Performance and Egg Quality Characteristics of Layers Fed Different Combinations of Cassava Root Meal and Bambara Groundnut Offals
A feeding trial of 84 day was conducted to evaluate
the performance and egg quality characteristics of layers fed different
combinations of Cassava Root Meal (CRM) and Bambara Groundnut Offal (BGO).
Four layer diets were formulated such that diet T1 (control)
contained 50% maize, while diets T2, T3 and T4
contained CRM and BGO in the ratios of 2:1, 1:1 and 1:2, respectively,
completely replacing maize. Ninety six Shaver Brown point-of-lay pullets
were allotted into four experimental groups of 24 pullets each and each
group was replicated twice with eight pullets per replicate. These birds
were randomly assigned to the experimental dies in a Completely Randomized
Design (CRD) experiment. Results indicated that daily feed intake was
significantly (p<0.05) higher for layers on diet T3 and
T4 than those on diet T1. Daily feed intake was
significantly higher (129.48 and 128.60 g) for layers on the diet (T1)
than other treatment groups, while layers on diets T2, T3
and T4 recorded higher egg weights than those on the control
diet. Hen-day production was significantly (p<0.05) higher among layers
fed diet T1 (control) than those on the other treatment groups
which contained different combination ratios of CRM and BGO. FCR was highest
(2.11) and lowest (1.99) for layers fed diets T3 and T2,
respectively. Yolk index, albumen index and yolk colour showed no statistical
difference (p>0.05) in all the treatment groups. However, layers on
diet T4 and T3, respectively recorded the highest
(0.35 mm) and lowest (0.33 mm) shell thickness while those on diet T1
and T4, respectively recorded the highest (69.64) and lowest
(60.62) Haugh units. It would appear that the different combinations of
CRM and BGO significantly depressed the performance of laying birds.
Maize has remained the major source of energy in poultry feeds and constitutes
about 50% of an ideal layers diet. Maize has however become a multi-purpose
farm product in Nigeria serving both as staple food for large proportion
of the Nigerian population and other confectionery industries. The level
of maize production is grossly inadequate for what it is needed thus making
the price to be very high.
Alternative sources of energy exist although they have their limitations.
Cassava (Manihot esculenta) is a very popular and abundantly produced
tuber crop. It contains 2.66% crude protein, 77.13% Nitrogen Free Extract
(NFE) and 2680 kcal kg-1 metabolizable energy (Aduku, 1993).
Although it is low in protein, its energy content is high and its price
relative to maize is competitive. Cassava alone cannot replace maize in
layer diets without adversely affecting the performance of layers (Willie
and Kinabo, 1980; Longe and Oluyemi, 1977; Eruvbetine et al., 1994).
Bambara groundnut offal is a by-product of the processing of Bambara
groundnut into a local pudding called okpa. It is abundantly produced
in the middle belt and south eastern parts of Nigeria especially in Benue,
Enugu and Eboyi states. Aduku (1993) reported that on analysis BGO yields
13.10% crude protein, 65.91% NFE and 2787.21 kcal kg-1 metabolizable
Earlier reports by Anyanwu et al. (2003) indicate its potential
as energy source in broiler diet. Onyimonyi and Onukwufor (2003) reported
that 20% level of BGO in pullets` diets did not affect the performance
of the birds. Appropriate combinations of CRM and BGO seem to have the
potential to replace maize in poultry diet (Anyanwu et al., 2006).
This is because the could supply the needed energy and protein for the
performance of birds.
The study herein reported was designed to determine the performance and
egg quality characteristics of layers fed different combinations of CRM
MATERIALS AND METHODS
the Cassava Root Meal (CRM) used for present study was food grade cassava
chips purchased from Ose market in Onitsha. The chips were milled into
flour to obtain the cassava root meal. The Bambara Groundnut Offal (BGO)
was purchased from milling center in Ogbete market, in Enugu state of
Nigeria. The offal represents residue of milled whole Bambara groundnut.
The fine flour is used for okpa while the coarse residue which could not
pass through a 2 mm sieve is referred to as the offal. The BGO was toasted
before incorporation into the experimental diets. Toasting involved putting
about 3 kg of the offal on a pan set on an open fire and stirring it until
the creamy white colour of the offal turned light brown, this takes about
15 min. Maize and other feed materials were sourced from reputable feed
raw materials shops in Owerri. Samples of Cassava root meal, Bambara groundnut
offal and maize were analyzed for proximate composition. The cassava root
meal was also analyzed for residual cyanide content. Four experimental
layer diets were subsequently formulated such that diet 1 contained 50%
maize as the main source of energy while in diets 2-4 the maize was totally
replaced by CRM and BGO combined in the ratios 2:1, 1:1 and 1:2, respectively
Ninety six Point-Of-Lay (POL) pullets procured from the Agricultural Development
Corporation farm at Nekede, Owerri were allotted into five experimental
groups and maintained on a commercial layer diet (PfizerR feed)
until egg laying pattern stabilized. Each group was then randomly assigned
to the treatment diets in a Completely Randomized Design (CRD) experiment.
Each experimental group was further subdivided into three replicates of
8 pullets each and housed in a pen measuring 3x4 m on deep litter. Water
and feed were offered ad-libitum and appropriate vaccination, medication
and other management practices were adequately administered. The birds
were allowed a stabilization period of 14 days before data collection.
Data collected included daily feed intake, hen-day production, body weight
changes, egg weight and subsequently feed conversion ratio. The study
lasted 12 weeks.
Three eggs were selected per replicate, giving 9 eggs per treatment on
the 3rd, 6th, 9th and 12th week, respectively for egg quality evaluation.
Yolk colour was determined using the Roche colour fan; shell thickness
was measured using the micrometer screw gauge. Diameter and height of
the of the yolk were measured using the vernier calipers while the albumen
height and short and long diameters were taken with the aid of a spherometer
and vernier calipers, respectively. These values were used to determine
the yolk index and albumen index. Haugh units were calculated using the
formula of Haugh as described by Oluyemi and Roberts (1979).
Data obtained were subjected to one way analysis of variance to detect
significant treatment differences. The means were separated using the
Duncan`s New Multiple Range Test (DNMRT) (Steel and Torrie, 1980).
Table 2 shows the cyanide content of cassava root meal
and proximate composition of Cassava Root Meal (CRM) and Bambara Groundnut
Offal (BGO) while Table 3 and 4, respectively
show the performance and egg quality characteristics of layers fed different
combinations of CRM and BGO of layers. Calculated composition of the experimental
diets indicated a gradual increase in crude protein with increasing level
of BGO with diet T4 recording the highest Crude protein level
while the control diet recorded the lowest crude protein content. The
metabolisable energy level was highest in the control diet and lowest
in diet T3 containing 1:1 ratio of CRM and BGO (Table
||Composition of experimental layer diets (%)
|*All diets contained; Soybean meal 12.00%; Palm kernel
cake, 5.00%; Wheat offal, 10.00%; Brewers` dried grain,7.00%; Fish
meal, 2.00%; Blood meal, 3.00%; Bone meal, 6.50%; Oyster shell, 3.50%;
Methionine 0.25%; Lyisine, 0.25; Salt, 0.25%; Vitamin /Min. Premix**,
0.25%, ** To provide the following per kg of feed: Vit. A 6,000000iu,
Vit D3 800000, Vit E 2,000mg, Vit K 800 mg, Vit B1 600 mg, Vit B2
2,000 mg, Vit B3, 3,600 mg, Vit B6 1,200 mg, Vit B12 4 mg, Folic acid
400 mg, Bioti 80 mg, Choline chloride 80,000 mg, Iron 10,000 mg, Cu
2000mg, Mn 24000 mg, Cobalt 400 mg, Zinc 28000 mg, Iodine 400 mg,
Selenium 160 mg, Ca 176%, Antioxidant BHT 500 mg, Lysine 80 mg, Methionine
||Proximate composition of Cassava Root Meal (CRM) and
Bambara Groundnut Offal (BGO)
|*Adapted from Aduku (1993)
|| Performance of layers fed different combinations of
CRM and BGO
|a,b: Means within the same row with different
superscript are significantly different (p<0.05)
||Egg quality characteristics of layers fed different
combinations of CRM and BGO
|a,b: Means within the same row bearing different superscript
are significantly different (p<0.05)
The proximate analysis indicated a higher percentage of crude protein;
crude fibre and ether extract for BGO than CRM however CRM recorded a
higher NFE content.
Average daily feed intake was significantly (p<0.05) higher for layers
on diet T3 and T4 than those on T1 (control)
and T2. Layers on diet T3 however recorded the highest
feed intake. Body weight changes (body gain) was significantly (p<0.05)
higher among layers fed diet T2 than those on diets T1
and T4. Hen-day production was significantly (p<0.05) higher
among layers fed diet T1 (control) than those on the other
treatment groups which contained different combination ratios of CRM and
BGO. Egg weights of layers on diets T2, T3 and T4
were higher than those of layers on the control diets however only those
of layers on diet T2 indicated a significant (p<0.05) difference
with the control.
Feed conversion ratio was highest (2.11) for layers fed diet T3
and lowest (1.99) for layers fed diet T2. Conversely, egg weight
was also highest (63.79 g) for layers fed diet T2 while layers
on the control (T1) recorded the lowest (59.78) egg weight.
The replacement of maize with CRM and BGO progressively reduced feed
cost with increasing level of BGO however layers on the control diet recorded
the least cost per kg egg produced.
Eggs with the thickest shell were recorded among layers fed diets T4,
this was significantly (p<0.05) different from those with the thinnest
shell recorded among layers fed diet T3. The egg shell thickness
values for T3 and T4 however did not significantly
differ (p>0.05) from values obtained for layers on diets T1
and T2. Yolk colour and yolk index showed no significant difference
(p>0.05) in all the treatment groups. However Albumen index and Haugh
unit was significantly (p<0.05) higher for eggs obtained from layers
on diet T4.
Body weight changes (gain) increased progressively with increasing level
of BGO until diet T4 where there was a depression in weight
gain. This may have resulted from residual trypsin inhibitors which have
been reported to be present in BGO (Okah, 1992). Daily feed intake increased
progressively with increasing levels of BGO and showed a slight depression
in diet T4. This trend reflects the metabolisable energy value
of the different feeds, with diet T1 recording the highest
ME value and having the least feed intake. Diet T3 on the other
hand with the lowest ME recorded the highest feed intake. It has been
established that poultry will feed to satisfy their energy requirement
(Ademosun, 1973; Olomu, 1995; Uchegbu and Udedibie, 1998; Ugwuene et
al., 2005). This perhaps explains the pattern of feed intake recorded.
Similarly, diets with high level of CRM have been reported to record a
reduction in feed intake mainly due to high fibre and residual cyanide
content (Eruvbetine and Oguntona, 1997; Aderemi et al., 2006)).
This perhaps further explains the low feed intake of layers on diet T2
which contain 33.33% CRM.
Hen-day production clearly indicated significant depression for diets
containing different combination ratios of CRM and BGO. This may have
resulted from the lower energy levels and perhaps imbalance in amino acid
content and protein: energy ratio of these diets. This agrees with Aderemi
et al. (2006), who reported low hen-day production with high levels
of CRM inclusion. Onyinmonyi and Onukwufor (2003), however reported that
20% inclusion level of BGO did not affect the performance of pullets.
The significantly low FCR recorded for layers fed diet T2 may
have resulted form the high egg weight and low feed intake recorded in
this group. Similarly, the comparatively higher egg weights obtained for
layers on different combinations of CRM and BGO may have resulted form
the higher crude protein content of these diets. Feed cost kg-1
decreased with increasing level of BGO in the diet, this agrees with earlier
report that CRM and BGO based diets recorded decreased feed cost kg-1
(Onyinmonyi and Onukwufor, 2003; Aderemi et al., 2006). Feed cost
per kg egg was higher for diets T2, T3 and T4
corresponding perhaps to the poor hen-day production.
Yolk index and colour were not affected by the treatment diets and were
within acceptable values (Olomu, 1975; Essien, 1990; Essien et al.,
1996), however Haugh units and Albumen index showed significant decrease
in eggs laid by birds on diet T4. The high Haugh unit recorded
in eggs produced by birds on diet T1 may indicate a better
dietary utilization than those on CRM and BGO. Similarly, the slightly
low shell thickness of egg from layers on diet T3 may also
indicate poor utilization of calcium (Aderemi et al., 2006). This
however contrasts the findings of Lawal (1992), that cassava based diet
did not interfere with calcium utilization.
It will appear that all combinations ratios of CRM and BGO depressed
the performance of laying bird but had little effect on the quality of
the eggs and body weight changes. The results of this study will allow
further experiments to evaluate the effects of the feed ingredients on
the performance of layers.
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