language of research (George and Mallery, 1995 quoted
in Shawesh 2000). Data was gathered via a mixture of documentary retrieval
||The process of the research
The primary data has been collected from Ministry of the Interior and
Statistic Centre of Iran which comprised annual statistics (1996-2003)
and House and Population Census (1956-1996) (Statistic Office of Iran,
2003a). After collecting data from the main sources, the next steps of
such analytical research comprise sorting data and building explanations,
this means analysis and interpretation. Accordingly, the first task of
the researcher is categorizing and indexing the information according
to subjects and issues. This will give the researcher an ability to focus
and organize the retrieval of sections of information, or its elements,
for the purpose of some form of further analysis or manipulation and to
get a sense of the scope and coverage of their data, so this process can
also help researchers in their conceptual, analytical and theoretical
thinking. To do this, different methods of analyzing data has been reviewed
comprising Human Development Index, Factor Analysis, Numerical Taxonomy
and Cluster Analysis, etc. The data analysis has been carried out based
on the Numerical Taxonomy. Numerical Taxonomy was recognized as a basic
technique to classify the level of socio-cultural development between
different nations and regions. This model can classify a set of values
and to somehow generate equal homogenate subsets and give a scale to know
the degree of socio-economical development (Mahmoodi and Feizpoor, 1997).
Before analyzing the generated data, the variables concerning both cultural
development and crime has been derived through Delphi Method. Then, the
results have been put into the Numerical Taxonomy Software to reach the
ranking stage among provinces. This has been done for both cultural development
and crime. The final stage is concerning the availability of any correlation
coefficient between both subjects. The research process has been summarized
in Fig. 1 which shows four main steps leading to the main aim of the study.
CULTURAL DEVELOPMENT RANKING ACROSS THE PROVINCES
In the 21st century, the paradigm of mind and matter has been defined
in the form of culture and technology. This is not all, to the extent
that the balance has been changed in benefit of the culture. It means
that the culture became the leading factor in acceleration of development
(Azkia, 1998). Nowadays, in the paradigm of development, there are different
attitude towards the culture.
||Ranking of the provinces according to the cultural development
||Ranking cultural development of the provinces` provinces
Those follows modernism approach believes that the state of development
does not occur unless majority of the population accept new values of life.
Human capital theories believe that the national development is conditioned
by human capital. Therefore, the culture is a production investment (Masoodian,
1993). Generally, based on the world literature concerning the concept of
development, it is clear that the cultural development is a primary condition
and infrastructure of other developments.
Quantities indicators concerning the cultural development have been extracted
from different theories (Morris, 1979; Preston, 1997; Mazumdar, 1999;
Schech and Haggis, 2000; Pieterse, 2002). These indicators are 22 variables
which have been defined as bases for evaluating cultural development of
the country`s provinces. These variables alongside some other permanent
indicators such as population and area of each province, which has been
derived from annual statistics (1996-2002) of the country, evaluated using
Morris technique (Statistic Office of Iran, 2003b). The results are cultural
development ranking across the provinces and developmental coefficient
in each category (Table 1, 2). Considering
these developmental coefficients, the level of cultural development can
be defined in each province. As the Table 2 shows, there
are visible differences between the provinces so that the province of
Tehran has the highest (level 1) and Sistan va Baloochestan the lowest
(level 28) level of cultural development. This ranking of cultural development
can be classified into four levels of developed, developing, less developed
and undeveloped provinces (Fig. 2). Among the culturally
developed provinces, Tehran has a significant difference with others.
This can be justified concerning the dominant role of the city of Tehran
regarding its socio-economical role in the country. As the capital of
Iran and due to the centralist/sectoralist nature of Iranian political/administrative
and socioeconomic structures that evolved with the advent of capitalism
since the mid nineteenth century but were institutionalized planning since
1989 and further stimulated by increasing oil revenues (Amiahmadi, 1986),
Tehran attracted most of the county`s cultural infrastructures leading
to the great gap with other provinces regarding cultural development aspect.
CRIME RANKING ACROSS THE PROVINCES
Arnold Welfares says, security from both objective and subjective viewpoints
means the lack of threats that endanger vital values and no fear against
existing values (Belis, 1999). As the privative aspect of security has
been more considered, security conveys conditions without threat, fear,
damage and harm and existence of confidence and peace. Social security
is also emphasized from privative viewpoint. For Fisher (1993), the social
security, from privative approach, means a condition within which there
is no fear, no compulsion and no external threat and public needs are
well supplied. From viewpoint of Molar, social security has a direct link
with loss of identity or any threat to the sense of place in the society.
Considering this, for him, social security conveys a condition within
which the traditional patterns of life such as language, culture, religious,
national identity and tradition can be developed. Concerning social security,
various studies have introduced different approach and indicators to evaluate
social security in different geographical areas. According to the existing
information, in this research, 16 variables have been considered to evaluate
the social security across the provinces of country (Table
4). These variables were classified based on the latest statistical
data from 1996 to 2002. Table 3 and 4
are the result of analysis using Morris method, which show the ranking
of the provinces concerning the social security.
||Ranking of the provinces according to the social security
||Social security ranking in the provinces considering population
||Social security ranking in the provinces without considering population
According to the Table 4, Zanjan province is on the highest
level and Kerman province on lowest level of social security. Considering
the population factor there is a considerable difference in the results
so that the eastern Azerbaijan province is on 19th level without and on
second level with this factor. This is also true about the province of Semnan
to the extent that it is on 7th level with the population factor and on
27th level without this factor. From this point, the population can be recognized
as an important factor which should always be considered in analysis part
of such studies. Considering this factor, the ranking of social security
aspect across the provinces can be classified into four levels of developed,
developing, less developed and undeveloped provinces (Fig.
3, 4). Contrary to the previous ranking, the province
of Tehran has the lowest level of social security and has been classified
within the undeveloped provinces. On the contrary, the province of Kurdistan,
which had the lowest level of cultural development, moved to the highest
level of social security and defined within the developed provinces.
Considering the results of analysis part, it is time to challenge the mentioned
idea borrowed from developed countries. As explained, it says that where the
society and region is culturally more developed, social security level is higher
and vice versa. From the results, it is clear that this idea does not work in
the same direction in Iranian context. In line with this, based on the Table
4, the correlation coefficient between cultural development and social security
is 0.556. This means that the high cultural development can not be lead to the
high social security in Iranian context. The direction is reverse so that those
culturally more developed provinces, like Tehran, Khorasan, Fars... have less
social security and those culturally less developed provinces, like Sistan va
Baloochestan, Kurdistan, Iilam ... have higher social security. This can be
figured out in the dispersion chart (Fig. 5) so that as the
cultural development is increased the social security is decreased and vice
The main reason of such reverse condition can be linked to the traditional
way of life and the features of this culture which still exist in culturally
less developed societies. In these societies, the life is mainly controlled
by informal rules contextualized by ethnical beliefs and faiths and local
conventions etc. These rules created a kind of social control on people`s
behavior which alongside with the formal one adopted by the government
resulted in a higher social security. On the contrary, those culturally
more developed societies have lost the informal rules as a result of the
new life style imposed by the wave of modernization. As Rephann (1999)
indicated, one likely cause is the greater degree of anonymity and correspondingly
lower lever of intimacy found in day-to-day contact. For Bell et al.
(1990), this has been defined in line with the theory of deindividuation.
According to this theory, when we feel we are an anonymous member of a
crowd, our inhibitions against antisocial behavior are released. This
is partly because we feel it is very unlikely that we will be identified
and punished. Freudenburg and Jones (1991) refer to this as the density
of acquaintanceship and argue that when the population becomes larger,
more heterogeneous and more mobile, it is not as easy for residents to
establish lasting interpersonal ties. This means that in such societies
the first social control has been declined. As a result, the people are
less under the bond of informal rules, thus, more vulnerable than other
traditional societies to crime and violation. Therefore, the social security
From the above points, the following results and recommendations can
be outlined for this research:
||Dispersion chart between cultural development and social security
|| Cultural development and social security ranking of the provinces
||The correlation between cultural development and social security
is in the reverse direction in Iranian context due to the centralized
planning and policy adopted in the period of Pahlavid dynasty (1925-1979),
which still the country is under the bond of this pattern of planning
and the loss of informal rules in the culturally more developed provinces.
In addition to these, it is worth to say that the economic factors-inequality
and slow economic growth-significantly increase the rates of violent
crime in the more populated cities.
||Considering the lack of informal rules in the culturally more developed
provinces it is important to adopt some policies to facilitate and
renovate traditional social inspection and individuals` trust of others
in their community. This can be contextualized through public participation
in decision making and democratic way of governing the place.
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