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Articles by Amit Kumar
Total Records ( 42 ) for Amit Kumar
  Deepti Singh , Amit Kumar Verma , Amit Kumar , Mukesh Srivastava , Shanker Kumar Singh , Arvind Kumar Tripathi , Ashish Srivastava and Iftekhar Ahmed
  The early detection of the Canine Parvo Virus (CPV) is of paramount importance. The present study was aimed to know the molecular epidemiology of Canine parvo virus. Canine faecal samples from 100 dogs showing the clinical signs of gastroenteritis in and around Mathura, Uttar Pradesh, India were collected and DNA was extracted by phenol-chloroform method. CPV vaccine strain was used as a positive control. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) was carried out to amplify VPI/VP2 gene using a set of 20-mer primers [pCPV-RT (Forward): 5’-CAT TGG GCT TAC CAC CAT TT-3’; (Reverse): 5’-CCA ACC TCA GCT GGT CTC AT-3’)] from position 3136-3155 to 3276-3295 of VP1/VP2 gene. A PCR product of approximately 160 bp was generated with positive faecal samples and CPV vaccine strain. After screening, 63 dogs were found positive for CPV but no sex variation was noticed amongst the CPV positive cases. Dogs, of the age group of ≤6 months were more susceptible in comparison to of >6 months and highest occurrence was noted in unvaccinated dogs and dogs in co-habitation with other dogs. Breed wise distribution of CPV in dogs revealed that the prevalence of CPV was the highest in Doberman (77.78%), followed by Spitz (78.57%), German shepherd (70.00%), Labrador (68.75%), Pomeranian (45.45%). It is concluded that CPV is prevalent in the Mathura and nearby area and it is more common in pups of age less than 6 months old and more prevalent in German shepherd, Labrador and Pomeranian breeds of dog.
  Amit Kumar , Jagdeep Kaur and Pushpinder Singh
  Lotfi et al. [Solving a full fuzzy linear programming using lexicography method and fuzzy approximate solution, Appl. Math. Modell. 33 (2009) 3151–3156] pointed out that there is no method in literature for finding the fuzzy optimal solution of fully fuzzy linear programming (FFLP) problems and proposed a new method to find the fuzzy optimal solution of FFLP problems with equality constraints. In this paper, a new method is proposed to find the fuzzy optimal solution of same type of fuzzy linear programming problems. It is easy to apply the proposed method compare to the existing method for solving the FFLP problems with equality constraints occurring in real life situations. To illustrate the proposed method numerical examples are solved and the obtained results are discussed.
  Amit Kumar , Amit K. Verma , Neeraj K. Gangwar and Anu Rahal
  M. bovis is a common respiratory pathogen for cattle but it may produce similar disease complex conditions. It can be transmitted through litter, tools and the hands and clothing of the owners and handlers in sheep and goats. In comparisons to other mycoplasmas M. bovis shows relatively high resistance under some environmental conditions. The occurrence in sheep is rare but it causes severe economic losses. The present study revealed an outbreak of pneumonia in sheep flock leading to high morbidity and mortality. To get an idea of etiological agent of outbreak the samples were collected from morbid animals and during the postmortem from dead animals. Nasal and tracheal swabs, blood, serum, faecal samples and tissues from multiple organs were collected and examined in laboratory. The M. bovis was the etiological agent isolated from nasal swabs and lungs of infected and dead animals, respectively. Histopathological findings also supported mycoplasmic lesions in dead animals. As the success of treatment of the respiratory diseases due to M. bovis depends on the right choice of the compound, its distribution in the tissues and last but not least the simultaneous antibacterial effect in secondary and mixed infections, the in vitro antimicrobial drug sensitivity was performed to select the drug of choice for treatment. The antibiogram of isolate revealed Tylosin and Enrofloxacin with remarkable zone of inhibition. Therefore, tylosin was recommended as drug for treatment and flock recovered with in the period of 15 days. There was no further mortality and all the infected sheep recovered from the signs of illness. This seems to be the first report of M. bovis outbreak in sheep in country.
  Mahima , Amit Kumar Verma , Amit Kumar , Anu Rahal and Vinod Kumar
  Not Available.
  Rajesh Kumar , A.K. Verma , Amit Kumar , Mukesh Srivastava and H.P. Lal
  With the increasing trends of pet ownership the chances of campylobacteriosis are also increasing as these pets are kept in close visicinity of owners. The prevalence and antimicrobial sensitivity profiles of Campylobacter isolates from faeces of dogs attended in veterinary practice at Teaching Veterinary Clinical Complex, Mathura, India. During the period of investigation (October 2009 to April 2010), 100 rectal swabs from dogs were collected and transported to the laboratory for further investigations. Bacteriological examination revealed 51.00% prevalence rate of Campylobacter isolates in dogs faecal samples. The disc-diffusion method was used to know the susceptibility of all the 51 Campylobacter isolates against 10 commonly used antimicrobials in pet animal practice. High rates of resistance were observed to erythromycin (90.20%), tetracycline (88.23%), ampi-cloxacillin (88.23%), ciprofloxacin (80.39%), enrofloxacin (68.63%) and aymoxycillin-clavulanic acid (19.61%). All the Campylobacter isolates were susceptible to amikacin, levofloxacin and streptomycin. Erythromycin and ciprofloxacin are drugs for treatment of human campylobacteriosis. The high resistance rate to these drugs among Campylobacter isolates from dog faeces is of public health significance as dogs are supposed to be the main source of infection in human beings.
  Rajesh Kumar , A.K. Verma , Amit Kumar , Mukesh Srivastava and H.P. Lal
  Campylobacteriosis is one of the leading causes of gastroenteritis in humans and various researches suggested that owning a pet is a risk factor for the disease. To determine the prevalence and risk indicators for Campylobacter sp. infecting dogs attending veterinary practice at TVCC, DUVASU, Mathura, 100 dogs with and without the clinical symptoms of diarrhoea were examined and the prevalence of Campylobacter sp. was 51.0%. Breed wise prevalence showed that nondescript (73.68%) dogs were more likely to carry Campylobacter sp. A significant difference in isolation rates was observed between younger and older dogs: 56.58% of the younger dogs (≤ 1 year) were positive, compared with 33.33% of adult dogs (> 1 year) (p<0.01) as seen at the veterinary University, Mathura, India. Dogs sharing a household with another dog, dogs that had not received antibiotic treatment in the previous months and the age of the dog were significant indicators of Campylobacter carriage. Recent diarrhoea or vomiting in dogs with Campylobacter, breed, sex or vaccination status were not statistically significant. The high prevalence of Campylobacter in puppies supports the hypothesis that dogs, particularly young ones shed Campylobacter spp., which can be of impact for public health.
  Subhash Malik , Amit Kumar Verma , Amit Kumar , M.K. Gupta and S.D. Sharma
  Diarrhea in farm animals, especially in neonatal calves is one of the most challenging clinical syndromes encountered by practicing large animal’s veterinary practitioners. The objectives to study the prevalence of diarrhea cases in cattle and buffalo calves during the period of study (April, 2008-March, 2009) from the cases brought to TVCC, DUVASU, Mathura and district veterinary hospitals of North West UP; to compare the incidence rate of calf diarrhea in cattle and buffalo calves. Out of total 930 cases of calves recorded (from seven different government veterinary hospitals located in north west UP viz., Saharanpur, Muzaffarnagar, Baghpat, Meerut, Gautam Budh Nagar, Ghaziabad and teaching veterinary clinical complex (TVCC), DUVASU, Mathura) during the period, 499 (53.66%) were of calf diarrhea. The incidence rate of calf diarrhea ranged between 48.68% (Meerut) to 57.68% (TVCC, DUVASU, Mathura). Out of these 930 sick cases, 572 (61.50%) were of buffalo calves, which differ significantly (p<0.05) in comparison to 358 (38.5%) cattle calves. The incidence rate of calf diarrhea in cattle calves (52.51%) was almost similar to the incidence rate in buffalo calves (54.37%). Statistically, there was no significant difference with regards to monthly distribution of diarrhea cases. However, there was significant difference in the incidence of calf diarrhea between winter and summer months. The maximum number of calf diarrhea cases were reported after the onset of rains and continued till the end of winter and autumn, which appears to be related to post calving season and climatic stress.
  Amit Kumar Verma , Kuldeep Dhama , Sandip Chakraborty , Amit Kumar , Ruchi Tiwari , Anu Rahal , Mahima and Shoor Vir Singh
  Since, last several years, efforts are going on to eradicate or eliminate a number of infectious diseases of animals, with mixed success. Basically for eradicating, eliminating or controlling any infectious disease isolation and quarantine of sick animals as well as animals suspected for disease; strengthening disease monitoring and surveillance, effective vaccines and vaccination strategies along with other control measures including of treatment are of utmost importance. Most importantly a significant knowledge is required for countering infectious diseases and assessing the criteria for selection of disease to be eradicated next. The role of environmental factors in the process of disease dynamics need to be understood which further plays a contributory role in the process of combating and elimination of diseases. Despite continuous efforts against animal diseases like Rinderpest, Contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) and Foot-and-mouth disease, Rinderpest (cattle plague) is the only one that is successfully eradicated till date in India. However, control programmes on CBPP also brought a significant reduction in the incidence of the disease but eradication status is yet to be declared. While the other disease control programmes viz., Foot-and-Mouth Disease Control Programme (FMDCP), National Control Programme on Brucellosis (NCPB), National Control Programme of Peste des Petits Ruminants (NCPPPR) and Avian Influenza: Preparedness, Control and Containment could not achieve the desired success. Nowadays, with the achievement of the global eradication status on rinderpest there is again a renewed interest in disease eradication and control of infectious diseases of animals and alleviating their public health concerns. The focus is also being given in the 12th five year plan of the country on monitoring and control of certain animal diseases of economic importance. In view of above facts, this is right time to discuss the strategies for combating and eradicating important infectious diseases of animals with particular reference to India, achievements of global rinderpest eradication programme and reasons thereof and possibly apply lessons while planning for the future activities. This article describes various prevention and control strategies for controlling the infectious diseases of animals that have been or should be targeted for eradication or elimination, direct and indirect benefits from control programmes, issues and opportunities for the future.
  Aparna Madhavan , G. Venkatesan and Amit Kumar
  Sheeppox and goatpox collectively known as capripox are systemic infectious diseases of small ruminants affecting agricultural economy and livelihood of the farmers in endemic regions. Capripox diseases are notifiable to Office International des Epizooties and enzootic in many parts of Africa, Middle East and Asia including Indian sub-continent along with possibility of incursion into Europe from Middle-East regions as transportation of infected animals. They cause high morbidity (75-100%) and mortality (50-100%) in affected sheep and goats depending on virulence of strains, host immunity, breed and environmental factors. They incur severe economic losses to livestock industry affecting small and marginal farmers of developing world. In enzootic countries like India, prompt and unequivocal diagnosis along with well-organized vaccination and effective bio-security are main control measures to contain the disease. It is necessary to update knowledge on sheeppox and goatpox diseases of small ruminants and recent developments in diagnostics and vaccines including recombinant DNA approaches needed to control them. In future, there is a need to develop DIVA vaccines with companion serological assay along with molecular epidemiology tools such as differentiation of sheeppox and goatpox along with development of robust high-throughput diagnostics. In this study, the current geographical distribution, economic impact, epidemiology, updates on available diagnostics and vaccines to control capripox were reviewed along with future perspectives.
  Mahima , Amit Kumar Verma , Amit Kumar , Vinod Kumar and Debashis Roy
  Recently, there are wide potential application of biotechnology in the field of animal production to increase the productivity of animals through better plane of nutrition, better production potential and improved health conditions. Nutrients like protein, aminoacids and fats can be produced or protected according the need at different physiological states of the animals. Enzymes can be used to improve the availability of nutrients from feed and to reduce the wastage of the feed and fodder. Prebiotics and probiotics or immune supplements can be useful to inhibit enteric pathogenic bacteria. Along with these use of plant biotechnology to produce feed and fodder with good nutritive values can be done with ease. Addition of vaccines or antibodies in feeds can be used to protect the animals from the disease. Genetic manipulation of rumen microbes can be done to improve the animal health. However, it is very difficult to accept the role of biotechnology in animal nutrition and it mainly depends on social and cultural aspects and economic importance to consumers and society.
  Amit Kumar , Amit Kumar Verma , Arvind Kumar Sharma and Anu Rahal
  Since last decade, there is increasing reports of presence of extended spectrum β-lactamases producing bacteria especially from enterobacteriacae family. The presence of Extended spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL) producing E. coli causes a serious public health threat to human beings. The present study reports the isolation of extended spectrum β-lactamases producing α hemolytic Escherichia coli in Yellow-wattled Lapwing (Vanellus malabaricus) chicks. Escherichia coli organisms were isolated from three chicks suffering from unusual clinical signs and died before rehabilitation in the month of August 2010. Further assessment of isolates revealed their ability to bind with Congo red dye on Tryptic soy agar media and α hemolytic nature on 5% chicken blood agar. As usual when drug sensitivity was performed it revealed their multi drug resistance pattern which on further examination with double disk method showed them to be extended spectrum β-lactamases producing Escherichia coli. The presence of enterohemorrhagic extended spectrum β-lactamases producing Escherichia coli in Yellow-wattled Lapwing is a matter of concern as it may be due to the transmission from human being as these Lapwings are residing in the close vicinity of university premises. Moreover, their nesting areas are also very near to the place where carcasses of dead animals were disposed off during that period of time. To the best or our knowledge, this appears to be the first report of pathogenic E. coli identified in Yellow-wattled Lapwing, implicating Yellow-wattled Lapwings as a new potential reservoir of these zoonotic pathogens.
  Lalita Sharma , Amit Kumar Verma , Amit Kumar , Anu Rahat , Neha and Rajesh Nigam
  The main objective of the present study was to report the prevalence of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) among bovines used for milk production in Mathura, India. A total of 80 milk samples were collected from clinical and subclinical cases of mastitis from cows (40) and buffalos (40). Milk samples were processed for isolation and identification of S. aureus using standard bacteriological procedures. Staphylococcus aureus were isolated from only 27 samples showing the overall incidence of Staphylococcus aureus in clinical as well as sub clinical mastitis was 33.75%. The incidence of Staphylococcus aureus was higher (50.00%) in clinical mastitis in comparison to that of subclinical mastitis (17.50%). The results revealed that the incidence of Staphylococcus aureus in clinical as well as sub-clinical mastitis was higher in cattle in comparison to buffaloes. Drug sensitivity revealed the 100% resistance against penicillins followed by vancomycin (88.89%), nalidixic acid (77.78%), cefixime, methicillin, novobiocin (66.67% each), amoxiclav, colistin, pipemidic acid (55.56% each), ofloxacin, streptomycin, sulphamethizole (44.44% each), ampicillin/sulbactam, cefalexin, cefazolin, cefoperazone, enrofloxacin, floxidin, meropenem (33.33% each), cefuroxim, ciprofloxacin, clindamycin, gentamicin, levofloxacin, norfloxacin, tetracycline (22.22% each). Eighteen isolates were found to be methicillin-resistant, while the remaining (09) were methicillin-susceptible. Similarly, twenty four S. aureus isolates were intermediate to vancomycin while three were vancomycin susceptible and no isolate was resistant to vancomycin. Thus, the findings are useful for formulating specific control programs for bovine mastitis caused by S. aureus in this region.
  Mahima , Amit Kumar Verma , Amit Kumar , Vinod Kumar and Anu Rahal
  With the advancement of science, there is a rising interest in poultry biotechnology for changing the composition of egg by nutritional as well as genetic manipulations for the human well beings. These alterations are in change in cholesterol level, fatty acids and adding therapeutic pharmaceutical compounds etc. For acceptance of this designer egg we have to address some of the legal, ethical and social aspects along with its economic production.
  Lalita Sharma , Amit Kumar Verma , Anu Rahal , Amit Kumar and Rajesh Nigam
  Background and Objective: Mastitis causes significant economic losses in dairy industry globally. The present study evaluated levels of Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN) and lipid peroxidation (LPO) along with enzymic activities of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), alkaline phosphatase (ALP)and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in the serum samples, lipid peroxidation (LPO) and activities of glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in skimmedmilk of dairy animals (cows and buffaloes) showing sub-clinical mastitis (SCM) and clinical mastitis. Methodology: A total of 100 lactating animals were divided into two groups i.e., cattle and buffaloes, each group contain 50 animals. Each group is further divided into three subgroups healthy (10), sub-clinical mastitis (20) and clinical mastitis (20). Blood serum and defatted milk were used for enzyme activity estimations. Results: The LDH and ALP activities along with LPO levels were significantly higher (p<0.05) in SCM and CM the milk as compared to healthy milk from udders. Non significant differences were observed in BUN values. The mean activities of GPx were significantly reduced (p<0.05) in SCM and CM milk than in healthy milk. Increased lipid peroxidation in serum and milk indicated direct correlation between oxidative stress and tissue damage in clinical and sub-clinical mastitis in dairy animals. Conclusion: From the present study, it may be suggested that optimum antioxidant intake carry sufficient potential in affording protection against sub-clinical and clinical mastitis in the dairy animals.
  Mahima , Amit Kumar Verma , Amit Kumar , Vinod Kumar and Anu Rahal
  Recently there is a rising interest in dairy biotechnology for altering the composition of milk by nutritional and genetic manipulations for the well being of human. These alterations are in milk fat, milk protein, lactose contents, humanization of bovine milk, adding therapeutic proteins etc. For acceptance of this designer milk we have to address certain ethical, legal and social aspects along with economic production of designer milk.
  Kuldeep Dhama , Ruchi Tiwari , Sandip Chakraborty , Mani Saminathan , Amit Kumar , K. Karthik , Mohd. Yaqoob Wani , Amarpal , Shoor Vir Singh and Anu Rahal
  Owing to rising incidences of antimicrobial resistance against various chemotherapeutic and antimicrobial agents, the treatment of bacterial infections requires special consideration that may otherwise lead to grave prognosis. Simultaneously, evolution of many a Multiple Drug Resistant (MDR) bacterial strains have further aggravated the present situation. In this scenario, scrutinizing for some alternative yet effective antibacterial therapeutics like herbs, nutritional immunomodulators, bacteriophages, avian egge antibodies and others have become need of the day. Herbs have been a valuable source of medication in virtually all cultures and societies worldwide due to their important antimicrobial principles and phytoconstituents and wider therapeutic potentials. As various extracts of herbs and medicinal plants are being reported with antibacterial activities, much effort should be made in their identification, studying biologically active ingredients, efficacy and potency testing and scientific validation for their significant and practical multi-beneficial uses. The present review elaborates the potential role and applications of several herbs in treating bacterial infections and various types of bacterial diseases for safeguarding health of humans and their companion animals. It highlights the salient beneficial applications of traditional herbs and novel phytomedicines, from ancient periods to modern usages. Due emphasis has been given regarding scientific approaches to be followed and future perspectives with a vision to counter the emerging antimicrobial resistance. The review will certainly promote and popularize herbs as alternatives to conventional antimicrobials, particularly in the event of emerging MDR bacterial infections. Global usages of herbs as alternative and complementary medicines to various antimicrobials would lead not only to safeguard health issues and obtain optimum production from animals but will also ensure the public health issues including of food safety concerns viz., antibiotic residual effects in animal products (milk, meat) and zoonotic threats.
  Amit Kumar Verma , Amit Kumar , Shanker Kumar Singh , Anu Rahal , Iftekhar Ahmed , Deepti Singh , Aashish Pratap Singh and Lalit Singh
  Globally, Campylobacters have been reported as leading cause of gastroenteritis in man as well as animals and considered as emerging zoonotic problem particularly in developing countries including India. A cross-sectional study was conducted to know the prevalence and epidemiological determinants for Campylobacter spp. in dogs in and around Mathura city, Uttar Pradesh, India. Based on isolation, cultural and biochemical characterization of bacteria, the prevalence of Campylobacter spp. was 34.24%. Younger dogs (less than 1 year of age) were more likely to carry Campylobacter spp. High prevalence of Campylobacter spp. supports the hypothesis that dogs, particularly younger animals, may be an important source of Campylobacter infection for humans. Breed-wise prevalence showed that non-descript dogs (45.97%) were more likely to carry Campylobacter infections. Dogs showing clinical signs of gastroenteritis were showing higher prevalence (47.21%) in comparison to that of animals without gastro-intestinal disorders (15.04%). Out of 113 Campylobacter isolates of canine origin, two isolates were resistant to all the nineteen antibiotics used in the study, while all the isolates were resistant to Streptomycin, Ampicillin, Amoxycillin, Aztreonam, Lincomycin, Tetracyclin, Oxytetracyclin and Penicillin. A high rate of resistance was observed to Cefotaxim (97.35%), Peefloxacin (91.15%), Chloramphenicol (90.27%), Ofloxacin (84.07%), Ciprofloxacin (83.18%), Cefaclor (80.53%), Nitrofurazone (76.11%), Norfloxacin (74.33%), Gentamicin (42.48%), Amikacin (40.71%) and Enrofloxacin (36.28%). Our results indicate Amikacin and Gentamicin as drugs suitable for the treatment of campylobacteriosis in dogs.
  Amit Kumar , Adesh Kumar , Manish Pandey and Aakanksha Devrari
  This research study proposes a novel architecture for a memory based pipelined fast fourier transform for a complex-valued signals which is based on radix-2 Decimation-In-Frequency (DIF) algorithm. A method of stage partition for a Complex Fast Fourier Transform (CFFT) to minimize the computation clock cycles and maximize the utilization of the Processing Element (PE) is proposed. In addition to this the CFFT architecture can also support more PEs in two dimensions as well. As compared to the previous research, the suggested CFFT processors have fewer computation cycles and lower hardware usage. ISE Xilinx 12.2 tool in verilog language has been utilized for designing and simulation.
  Amit Kumar , Jagtar Singh , Sanjay Singla and S.N. Panda
  The energy consumption in Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) is a crucial issue as WSN is a battery-operated network. The energy consumption in WSN can be reduced by using an efficient routing algorithm to route the information to the Base Station (BS). This study designs a routing algorithm that inherits the behavior of Moth and Dolphin to route the information towards BS. The routing algorithm depicts the routing and communication behavior of Moth and Dolphin, respectively to route the data from source to the BS. The performance of Moth-Dolphin routing algorithm has been compared with other three existing state of art algorithms including CCPAR, ACO-MNCC, sleep control based on frog satellite behavior and MFRA by using energy consumption, throughput, network life-time and the delay. The performance evaluation proves the significance of the algorithm as the Moth-Dolphin algorithm enhances the network lifetime with higher throughput as compared to other existing state of art techniques.
  Ashish Kumar Aman and Amit Kumar
  The railways being the lifeline of transportation and the most preferential mode of transportation, tends to move through the thickly inhabited areas more often than not. This, however, leads to a situation where railway tracks traverse the roadways which is yet, another important genre of transportation. The point of juncture of railway-track and the roadway is acknowledged as level-crossing. One important concern of transportation experts is to exercise robust safety at the level crossings. The researchers intend to make use of the developments in the communication system and the internet of things to devise an early warning system for unmanned crossings. Objective of current work is to deliver an audio-visual caution to commuters about an upcoming vehicle (train). The need for such systems and its design implementation along with feasibility is discussed herein.
  Ashish Kumar Aman and Amit Kumar
  The safety issues at the level crossings are of prime concern in most of the countries as the economic progression has led to swelling of infrastructure related to transportation. With such advancements, the rate of accidents and fatalities at the level crossings have also increased. The study offers a broad appraisal of the prevailing strategies implemented for improving the security and safety at the level crossings. The study also deliberated the Indian scenario in particular. A case study pertaining to the level crossing in the eastern part of India was deliberated and the consequence of staffing the level crossing was studied. The study concluded that the manned level crossing leads to congestion in road traffic due to high communication time and barrier closure time. Therefore, it is better to adopt automation-based barrier functioning at the level crossings. A comparative study of the prevalent worldwide techniques used for safety at level crossings are also discussed in the study. The study concludes with the discussion on the proposed conceptual framework of the methodology which may be employed to improve the safety scenario at the level crossings.
  Madhava Nand Pandey and Amit Kumar
  Railway level crossings are quite vulnerable for accidents and the road users are responsible for about 95% of such accidents. Railways have concentrated more attention on types of gate and technologies involved in gate operation. The behavioural study of road users comprising of vehicle drivers and pedestrians have remained neglected for long time while controlling and taking steps to improve safety at railway level crossings. Since, sometimes back, the safety engineers and planners have been attracted towards this neglected aspect. The mental process of human beings is very complex system to be understood and accordingly provide suitable holistic approach to safety at railway level crossings is a challenging problem. The mental process of human beings is very complex system to be understood and accordingly provide suitable holistic approach to safety at railway level crossings is a challenging problem. All the stakeholders, i.e., railway authority, road authority, road users including pedestrians, community and government should take holistic view, cooperate and interact to improve the safety at railway level crossings.
  Kuldeep Dhama , Shyma K. Latheef , Hari Abdul Samad , Sandip Chakraborty , Ruchi Tiwari , Amit Kumar and Anu Rahal
  Signaling molecules of immune system are cytokines that may either stimulate or suppress the responses of various cells involved in host immune mechanisms and Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF) is one of the leading members of the group of cytokines. TNF-α from activated macrophages and LT-α/TNF-Β from T cells have now become representatives of a distinctive superfamily of cytokine ligands (TNF ligand superfamily) along with their corresponding receptors (TNF receptor superfamily); altogether constituting the TNF Superfamily. These are highly conserved proteins, found in all mammals having important ligand members which interact with the either of the two receptors, TNFR1 and TNFR2, that initiate varied signaling cascades leading to diverse cellular responses. It has been established that the appropriate regulation of TNF ligand and receptor interactions and functions are crucial for the proper immune system activity. Excessive production of various TNF cytokines has been attributed with the development of an array of autoimmune as well as inflammatory conditions. TNF cytokines help to reduce mortality due to cardiovascular diseases. Therapeutic TNF blockers include:monoclonal antibodies to TNF (Infliximab and Adalumimab) and TNF receptor fusion proteins (Etanercept and Lenercept) and are effective against rheumatoid arthritis; ankylosing spondylitis; psoriasis and asthma. Preclinical studies conducted in murine models and the pivotal role played by the TNF superfamily in cytokine mediator system will make it easier for researchers as well as scientists to develop novel drugs in near future. This review has covered all these aspects concerning TNF as mediator of inflammatory diseases and its therapeutic targeting.
  Kuldeep Dhama , Sandip Chakraborty , Ruchi Tiwari , Amit Kumar , Anu Rahal , Shyma K. Latheef , Mohd Yaqoob Wani and Sanjay Kapoor
  Avian/Bird flu, caused by Avian Influenza Virus (AIV) belonging to Orthomyxoviridae family, is the most fearful viral disease of birds. H5N1 subtype of AIV is of major concern for poultry as well as for humans due to its high economical impacts and zoonotic concerns. During the past ten years, the Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) H5N1 subtype alone has affected more than 60 countries of the world. Domestic poultry is mostly affected by the disease episodes and outbreaks. Wild and migratory birds are the AIV reservoirs wherein H5N1 is found to be lethal. Major antigenic changes in Haemagglutinin (HA) or Neuraminidase (NA) result in periodic pandemics. Pigs can act as mixing vessel. The bird flu virus if gets the capability of transmitting from human to human can trigger a pandemic claiming millions of lives. A wide variety of serological tests and molecular tools have greatly aided in the diagnosis of avian flu. Disease management for the prevention of bird flu outbreaks including mass awareness and pandemic preparedness following World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines is of utmost importance. Interesting approaches of HPAI control are development of universal influenza virus vaccines and universal antibodies-based flu therapies. Vaccination using inactivated and recombinant vaccines is the common strategy adopted in different parts of the globe. Development of new generation vaccines is quiet noteworthy. Tamiflu is the drug of choice. Herbal therapy is gaining much attention to control disease in humans. All these aspects of the bird flu virus have been discussed vividly in the present review.
  Miriam Marques , Amit Kumar , Isabel Cortes , Ana Gonzalez-Garcia , Carmen Hernandez , M. Carmen Moreno-Ortiz and Ana C. Carrera
  Phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) is an early signaling molecule that regulates cell growth and cell cycle entry. PI3K is activated immediately after growth factor receptor stimulation (at the G0/G1 transition) and again in late G1. The two ubiquitous PI3K isoforms (p110α and p110β) are essential during embryonic development and are thought to control cell division. Nonetheless, it is presently unknown at which point each is activated during the cell cycle and whether or not they both control S-phase entry. We found that p110α was activated first in G0/G1, followed by a minor p110β activity peak. In late G1, p110α activation preceded that of p110β, which showed the maximum activity at this time. p110β activation required Ras activity, whereas p110α was first activated by tyrosine kinases and then further induced by active Ras. Interference with p110α and -β activity diminished the activation of downstream effectors with different kinetics, with a selective action of p110α in blocking early G1 events. We show that inhibition of either p110α or p110β reduced cell cycle entry. These results reveal that PI3Kα and -β present distinct activation requirements and kinetics in G1 phase, with a selective action of PI3Kα at the G0/G1 phase transition. Nevertheless, PI3Kα and -β both regulate S-phase entry.
  Mahima , Amit Kumar Verma , Amit Kumar , Anu Rahal , Vinod Kumar and Debashis Roy
  Selenium is an essential trace element in the diets which is required for maintenance of health, growth and biochemical-physiological functions. The area covered in this review has been rapidly unfolding in recent years and has already acquired a vast spread. This study presents a concise introductory overview of the effect of organic and inorganic selenium on growth performance, carcass traits, daily egg production, egg quality, Se uptake in various tissues and plasma and plasma glutathione peroxidase activity in animals.
  Mahima , Anu Rahal , Rajib Deb , Shyma K. Latheef , Hari Abdul Samad , Ruchi Tiwari , Amit Kumar Verma , Amit Kumar and K. Dhama
  Herbs/Botanical plants are considered as God’s gift to human beings in the form of natural medicines, like the one well known “Sanjeevani booti” described in Hindu Mythology. The traditional and ethno-veterinary practices have been in use for centuries, transferring the knowledge from generation to generation and they are accessible, easy to prepare and administer, with little or no cost at all. Even though the modern developments in therapeutic field brought about a rapid decline in traditional medicine, the plant-based remedies are still having a crucial role as potential source of therapeutic aids in health systems all over the world for both humans and animals. Among the 21,000 medicinal plants listed by the World Health Organization (WHO), 2500 species are native to India, which stands first in the production of medicinal herbs. This innumerable treasure of medicinal herbs brings India the distinction of ‘the botanical garden of the world’. Nowadays immune-based therapies are gaining more importance than monovalent approaches which are having limited benefits. Apart from the actions like treating diseases, control of ecto- and endo-parasites, fertility enhancement, bone setting and poor mothering management, an array of herbal medicines have been reported which are having immunomodulatory effects like modulation of cytokine secretion, histamine release, immunoglobulin secretion, class switching, cellular co-receptor expression, lymphocyte expression, phagocytosis and so on. The present article describes in brief few of these important ones viz., ashwagandha, amla, tulsi, arjuna, aloe vera, garlic, turmeric, ginger, shatavari, neem, guduchi, kiwifruit, tut, kamala, palashlata, kokilaksha etc. being used for human and animal health benefits.
  Amit Kumar Verma , Amit Kumar , K. Dhama , Rajib Deb , Anu Rahal , Mahima and Sandip Chakraborty
  Leptospirosis, caused by pathogenic spirochetes of the genus Leptospira, affects both humans and animals and is among the most common but neglected direct zoonotic disease in the world, particularly in untreated or undiagnosed animals as well as humans. Now, it has been considered as a re-emerging disease causing global health problem due to its increasing incidences in developing as well as developed nations. It is a multisystemic disease leading to death. Diagnostic tests of importance are Latex Agglutination Test (LAT), lateral flow and immunoglobulin M (IgM) based ELISA, PCR based assays, Multiple-microscopic Agglutination Test (MAT), Loop-mediated Isothermal Amplification (LAMP) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Molecular tools like PCR-RFLP, real-time PCR, multiplex PCR, qPCR and immunocapture PCR have all been found useful for rapid and confirmatory detection and differentiation of pathogenic and non-pathogenic leptospires. Inactivated/killed and attenuated vaccines are always attempted, since the beginning of vaccine and vaccination story, against all emerging pathogens with mixed success stories. The advanced tools and techniques like recombinant DNA technology, reverse genetics, DNA vaccination, molecular genetics and proteomics approaches are being explored for search of novel antigens, proteins and genes as potential candidates to discover safer, efficient and better vaccines for leptospirosis. The present review highlights the leptospirosis, susceptible population, disease transmission and epidemiology, treatment, trends and advances in diagnosis, vaccines and vaccination strategies in humans and animals with a view to combat this organism having public health significance.
  Kuldeep Dhama , Amit Kumar Verma , S. Rajagunalan , Amit Kumar , Ruchi Tiwari , Sandip Chakraborty and Rajesh Kumar
  Listeriosis is a disease that causes septicemia or encephalitis in humans, animals and birds. Although, the disease is rare and sporadic in poultry but if occurs then causes septicemia or sometimes localized encephalitis. Occasionally, the disease is seen in young chicks and the causative agent, like in humans and animals, is Listeria monocytogenes. The organism is capable to infect almost all animals and poultry; however, outbreaks of listeriosis are infrequent in birds. It is widely distributed among avian species and chickens, turkeys, waterfowl (geese, ducks), game birds, pigeons, parrots, wood grouse, snowy owl, eagle, canaries, which appear to be the most commonly affected. Chickens are thought to be the carriers of Listeria and also the prime reservoirs for the infection and thus contaminate the litter and environment of the poultry production units. Listeriosis is often noticed along with other poultry diseases such as coccidiosis, infectious coryza, salmonellosis, campylobacteriosis and parasitic infections, signifying the opportunistic nature of the organism. Intestinal colonization of poultry and the presence of L. monocytogenes in feces represent a potential source of the organism for listeriosis in ruminants. Man gets infection from raw broiler meat due to Listeria contamination and unhygienic conditions of the processing area, rather than acquiring direct infection from birds. With the changing food habits of the people, the health consciousness is also increasing and since listeriosis has now been recognized as an emerging food borne zoonoses. Therefore, this review has been compiled to make aware the poultry producers and the consumers of poultry meat/products regarding the importance of the disease and its public health significance.
  Anu Rahal , A. H. Ahmad , Amit Kumar , Mahima , Amit Kumar Verma , Sandip Chakraborty and Kuldeep Dhama
  Every time a drug is administered to the animal to treat an ailment, no matter whether it is acute or chronic manifestation, it usually goes together with some other prescription medicine, OTC (Over the counter) formulation, herbs or even food. All the xenobiotics such as drugs, toxins and food components as well as the endogenous compound that are formed in the animal body as a routine phenomenon exert a stimulatory or inhibitory effect on the different physiological and biochemical processes going in the body. These effects may alter the normal metabolism and/or drug transport or its efficacy drastically and thus expose the man and animals to the risk of a potentially dangerous interaction. The present review discusses these potential reactions and their mechanisms that help in navigating the hazardous combinations of drugs with other medicines, food, herbs, vitamins and minerals with confidence.
  Amit Kumar Verma , Amit Kumar , Sahzad , N.C. Prakash Reddy and A.N. Shende
  Respiratory and reproductive disorders in dairy animals due to various etiological agents have led to significant economic losses to dairy industry. These losses are due to abortions, metritis, retention of placenta, repeat breeding, death of animals, loss of production and trade restrictions etc. The objectives of this cross-sectional study were to detect the seroprevalence of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR, BHV-1) in dairy animals of western parts of Uttar Pradesh, India. Anti BHV-1 antibodies were measured using a commercial ELISA kit (SYANOVIR® IBR-Ab). Blood samples were collected from a total of 134 animals of different age, gender from 8 districts. Overall individual seroprevalence was 32.84%. The study revealed that BHV-1 is comparatively more widespread in cattle (46.51%) than buffalo (35.28%). Comparison of different sex groups of animals revealed that the higher numbers of infected animals were identified in male (48.00%) than female (29.35%). The seropositivity of IBR increased with age of animals. The highest prevalence of IBR (66.67%) was observed in animals aged more than 8 years. As vaccination against IBR is not practiced in the region and higher percent positivity (>20%) in all age group of animals indicated the natural circulation of BHV-1 virus in the population. Because of less awareness on the vaccination of animals against this virus, the disease may spread rapidly. The results of present study also indicate that strict monitoring and surveillance of IBR is need of today to protect the animals from infection and further spread.
  Kuldeep Dhama , Sandip Chakraborty , Amit Kumar Verma , Ruchi Tiwari , Rajamani Barathidasan , Amit Kumar and Shambhu Dayal Singh
  Fungal/mycotic diseases cause significant economic losses to the poultry industry either due to their direct infectious nature or due to production of mycotoxins, the secondary fungal metabolites produced in grains or poultry feed. Several fungi have created havoc in the poultry industry and some of them cause direct harm to human health due to their zoonotic implications. They are responsible for high morbidity and mortality, especially in young birds and cause stunted growth and diarrhea; and fatal encephalitis. Mycotic dermatitis is a possible health hazard associated with poultry houses. Mycotoxins are the leading cause of producing immunosuppression in birds, which makes them prone to several bacterial and viral infections leading to huge economic losses to the poultry industry. In comparison to bacterial and viral diseases, advances in diagnosis, treatment, prevention and control of fungal diseases in poultry has not taken much attention. Recently, molecular biological tools have been explored for rapid and accurate diagnosis of important fungal infections. Effective prevention and control measures include: appropriate hygiene, sanitation and disinfection, strict biosecurity programme and regular surveillance/monitoring of fungal infections as well as following judicious use of anti-fungal drugs. Precautionary measures during crop production, harvesting and storing and in feed mixing plants can help to check the fungal infections including health hazards of mycotoxins/mycotoxicosis. The present review describes the fungal pathogens causing diseases in poultry/birds, especially focusing to their diagnosis, prevention and control measures, which would help in formulating appropriate strategies to have a check and control on these unwanted troubles to the poultry producers/farmers.
  Rajib Deb , Amit Kumar , Sandip Chakraborty , Amit Kumar Verma , Ruchi Tiwari , Kuldeep Dhama , Umesh Singh and Sushil Kumar
  Mastitis (inflammation of mammary gland) is a most devastating disease condition in terms of economic losses occurring throughout the world. The etiological agents may vary from place to place depending on climate; animal species and animal husbandry and include wide variety of gram positive and gram negative bacteria; and fungi. They may be either contagious viz. Staphylococcus aureus; Streptococcus agalactiae or environmental viz. S. dysgalactiae, S. uberis, Corynebacterium bovis and Coagulase negative Staphylococcus. Conventional diagnostic tests viz. California Mastitis Test (CMT); R-mastitest and Mast-O-test methods are applied under field conditions; whereas somatic cell count and Bulk Tank Somatic Cell Count (BTSCC) are useful for early mastitis detection and detection of sub clinical or chronic mastitis respectively. In vitro culture based diagnosis require further study as they can detect only viable cells. The advent of Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) technology along with its various versions like multiplex and real time PCR has improved the rapidity and sensitivity of diagnosis. Circulating micro RNA (miRNA) based diagnosis; immune assay and proteomics based detection along with biochips and biosensors prove to be asset to diagnosticians for advanced diagnosis of this economically important condition. Improvement of milking hygiene; implementation of post-milking teat disinfection; regular control of the milking equipments; implementation of milking order; Improvement of bedding material are the general measures to prevent new cases of mastitis. The use of antibiotics (intramammary infusions; bacteriocins) and herbs (Terminalia spp.) are important for prophylaxis and therapeutics. Vaccines viz. cell based; Recombinant (staphylococcal enterotoxin type C mutant) or chimeric (pauA); live (S. uberis 0140J stain based) and bacterial surface extract based; DNA-based and DNA-protein based have greatly aided in management of bovine mastitis. Quorum sensing and disease resistant breeding using novel biomarkers viz. toll like receptors (TLR) 2 and 4, interleukin (IL) 8; breast cancer type 1 susceptibility protein (BRCA1) and calcium channel voltage-dependent alpha 2/delta sub unit 1 (CACNA2D1) are also indispensable. This mini review gives an overview of all these different aspects that act as trend setters as far as the diagnosis and control of bovine mastitis is concerned to help the diagnosticians; epidemiologists and researchers not to remain ignorant about this grave condition.
  Ruchi Tiwari , Sandip Chakraborty , Kuldeep Dhama , Mohd. Yaqoob Wani , Amit Kumar and Sanjay Kapoor
  Darwin’s theory of natural selection and concept of survival of fittest of Wallace is a universal truth which derives the force of life among all live entities on this biosphere. Issues regarding food safety along with increased drug resistance and emerging zoonotic infections have proved that multidisciplinary efforts are in demand for human and animal welfare. This has led to development of various novel therapies the list of which remains incomplete without mentioning about phages. Homologous and non-homologous recombination along with point mutation and addition of new genes play role in their evolution. The rapid emergence of the antibiotic resistant strains of bacteria have created keen interest in finding necessary alternatives to check microbial infections and there comes the importance of phages. Phages kill the bacteria either by lysis or by releasing holins. Bacteriophages; the viruses that live on bacteria are nowadays considered as the best biocontrol agents. They are used as replacers of antibiotics; food industry promoter; guard of aquatic life as well as of plants; pre-slaughter treatment agents; Generally Recognized As Safe (GRAS) food additives; Typing agent of bacteria; active tool of super bug therapy; in post harvest crops and food and during post infection and also to combat intracellular pathogens viz. Mycobacteria and Mycoplasma. Cyanophages/phycophages are particularly useful in controlling blooms produced by various genera of algae and cyanobacteria. By performing centrifugation studies and based on electron microscopy certain virus like particles containing ds RNA have been confirmed as mycophages. They are well proven as threat to pathogenic fungi (both fungal hyphae and yeast). Those that infect yeasts are called zymophages. Virophages have exquisite specificity for their viral host, hence can extensively be used for genetic studies and can also act as evolutionary link. After the discovery of very first virophage till now, a total of 3 virophages have been discovered including the Sputnik virophages that are used to study genetic recombination. Virophages also find their application in antiviral therapy; as engineer of ecological system etc. In brief, present review deals with various dimensions of these beneficial viruses that are being used and can be successfully used in future for safeguarding biosphere including animal and human health.
  Amit Kumar , Amit Kumar Verma , Arvind Kumar Sharma and Anu Rahal
  Respiratory diseases particularly lamb pneumonia is a multifactorial disease involving the interaction between host, etiological agent and environment. The present study was carried out to determine the causative agent of an outbreak of pneumonia in a sheep flock and to establish its pathogenicity and public health importance. The incidence occurred in sheep unit at Madhurikund farm of University (DUVASU), Mathura, Uttar Pradesh, India. At the time of incidence, the population of sheep at the farm was 90. Affected animals were clinically examined and nasal swabs and blood samples were collected from live animals, while morbid materials were collected from dead animals after postmortem examination. The etiological agent was isolated and characterized with conventional microbiological and biochemical methods. Streptococcus pneumoniae was the bacteria isolated from blood, different organs and cerebrospinal fluid. The antibiotic sensitivity revealed resistant to multiple drugs viz., penicillin, tetracycline, erythromycin, chloramphenicol, enrofloxacin and ciprofloxacin. Pathological examination revealed multiple involvements of organs with different degrees of inflammation and haemorrhages of the lower respiratory tract, lungs, liver, heart and kidney. Further, its pathogenicity was established by histopathological examination. In conclusion, presence of multi drug resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae in weaning lambs with the involvement of multiple organs appears to be an emerging zoonotic threat to human particularly in shepherds. This seems to be the first report of isolation of multi drug resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae from outbreak in lambs with multiple organ involvement in India.
  Amit Kumar , Amit Kumar Verma , Subhash Malik , Manoj Kumar Gupta , Arvind Sharma and Anu Rahal
  E. coli, often highly pathogenic in neonatal and immuno-compromised patients, are usually supposed susceptible to a variety of chemotherapeutic agents, however with the time and also due to the extensive use of chemotherapeutic agents irrespective of their susceptibility, have evolved drug resistant strains. Moreover, the production of extended spectrum β-lactamases producing enteric pathogens is a serious issue. In this context the present study was conducted to find out occurrence of extended spectrum Beta-lactamases producing alpha hemolytic Escherichia coli in neonates, of less than one month of age, suffering from diarrhea. Fecal samples were collected from various private hospitals in Mathura and Agra districts of Uttar Pradesh, India. With the help of hospital nursing staffs sterilized stool samples were collected and processed for isolation of E. coli. The double disk diffusion method was applied to assess the ESBL production. E. coli organisms were isolated from 39 kids out of 120 samples. The assessment of isolates revealed alpha hemolytic nature of 23 isolates on 5% sheep blood agar. As usual when drug sensitivity was performed that revealed their multi drug resistance pattern which on further examination with double disk method showed 17 of them to be extended spectrum β-lactamases producing E. coli. The presence of enterohemorrhagic extended spectrum β-lactamases producing Escherichia coli in kids is a matter of concern and public health importance as it may be due to the transmission from hospital itself during the birth time or post birth admission period.
  Ruchi Tiwari , Kuldeep Dhama , Sandip Chakraborty , Amit Kumar , Anu Rahal and Sanjay Kapoor
  Since the discovery of bacteriophages at the beginning of the 19th century their contribution to bacterial evolution and ecology and use in a variety of applications in biotechnology and medicine has been recognized and understood. Bacteriophages are natural bacterial killers, proven as best biocontrol agents due to their ability to lyse host bacterial cells specifically thereby helping in disease prevention and control. The requirement of such therapeutic approach is straight away required in view of the global emergence of Multidrug Resistant (MDR) strains of bacteria and rapidly developing resistance to antibiotics in both animals and humans along with increasing food safety concerns incuding of residual antibiotic toxicities. Phage typing is a popular tool to differentiate bacterial isolates and to identify and characterize outbreak-associated strains of Salmonella, Campylobacter, Escherichia and Listeria. Numerous methods viz. plaque morphology, ultracentrifugation in the density gradient of CsCl2, and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) have been found to be effective in detection of various phages. Bacteriophages have been isolated and recovered from samples of animal waste products of different livestock farms. High titer cocktails of broad spectrum lytic bacteriophages are usually used for clinical trial for assessing their therapeutic efficacy against antibiotic unresponsive infections in different animals. Bacteriophage therapy also helps to fight various bacterial infections of poultry viz. colibacillosis, salmonellosis and listeriosis. Moreover, the utility of phages concerning biosafety has raised the importance to explore and popularize the therapeutic dimension of this promising novel therapy which forms the topic of discussion of the present review.
  Kuldeep Dhama , K. Karthik , Sandip Chakraborty , Ruchi Tiwari , Sanjay Kapoor , Amit Kumar and Prasad Thomas
  Diagnosis is an important part in case of animal husbandry as treatment of a disease depends on it. Advancement in molecular biology has generated various sophisticated tools like Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR), its versions along with pen-side diagnostic techniques. Every diagnostic test however has both advantages and disadvantages; PCR is not an exception to this statement. To ease the odds faced by PCR several non-PCR techniques which can amplify DNA at a constant temperature has become the need of hour, thus generating a variety of isothermal amplification techniques including Nucleic Acid Sequence-Based Amplification (NASBA) along with Self-Sustained Sequence Replication (3SR) and Strand Displacement Amplification (SDA) and Loop mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) test. LAMP stands out to be a good and effective diagnostic test for empowering in developing countries as it does not require sophisticated equipments and skilled personnel and proves to be cost-effective. Performance of LAMP mainly relies on crafting of six primers (including 2 loop primers) ultimately accelerating the reaction. LAMP amplifies DNA in the process pyrophosphates are formed causing turbidity that facilitates visualisation in a more effective way than PCR. The Bst and Bsm polymerase are the required enzymes for LAMP that does not possess 5'-3' exonuclease activity. Results can be visualized by adding DNA binding dye, SYBR green. LAMP is more stable than PCR and real-time PCR. Non-involvement of template DNA preparation and ability to generate 109 copies of DNA are added benefits that make it more effective than NASBA or 3SR and SDA. Thus, it fetches researcher’s interest in developing various versions of LAMP viz., its combination with lateral flow assay or micro LAMP and more recently lyophilized and electric (e) LAMP. Availability of ready to use LAMP kits has helped diagnosis of almost all pathogens. LAMP associated technologies however needs to be developed as a part of LAMP platform rather than developing them as separate entities. This review deals with all these salient features of this newly developed tool that has enlightened the world of diagnosis.
  Anita , Amit Kumar , Amit Kumar Verma , Manoj Kumar Gupta and Anu Rahal
  The present study was taken to understand the status of water resources in the holy city of Mathura, India. As it is a tourist place and pilgrims come from all around the world, there are more chances of spread of pathogens through them. The pathogens which are particularly excreted through urine and feces are most commonly excreted out. E. coli is one of them which causes many severe diseases particularly in neonatal calves or neonates of human. As the city has its limitation of accommodation and river Yamuna is also shrinking, the pressure of millions of pilgrims has enormous, drastic and stipulated effect on water resources particularly river Yamuna. The samples collected showed the presence of pathogenic E. coli. Out of total 100 samples 40 were found positive for E. coli. The 60 samples of different water resources showed the presence of E. coli in 26 samples while 14 were found positive out of 40 samples of Yamuna water. The total coliforms count ranged between 1.08 log10 CFU m L-1 to 6.34 log10 CFU m L-1 in drinking water sources and waste water, respectively. The high percentage of positive samples and coliforms count may be because of the method and place of sample collection. When these isolates were analyzed for antibiotic sensitivity pattern against some commonly used antibiotics. They showed a variable effectiveness against them. The number of resistant isolate is significant enough to make an alert at the earliest to protect the water resources and also to secure better and brighter future of human population.
  Mudasir Fayaz , Musadiq Hussain Bhat , Mufida Fayaz , Amit Kumar and Ashok Kumar Jain
  Background and Objective: Out of a large number of plant species used for curing various ailments, there are certain species which are not used widely but occur immensely in major parts of the state. Folklore claims also support the uses of such species for curing various diseases. In the present study one of such species, Lantana camara (L. camara) have been selected to investigate the in vitro antifungal activities of the leaf extract in different solvents viz., acetone, chloroform, ethanol and methanol extracts of the selected plant Lantana camara. Methodology: Poisoned food technique was carried out to perform the antifungal activity of acetone, chloroform, ethanol and methanol extracts. Results: All the extracts of L. camara gave positive for all the phytoconstituents viz. alkaloids, carbohydrates, flavonoids, glycosides, phytosterols, phenols, proteins and amino acids, saponins and tannins. Among all the extracts ethanol and methanol extracts showed better results. Methanol leaf extract of L. camara showed broad antifungal activity against both the fungal strains. Terbinafine which was used as standard completely inhibited fungal growth of both Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus niger. Conclusion: The phytochemical screening and efficient antifungal activity of Lantana camara from the present investigation revealed that the methanol leaf extracts of the selected plant have significant potential to inhibit the growth of pathogenic fungal strains than other leaf extracts.
  Amit Kumar , N.C. Srivastava and V.P. Singh
  Contagious agalactia is an endemic disease in most of the parts of the world with the classical etiology of M. agalactiae which accounts for 90% outbreaks of contagious agalactia syndrome in goats. The disease is responsible for high economic losses due to loss in milk yield and kids/lambs because of abortions, neonatal deaths and loss of animals. It has been reported from various parts of the country including India. However, till date no specific diagnostic is available in India due to cross reactivity of mycoplasma antigens. The conventional methods of diagnosis are cumbersome and lack specificity and sensitivity. Keeping this in mind the present study was undertaken with the objective to conduct the antigenic analysis of Indian isolates of M. agalactiae by separation of proteins by SDS-PAGE and estimating their immunogenicity and diagnostic potential. SDS-PAGE revealed 24 polypeptides in Whole Cell Antigens (WCA) and Sonicated Supernatant Antigens (SSA) of both the isolates, respectively in the range of 20.89-181.97 kDa with the seven major proteins of 63.10, 60.25, 58.88, 47.86, 44.66, 33.88 and 28.84 kDa molecular weights. On immunoblotting with polyclonal rabbit serum raised against M. agalactiae RPNS 216. All the major proteins appeared immunogenic with 12-14 immunogenic polypeptides. Out of them proteins of 47.86, 44.66, 33.88 and 28.84 kDa might be of protective and diagnostic importance for M. agalactiae and could be the source for future diagnostics in India.
  Amit Kumar , Amit Kumar Verma , Anu Rahal , Pramod Kumar Panwar and K. Dhama
  Adjuvants are used as a carrier of antigen in modern vaccine therapy. These are heterogeneous compounds which are administered with antigens to elicit better immune response against co-administered antigens by stimulating the immune responses. Ideally, an adjuvant should not be mutagenic, carcinogenic and teratogenic and it should not produce any autoimmune disease. However, many of the adjuvants used in vaccine preparation have one or another side effect. The present paper describes in brief the history, development and recent trends in the adjuvant of vaccine.
 
 
 
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