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Research Article
 

Comparison of Combining Ability of Yield Components of Plan Land and Ridges Pattern of Plantation in Gossypium hirsutum L.



Riazud Din Ahmad, Abdul Jabbar Malik , M. Ali Chang , Gul Hassan , Muhammad Subhan , M. Umar Khan and Liaqat Ali
 
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ABSTRACT

Experiment of 8×8 diallel analysis was conducted on Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) in the Faculty of Agriculture, Gomal University, D.I.Khan, Pakistan during copping season 1997-99. Sowing was managed both on Flat land and Ridges to differentiate the estimation of combining ability analysis in the inheritance of some important yield components viz., Seed Index, Lint %age, Lint Index and Staple length by Griffing’s Method- II, Model-1 in F1 generation. The mean squares for General Combining Ability (GCA), Specific Combining Ability (SCA) and reciprocals effects of both flat land and ridges plantation were observed to be highly significant for the characters mentioned. The estimates of component of variance clarified that the variance due to SCA was much higher in magnitude and more imperative than GCA for all the traits mentioned above except for lint index in flat land but the SCA was quite higher in style of ridges for all the parameters. This type of variance percentage surly indicated the significant role of non additive type of gene action with (dominance or epistatic effects) in the inheritance of these traits, though additive type of gene action was reflected in case of Lint index because of its higher GCA (Flate Land).

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  How to cite this article:

Riazud Din Ahmad, Abdul Jabbar Malik , M. Ali Chang , Gul Hassan , Muhammad Subhan , M. Umar Khan and Liaqat Ali , 2003. Comparison of Combining Ability of Yield Components of Plan Land and Ridges Pattern of Plantation in Gossypium hirsutum L.. Journal of Applied Sciences, 3: 391-399.

DOI: 10.3923/jas.2003.391.399

URL: https://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=jas.2003.391.399

Introduction

Flexible parental lines are desirable to be utilized in any hybridization strategy to engineer genetically modified and potentially better genotypes with collection of varying gene effects relatively in a homozygous line. To estimate different types of gene action, relative magnitude of genetic variance and combining ability estimates are essential and indispensable requirements to mould the genetic base of cotton crop. This noteworthy information could prove a critical approach to the cotton breeders in the selection of better parental combinations for future improvement. Utilization of heterosis mainly reliant on the screening and selection of existing germplasm that could guarantee improved combinations of characters.

The total genetic variability concluded in the analysis for each character was classified into its components i.e. Generaland Specific combining ability as defined by Sprangue and Tatum (1942) and Reciprocal as proposed by Griffing (1956); Yaqoob et al. (1997); Baloch et al. (2000) and Bhutto et al. (2001) who stressed upon the appreciable degree of variance due to GCA for the characters understudy.

Many marketable cultivars above and beyond their attractive agronomic reflection execute badly because of genetic hindrances in diverse cross combinations. Consequently crossing in a diallel fashion is the only accurate and prosperous method of assessment for gradation and selection of better genetically customized material. The present research program was designed to investigate some important cotton cultivars/genotypes to determine their relative performance concerning combining ability effects for yield and its components.

Materials and Methods

The research study was conducted at Faculty of Agriculture, Gomal University, Dera Ismail Khan during the years 1997-99. The germplasm material was consisting of eight cultivars of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) viz; CIM-443, MNH-93, CIM-448, NIAB-78, SLS-1, CIM-446, FH-634 and CIM-1100 which were crossed in all possible combinations. The axis of this study was to expose the gene action through combining ability for various yield components. All the genotypes along with parents were grown to examine the data of diverse parameters of F1 in triplicated Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) by arranging row to row distance as 75 cms and plant to plant 30 cms equally on flat land and ridges. Agronomic and crop protection measures were also maintained from sowing to harvesting. Every treatment was set in a 3.3 meter long row keeping ten plants experimental while two plants were kept as non experimental on either side of the row.

The data were recorded on Seed Index, Lint %age, Lint Index and Staple length in F1 generation. The mean data were subjected to the standard techniques of analysis of variance (Steel and Torrie, 1980) to check the level of significance. The general and specific combining ability as defined by Sprague and Tatum (1942) and reciprocal effects as proposed by Griffing method I, model II (1956) were estimated.

Results and Discussion

Combining ability effects
GCA, SCA and reciprocals were observed for mean squares to be highly significant for traits, viz: Seed Index, Lint %age, Lint Index and Staple length (Table 1a, b). The estimates of component of variance uncovered that the variance due to SCA was much higher in magnitude and more vital than GCA in case of Seed Index, Lint %age and Staple length clarifying thus the prevalence of non additive type of gene action for the inheritance of these traits. Although GCA was quite high in case of Lint index exposing additive type of gene action in Flat Land. These research findings are fairly in accordance with Bhatade and Bhale (1983), Khan et al. (1991), Yaqoob et al. (1997), Baloch et al. (2000) and Bhutto et al. (2001) who stressed upon the appreciable degree of variance due to GCA for this characters (Table 2).

Table 1a: F1 Flat land (1997-98)
Image for - Comparison of Combining Ability of Yield Components of Plan Land and Ridges Pattern of
Plantation in Gossypium hirsutum L.

Table 1b: F1 Ridges Plantation (1997-98)
Image for - Comparison of Combining Ability of Yield Components of Plan Land and Ridges Pattern of
Plantation in Gossypium hirsutum L.

Table 2: Estimates of components of variance due to GCA, SCA and reciprocal effects of various characters of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) in an 8 x 8 diallel cross experiment (1998-99)
Image for - Comparison of Combining Ability of Yield Components of Plan Land and Ridges Pattern of
Plantation in Gossypium hirsutum L.
* Upper values denote variance estimates
** Lower values denote variance components in percentage

Table 3: Estimates of general combining ability effects for various characters of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) in a 8 x 8 diallel cross Experiment (1997-98)
Image for - Comparison of Combining Ability of Yield Components of Plan Land and Ridges Pattern of
Plantation in Gossypium hirsutum L.
Image for - Comparison of Combining Ability of Yield Components of Plan Land and Ridges Pattern of
Plantation in Gossypium hirsutum L.

Table 4: Estimates of specific combining ability effects for various characters of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. ) in a 8 x 8 diallel cross experiment Flat Land Plantation (1998-99)
Image for - Comparison of Combining Ability of Yield Components of Plan Land and Ridges Pattern of
Plantation in Gossypium hirsutum L.
Image for - Comparison of Combining Ability of Yield Components of Plan Land and Ridges Pattern of
Plantation in Gossypium hirsutum L.

Table 5: Estimates of reciprocal effects for various characters of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) in an 8 x 8 diallel cross experiment (1997- 98)
Image for - Comparison of Combining Ability of Yield Components of Plan Land and Ridges Pattern of
Plantation in Gossypium hirsutum L.
Image for - Comparison of Combining Ability of Yield Components of Plan Land and Ridges Pattern of
Plantation in Gossypium hirsutum L.
Image for - Comparison of Combining Ability of Yield Components of Plan Land and Ridges Pattern of
Plantation in Gossypium hirsutum L.

On the other hand SCA was fairly high in all the parameters showing and confirming non additive type of gene action (Epistasis and Dominance) pointing towards heterosis indirectly (Ridges). This confirmed that the decisive role of genetic variance (in percentage) for these characters is due to non additive type of gene action (with dominance or epistatic effects). Khajidoni et al. (1984), Ghafoor and Khan et al. (1987), Sayal et al. (1997), Hassan et al. (1999) and Subhan et al. (2003), who already concluded the crucial role of SCA effects regarding such characters.

General combining ability effects
The variety CIM-1100 expressed its superiority and proved to be the best general combiner for Seed Index, Lint %age, Lint Index and Staple length (Flat Land). Like wise the same variety was superior in general combining ability effect for, Lint %age, Lint Index and Staple length (ridges plantation). While FH-634 surpassed all the others in case of seed index as general combiner (Ridges). Moreover, CIM-1100 also reached at the climax regarding all the rest of the parameters (Ridges). Therefore, the best yielding parents like FH-634 and CIM-1100 might be selected for varietal improvement in different cross combinations. Adequate literature is available in support of such inferences such as Hassan et al. (1999), Kalwar and Babar (1999) and Hassan et al. (2000) who also concluded that best yielding parents with high GCA produced the best hybrid combinations (Table 3).

Specific combining ability
Considering Table 4 CIM-448 x CIM-446 showed the most excellent presentation for seed Index whereas NIAB-78 x FH-634 for Lint %age concerning specific combining ability effects. The hybrid, CIM-446 x FH-634 was superior for Lint Index, despite the fact that CIM-448 x CIM-1100 was clarified as the best in case of Staple length thus surpassed other crosses (Flat Land). MNH-93 x CIM-446 was the best one with respect to Seed Index although NIAB-78 x SLS-1 was exposed as the most superior regarding Lint %age among all the hybrids. Furthermore, CIM-448 x FH-634 reached at the climax in case of Lint Index, although for Staple length the hybrid like MNH-93 x CIM-448 was noted as the most superior one (Ridges).

Out come of the present study of combining ability of both Flate Land / Ridges is that in case of Lint percentage and Lint Index, the parents with best general combining ability on their exploitation in cross combinations as one of the parents could not produce superior hybrid combinations. Nevertheless the parents like, FH-634 and CIM-1100 with highest general combining ability produced good hybrid combinations for seed Index and staple length respectively.

The results are in partial agreement with the findings of Khan and Khan (1985), Ghafoor and Khan (1987) and Baloch et al. (1995) who reported that GCA is not the crucial factor for estimating the SCA. At the same time as the results are partially identical with the conclusions of previous workers like Marani (1964), Waldia et al. (1984), Khan et al. (1991a), Baloch et al. (1997), Hassan et al. (1999), Kalwar and Babar (1999), Hassan et al. (2000) and Subhan et al. (2003) who concluded that the parents with best general combining ability on their utilization in cross combination as one of the parents produced good hybrid combinations. This type of contradiction may be due to diverse germplasm materials utilized and the dissimilar climatic conditions under which these workers conducted their experiments.

Reciprocal effects
Table 5 highlighted that hybrid MNH-93 x NIAB-78 obtained Lint %age highest position regarding seed, lint indices and Staple length while MNH-93 x FH-634 achieved its superiority in case of lint percentage. Further more, NIAB-78 x CIM-446 was exposed for highest score in case of seed index and cross MNH-93 X FH-634 for lint percentage while NIAB-78 X CIM-446 was noted for lint index (Ridges). Moreover MNH-93 x SLS-1 achieved the top position with reference to staple length (Ridges). From the fore going discussion, it is suggested, that single cross performance could be compo sited with their reciprocal effects, if yield and its components are to be kept in view. Bhatade et al. (1980) also concluded this kind of observation in advance.

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