The waste is closely related to post harvest fishery losses. Shrimp waste consists
mainly of shrimp heads and tail hulls. About 35% by weight shrimp raw material
is discarded as waste. Value addition of shrimp waste could provide extra income
for the low income people. Shrimp waste could be used as Fish or shrimp meal,
poultry meal, dietary food, skin care and agricultural purpose. Shrimp waste
is the principal raw materials for drying. In Bangladesh total waste estimated
about 13677.98 mt. Total waste processed by sun drying in open place is about
3839.4 mt. also it was found that the traditional open sun drying method was
practiced by about 1580 people with female involvement of 30%, with considerable
number of young people (30-40 age groups) involvement in the waste processing.
By nature, the waste is closely related to post harvest fishery losses. It is
observed that, rapid expansion of fish and shrimp culture industry is created
a serious environmental and hygiene problem (Chandrkrachang et al., 1991).
Shrimps are normally sold headless and often peeled of the outer shell, thus
the waste generated comprises mainly of the shrimps head, shell and tail. Shrimp
waste could be processed in drying, fermentation etc. Shrimp waste could be
processed as several human food such as pettis (shrimp paste), terasi, shrimp
crackers (Superno and Poernomo, 1992), shrimp waste could also converted to
shrimp loaves with 20% wheat flour and 30% fat emulsion (Suparno and Nurcahya,
1984). Chitin and chitosan is also value added product from shrimp waste (Superno
and Poernomo, 1992). Shrimp raw material is discarded as waste is about 35-45%
by weight, when processed is headless, shell on products. Peeling process which
involves removal of shell from prawn, increase the total waste production up
to 45% (Subashinghe, 1999). It also reported that about 80% original weight
of raw materials is discarded from crustacean processing plants (Shahidi and
Synowiecki, 1991). Shrimp waste in a dried form could be used as supplementation
of fish meal, poultry and a natural source of carotenoids for pigmentation purposes
(Shahidi et al., 1992); largely to impart desired flesh coloration to
culture some marine fish such as salmon and trout. Shrimp meal also used in
poultry diets. Shrimp meal is valuable in tropical fish and bird diets where
properties or pigment enhancement are of greater importance (Meyers, 1986).
Shrimp waste could be used as agricultural purpose such as fertilizer (Chandrkrachang
et al., 1991). From the shrimp processing industries in the coastal region
of Bangladesh about 1, 14,000 mt year-1 of shrimp waste is produced
annually (Khan and Hossain, 1996). Waste quickly becomes colonized by spoilage
organisms and is rapidly transformed into both a nuisance and public health
hazard, which lead the poverty in the locality. Alarmingly high BOD values for
water bodies nearby waste dumping sites indicating a major threat of aquatic
pollution, which leads the water use conflicts (Bhuwapathapun, 1996). These
wastes created a major problem to the processor as environmental restriction
are enforced (Shahidi and Synowiecki, 1991). Considerable interest in innovation
of technology for the utilization of shrimp waste could lead to several products
of high economic value, supplementary protein source both for animal and human
and to solve environmental pollution created by waste. This could reduce the
socio- ecological conflicts and will upgrade the livelihood of the involved
Therefore, the objective of this research was to assess the alternative processing option from shrimp processing bio-waste in Khulna District- Southwestern Bangladesh.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Data was collected from Khulna district i.e., Khulna (Khulna sadar, Rupsha, Khalishpur). Semi-structured and structured questionnaire has been conducted for interviews. Likert scale (Kothari, 1998) has been used to quantify the perception/attitude, interest of the waste users. In this method, the responses have been rated as 1 to 5 scales to help the respondents rank the items according to their choice. Secondary data collected from administrative and sectoral official, informal institutions and research institute.
Water quality measurement: The water quality was observed on the east
bank of Rupsha River, where about 16 shrimp processing plants located. The samples
were collected with the help of a boat in plastic bottle and closed properly
to make sure that there was no bubble. Samples were collected about 1 meter
below the surface. The water quality parameters have been followed the standard
method and a number of sophisticated instruments were used. The water temperature,
pH, Dissolved Oxygen (DO) was done immediately on the spot and then the sample
were preserved by adding 4-5 drops HNO3 (0.01N) to control the change
of water sample, in addition the samples were brought to the laboratory for
the further chemical analysis and kept it into a refrigerator.
|| Methods used in water sample analysis
Other parameters like chloride, iron and biological Oxygen Demand (BOD) were
measured within 72 h of collection, the instruments has been shown in Table
Data analysis: The Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) and
excel has been used for data processing and data analysis in this study. Weighted
Average Index (WAI) has been used.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Distribution of shrimp processing plants: In Khulna district there are 34 shrimp processing plants established. The shrimp waste processing practice has been started from about 5 years from now by the local poor peoples, as a secondary job and the processors are almost in and around the area where the processing plants established. About 1580 total people involved in waste processing as traditional sun drying method, found in the study area and 70 waste processors were interviewed for the survey among them about 40 interview were selected from Rupsha, while Rupsha upazila alone shows about 46% of total processing plants, 23% of total waste processors are concentrated in this upazila. Rupsha is about 2 km distance and other plants are within Khulna.
Temrolling and relative humidity: Temperature changes are remarkable in Khulna District with the changes of seasons. The mean maximum temperature in Khulna was about 35.6°C recorded in the month of May. The mean minimum temperature was recorded in the month of January and it was 11.1°C (Table 2). Relative humidity is inversely proportional to the temperature. Higher the temperature lesser the relative humidity of the atmosphere. In Khulna, mean monthly relative humidity varies from 100% (June) to 57% (March). Temperature is the key point for drying in open sun.
Education: Rolling mill education level of the shrimp waste processors
interviewed could be classified in to four categories. From the result it has
been observed that, about 44% of the respondents were between primary levels
while 21% can only sign their name. After primary level only 28% could join
in the secondary level while 7% could join in higher secondary level.
The education status express, 44% of the waste processors of the study area were between the primary levels of education while only 3% have access to higher secondary level (Table 3). This is may be due to the reason that, the concentration of schools is greater in the central areas of the district and did not have access for the rural peoples. This also observed by earlier study (Anonymous, 1999), though the number of school and college is fairly adequate in Khulna district, but their spatial distribution is not well balanced. This is alarming for any type of development of an area. People who are involved with shrimp waste processing method were poorly educated and thus they could not follow the method scientifically and couldnt understand how to do the practice more efficiently.
Age structure: The age structure of the respondent could be classified mainly three categories. About 60% of respondent belong to between 30-40 age group, this is most economically active labor force group in Khulna district (Table 4). This suggests that, a large number of young people are engaged with waste practice and if proper attention given, this practice could be done more effectively and scientifically.
Sex: About 70% male and 30% female are engaged with shrimp waste processing. Compared with other occupation female investment in shrimp waste processing is quite significant in the study area. This suggests that shrimp waste processing could be an impressive arena for female employment.
Occupation: The major occupation in the study area is agro centric (Anonymous, 2003). The result revealed about 53% was agricultural labor, while 20 percent was nonagricultural labor and 11, 10 and 6% were involved with employee, tricycle puller and construction labor respectively. In Khulna region, the Penaeus monodon (Bagda shrimp) is available through out the year because of year round Gher culture method, the peak season for the shrimp is July to September (Table 5).
Income from waste processing: The average annual income of the respondents revealed that they live below the poverty line (Anonymous, 1999). Income from waste processing constitutes total income on an average about 13%. This percent of income contribute insignificant to maintain their daily needs (Table 6)
Experience: The experience has been classified in to 4 categories.
||Monthly average temperature, rainfall and humidity (2003)
in Khulna district (Anonymous, 2004)
|Socio-economic status of waste processor community:
|| Educational status of the processors interviewed (n = 70)
|| Age structure of the respondent (n = 70)
|| Primary occupation of the respondent (n = 70)
|| Income from shrimp waste drying in traditional method (n
||Experience of shrimp waste drying in traditional method (n
It was observed that about 40% of respondent has been experienced with 2 year
as shrimp waste drying in the open place, while about 4% peoples were involved
for 4 years (Table 7).
From the result it is observed that, the waste processors who were the more experienced, they got comparatively good dried products within their facilities and investment.
Total waste processing in a traditional sun drying method: A total of
1580 persons are involved in shrimp waste processor has been estimated in the
Khulna district. However, all of the processors done traditional sun drying
method. Total waste estimated from processing plants of Khulna region was about
13677.98 mt. Total waste processed by drying was about 3839.4 mt (Table
Therefore, the result express that about 28% shrimp waste has been processed however from the unprocessed 72%, a portion has been dumped in to the river after processing and a portion has been utilized for other purpose such as:
||directly as human food by cooking of shrimp head
||directly used as food for cat fish culture system.
It has been suggested that percentage of processing is not satisfactory. Because of the shrimp waste are degradable in high temperature and humidity. In the current practice i.e. they were drying in the open public place therefore its difficult to get free access to that place as they required Supreno and Poernomo (Superno and Poernomo, 1992) have been also observed the limited utilization of waste because of the perishable nature of the waste.
Water quality parameters: Measured water quality parameters are as
follows: Biological oxygen Demand (BOD), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD). Dissolved
Oxygen (DO), Chloride (Cl), pH, Temperature and Iron (Fe). Collected parameters
from Department of Environment (DOE), Khulna, have been plotted in the (Table
Table 9 express, from last five years, almost all the parameters
are within the range except the BOD in 2002 was 20 and it showed unusable for
fisheries, processing and irrigation purpose while lowest was about 1 in the
year 2004. However, the same parameters done by the researcher showed (Table
10) quite difference from the collected DOE parameters. According to DOE
this may be due to the reason that the DOE did the analysis during the day from
10.00 h to 14.00 h but the processing in shrimp industries mostly done in night.
As a result the all parameters are somewhat changed or distributed in the next
morning by the tidal effect. Though it has been reported that about 12.53 mt
of BOD is produced annually in this river (Anonymous, 1997). In addition, Table
10 revealed that, about 122 mg-1 BOD has been detected around
200 meter distance of fish processing plants, showed a negative correlation
with DO. The amount of chloride is moderately high, which indicates a fairly
high and alarming for the water environment. This might be mainly due to the
reason that the shrimp processing plants discharges a considerable quantity
of waste richer water and they use chlorine as disinfectant in water. This results
the high BOD and Chloride in water body.
|| Shrimp waste processing from total waste
||Water quality parameters adjacent to plant area to Rupsha
River, DOE, Khulna 2004.
||Research adjacent to plant area to and about 1/2 km south
of Rupsha river, March 2004
|| Disease statuses due to the waste practice (n = 70)
The similar result was of BOD was found by Khulna university research cell
(Saha, 2001). In that report, BOD was found during low tide 123 mg-1
and during high tide about 165 mg-1. The chloride content was found
in that report about 4320 mg-1 and 6113 mg-1 during low
and high tide respectively. The temperature, pH and DO are not so alarming for
the water animals because the river is tidal. However the water becomes unusable
f or other open resource users such as agricultural purpose and as toiletries
for the surrounding peoples.
Disease: The frequency of four major diseases has been reported in the
study area. It has been showed that, about 31, 9 and 4% has been suffering for
diarrhea, dysentery and skin disease respectively while about 47% respondent
has not been experienced any vital disease for the processing method. About
6% has experienced with asthma (Table 11) The dominance of
diarrhea and dysentery, both of which are water borne diseases (Anonymous, 2004).
|| Relevant problems due to current waste practice (n = 70)
|| Weighted average index for the traditional drying method
(n = 70)
|Note: *indicates statistically significant at 95% confidence
level (p = 0.05)
Therefore, it suggests that the respondents were used the nearby polluted water
for the toiletries and sometime for drinking purpose because the drinking and
cooking water source in the study area is hand tube well and the waste processor
group people were not much aware to use the tube well water for their daily
needs. This might cause such type of diseases. While the asthma might be due to the
effluent during the drying and some other reason, is not clear.
Relevant problems: About 73% respondent agreed about water pollution while 27% revealed very bad smell around the area of drying (Table 12). It suggests, openly drying of the shrimp wastes and effluent discharge should be regulating in a proper way.
Facilities and constraints of the waste processor: There were eight
different questions related with the waste processing scored by the waste processors
from 1-5. Then weights have been given to the scores and the average value was
calculated which revealed the magnitude of the causes as mentioned before.
From the Table 13, the result expresses, lack of technology,
weather, lack of support, lack of raw waste cost regulation, political influence
were the most important problem identified by the interviewed processor as strongly
agreed. While the waste processors were showed indeterminate character when
responding about lack of place and lack of coordination as a constraint. However,
there is a significant difference among the respondent answering of the question.
This suggests they need education and training to build up and understanding
themselves that what is needed. In addition, it also suggests, shrimp waste
processing is a new practice in the study area therefore no technology for processing
has been introduced and they suggested about a feasible technology with proper
support i.e., various suitable technology demonstration, loan and training.
Middle man are the raw waste supplier to the local waste processors, sometime
the middleman might demand extra for the waste. This express, a raw waste cost
should be regulated by processing plant or the department of Fisheries. People
has been very badly experienced by the political influences and in the study
area they do not like to have any more influence regarding the allocation of
open resource and demanding money. In addition processors were inactive to response
about authorized place because they might expects the technology which dont
need much place and they were not much acquainted with the sector wise coordination,
because there might need some extension training and education about this.
||High demand of dried waste product was strongly agreed by
the interviewed processors showed shrimp waste processing in a drying method
could be an impressive arena for the local people. It revealed, if they
could use locally feasible and easy technology like solar drier, or fermentation,
the product quality might more better than the traditional method and more
||Shrimp waste consists mainly of shrimp heads and tail hulls. Giant tiger
shrimp, Penaeus monodon consists of about 35% waste of the total
weight. Only 28% is processed as sun drying in open place and some others
are being utilized as alternative feed for cat fish, white fish culture
pond or in shrimp culture pond. There is no data about the fresh water giant
prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii (Golda). However, shrimp waste could
be a very good item for value addition in the study area.
||It was observed that, among total of 1580 people, about 30% was female
with considerable number of young people are involved in the waste processing.
The waste processors are mainly involved from the month of April to August.
Though the temperature and sunshine hour was enough to dry but the problem
was the rain. The processors couldnt move the waste in the monsoon
as they kept it in open sun. The nature of waste is very perishable in high
temperature and humidity and it could degrade the quality. Therefore, solar
drier could introduce to reduce spoilage of shrimp waste.
||It was found that the income from the waste was less than half (13%) of
annual total income. The processors are interested to go ahead because of
the raw material availability and the dried product demand which is most
promising. Therefore, they need to be aware and to understand the dried
product quality through government or non government extension work including
the suggestion and cooperation of this venture.
||According to 73% respondents, the water become polluted and they also
suffering from some water borne disease like diarrhea (31%) and dysentery
(9%).However, the reason of the disease is not proved, when the waste dumped
in to the water body or traditional sun drying method practiced in an open
place, problems are found as high BOD in river water and bad smell surrounding
the processing area. This indicates the abnormal situation of water quality
for the fisheries and other resource users. If they practice the method
in such a way that could provide the maximum drying rate for economic efficiency,
microbiological quality and the minimum loss of essential components of
the dried material. Therefore the solar drying method could be a good solution
of water quality. So, it could be concluded that more research is needed
to understand the whole situation about the disease and the water quality.
||Pure water supply is an important to become a healthy life, in the study
area but the bottleneck in the study area is most of hand tube well is out
of work. Therefore, a comprehensive scheme is required to extension and
repair to cater the water supply need.
||There are some negative interactions among the other stakeholders, which
express that if a technology could be there the problems might not happen
any more. In addition they strongly agreed about the political interference
were disturbing them to do the processing smoothly. For better management,
about 45% interviewee revealed, cooperation with the waste processors, processing
plant, civil society, government and private sector should pay the attention.
This concludes that the waste practice though new, but people have interest
to do this better with the help of other sectors. While they did not know
about various departmental coordination. Therefore, the relevant sectors
could work themselves specially department of environment (DOE), department
of fisheries (DOF) and other concern private agencies to provide them knowledge
about relevant field and make more understand about their demand and expectation.
||Waste dumping could regulate with some valid and practical rules for the
environmental protection and management. DOE could allocate space for the
deheading of shrimp. Processing plants could maintain the raw material quality
as possible as fresh for the further process of the waste.
Therefore, processing practice with easy technology should be done on the most