Abstract: Plants are composed of vast array of phytochemicals and vitamins that characterize their pharmacologic properties and nutritional values. The present study sought to investigate, using standard methods, the concentrations of some phytochemicals and hydrophilic vitamins, viz., alkaloids, saponins, flavonoids, tannins, HCN, phenols, anthocyanin, ascorbic acid, niacin, riboflavin and thiamine, in the fruit, leaf, stem bark and root of red and yellow fruited species of Anacardium occidentale L. The leaf of the Red Fruited Species (RFS) and Yellow Fruited Species (YFS) of A. occidentale L. gave the highest concentration of alkaloids, whereas the level of alkaloids was lowest in the fruits of both species. The fruit and root of the RFS as well as the fruit and stem bark of the YFS gave the lowest concentrations of flavonoids. The fruit and leaf of the RFS and YFS gave relatively high concentrations of anthocyanin compared to other parts of the plant. The concentrations of saponins in stem bark of the RFS was 10 folds approximately. higher than the concentration of anthocyanin and 9 folds than that of anthocyanin in the YFS. HCN was absent in the fruits and roots of the RFS and YFS. The leaf of the RFS and YFS gave the highest concentrations of phenolics. The stem bark of both the RFS and YFS gave the highest concentration of tannins, whereas the lowest concentrations of tannins occurred in the fruits of both species. The concentrations of the four hydrophilic vitamins in the fruit of the RFS were in the order: Ascorbic acid = 134.20±0.12 mg/100 g>thiamine = 15.50±0.11 mg/100 g >riboflavin = 2.90±0.05 mg/100 g>niacin = 0.23±0.05 mg/100 g. The present study has substantiated and justified the application of extracts of this multipurpose economic tree in ethnomedicinal practices and herbal remedies.