Prevalence of Trypanosomosis in Cattle at Slaughter in Kaduna Central Abattoir
The aim of this study was to collect information on trypanosomiasis as government and international donors funding for area wide survey has decreased. It is also to determine the prevalence of Trypanosomosis in slaughtered animals at different periods at the beginning (May), peak(August) and after (November) the rainy season. A total of 634 samples were collected and parasitologically examined using standard Trypanosome detection technique (STD) and concentration methods (HCT and BCM) for parasite detection. Physical examination of animals was carried out at slaughter. The overall infection rate was 2.2% while infection rate in males (2.7%) appeared higher than females (1.5%). The trypanosome species observed were T. congolense (50%), T. brucei (21.4%), T. vivax (14.2%) as single infections and T. congolense/T. brucei (7.1%,) and T. congolense/T. vivax (7.1%) as a mixed infections. The infection rates at the beginning (3.8%) appeared higher than the infection rates after (2.5%) and the peak (0.4%) of the rainy season. The packed cell volume of the infected (23.1±1.9) appeared significantly (p<0.05) lower than the packed cell volume of control (36.5±1.1). Also, it was noted that 142 (22%) of sampled animals were grossly emaciated and 57% of the animals found positive were emaciated and weak. This survey does not reflect the true prevalence but rather it provides significant information on the upsurge of trypanosomosis.
to cite this article:
S.M. Samdi, A.O. Fajinmi, J.O. Kalejaye, B. Wayo, M.K. Haruna, J.E. Yarnap, W.P. Mshelia, A.O. Usman, S.M. Hamra, A. Jijitar, R. Ogunwole, R.P. Ovbagbedia and R. Bizi, 2011. Prevalence of Trypanosomosis in Cattle at Slaughter in Kaduna Central Abattoir. Asian Journal of Animal Sciences, 5: 162-165.
The current threat of African animal trypanosomosis ranked among the top 10
cattle diseases on sustainable livestock production and mixed farming, coupled
with failure of vector control as well as chemotherapy/chemoprophylaxis to control
the present resurgence of the disease, presents a major constraint in the development
of the African continent (Perry et al., 2002; Abenga
et al., 2002; Samdi et al., 2010a).
These constitude a major threat to attaining food security in several parts
of subsaharan Africa and Nigeria (Samdi et al., 2010b).
It is currently estimated that about 60 million people and 48 million cattle
(Kristjanson et al., 1999; Samdi
et al., 2010a) are at risk of contracting African trypanosomosis
from the 23 species and 33 subspecies of tsetse flies infesting 10 million km2
of Africa stretching across 40 countries. The trypanosoma species of ecomic
importance in cattle are Trypanosoma congolense, T. vivax and T. brucei.
Tsetse transmitted African trypanosomosis is responsible for 55,000 human 3
million livestock deaths annually (Abenga et al.,
2002; Samdi et al., 2010a) and hinders mixed
farming through reduced work efficiency of draft animals. The loss in livestock
production and mixed agriculture alone is valued at 5 billion US dollars yearly
in Africa however effective and sustainable control measures can result in up
to 3 fold increase in the current estimated livestock population in Nigeria
(Onyiah, 1997). The decrease in national and international
funding for research and surveillence of trypanosomiasis has resulted in insufficient
information on the current status of the disease (Maikaje
et al., 2009). This study seeks to determine the prevalence of trypanosomosis
in trade cattle at slaughter in Kaduna abattoir using clinical signs and parasitological
MATERIALS AND METHODS
The study was conducted at the Kaduna abattoir within the months of May, August
and November 2009 targeting the periods before, during (peak) and after the
rainy season. A total of 634 cattle were sampled. Five millilitre of blood was
collected from the jugular vein at slaughter into bijou bottles containing one
milligram powder of Ethylene Diamine Tetra Acetate (EDTA) per millilitre of
blood. The blood samples were kept cool in a flask containing ice packs. Parasitological
examination was done in the laboratory using the Hematocrit Centrifugation Technique
(HCT) where cappillary tubes are fill up to 2/3rd with blood and centrifuged
to concentrate the parasites (Woo, 1971), Buffy Coat
Method (BCM) here the parasites are located and identify within the buffy coat
region and Giemsa stained thin films where smares are made, stainned with Giemsa
and view under an oil immersion field. The Packed Cell Volume (PCV) of each
animal was also determined using a hematocrit reader. Trypanosome species were
identified based on their motility and morphological structures from Gemsa stained
films. Physical examination of animals at slaughter was carried out.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
The prevalence of trypanosoma infection and the specie of trypanosome seen
in male and female cattle at slaughter at the Kaduna central abattoir was shown
in the Table 1. Out of the 634 cattle sampled 14 (2.2%) were
infected with trypanosomes. The infection rate in bulls (2.7%) appeared higher
than the infection rate in cows (1.5%) but is not statistically significant
(p<0.05). While the infection rates at the beginning (3.8%) appeared higher
than infection rates at the peak (0.4%) and after (2.5%) the rainy season. The
packed cell volume of the infected (23.1±1.9) appeared significantly
(p< 0.05) lower than the packed cell volume of control (36.5±1.1).
Also, 142 (22%) of sampled animals were grossly emaciated. Trypanosme infection
rate was higher in emaciated 10 (7.0%) than in non emaciated cattle 4 (3.0%).
||Trypanosome infection rates in cattle at slaughter in Kaduna,
North Central, Nigeria
The trypanosome species observed were T. congolense (50%), T. brucei
(21.4%), T. vivax (14.3%) as single infections and T. congolense/
T. brucei (7.1%) and T. brucei/T. vivax (7.1%) as mixed infections.
The overall infection rate of 2.2% in cattle at slaughter in Kaduna was
significantly different from the national trypanosomiasis prevalence rate in
cattle obtained by the EEC-Trypanosomiasis control project between 1989 and
1991 (Onyiah, 1997). Although, Abenga
et al. (2002) reported similar infection rates in cattle at slaughter
in Kaduna, North central Nigeria, these rates indicate a general resurgence
in the menace of trypanosomosis in Nigeria with negative economic impact on
meat quality of animals at slaughter.
Surveys conducted between 1989 and 1991 in Northern Nigeria, where two thirds
of Nigerias livestock resources are concentrated showed a prevalence rate
of 4.3% in cattle. A higher prevalence rate of 10.0% was obtained in a wider
survey of all agro ecological zones between 1993 and 1996 (EEC
Mid-Term Report, 1992; NITR/NARP External Review, 1996;
Onyiah, 1997). More recent studies in the region have
revealed prevalences ranging from 5.5 to 17.8% to over 50% (Qadeer
et al., 2009).
The result of this study signifies that trypanosomosis is still an important
constraint in livestock production and productivity. The prevalence of trypanosome
infection (2.2%) and emaciation rate (22%) reported in cattle at slaughter appears
reasonably high giving the economic importance of cattle in generating income
and contribution to food security. The higher infection rate during rainy season
may be attributed to increase in both tsetse and other biting flies population
during this peroid of the year making such vectors to also encroach on settlement
areas. However, the low infection rate or absence of infection may be attributed
to decrease in both tsetse and other biting flies population as a result of
environmental, weather and anthropological changes. The study support the findings
of Samdi et al. (2008) that T. congolense
was the predominant trypanosome specie and the higher infection rates arising
from T. congolense confirms the economic importance of the species infection
in livestock in Nigeria giving the complementary roles played by other haematophaguos
flies despite epidemiological studies support only the mechanical transmission
of T. vivax but not T. congolense but experimental studies confirm
that both species can be mechanically transmitted (Onyiah,
1997; Desquesnes and Dia, 2003, 2004).
Mechanical transmission of trypanosome by other vectors other than Glossina
has been identified as a factor responsible for spread of the parasite to many
parts of the world and maintenance of transmission in the presence of tsetse
control (Davila and Silva, 2001; Samdi
et al., 2010a).
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