Abstract: Background and Objective: In Nigeria, Jatropha tanjorensis is used for preparing local herbal medicine for managing diabetic conditions. However, few quantitative data exist to authenticate these widely acclaimed efficacies. This study was carried out to compare the anti-diabetic activities of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of leaf and stem of the plant. Material and Methods: Phytochemical analyses of the plant parts were investigated following standard protocols. Seventy mice of both sexes were randomly divided into 7 groups of 10 mice: Group 1 (normal control) administered normal saline, group 2 (diabetic/negative control) with no treatment, group 3 (positive control) treated with standard drug, while groups 4-7 received 200 and 400 mg kg1 b.wt., of the extracts. Treatments was daily via oral intubation for 10 days, following standard protocols. Blood glucose levels and body weights were determined on days 1, 5 and 10 post-treatment. Results: Phytochemical analyses revealed various bioactive components based on the plant part and solvent of extraction. The results revealed successful induction of diabetic condition in the mice by Alloxan. All plant extracts showed significant hypoglycaemic activities irrespective of solvent of extraction and plant parts. Aqueous stem extracts induced the highest reduction in glucose level at day 10. In all treatments, initial weight loss on day 5 was followed by gain on day 10 post-treatment. Conclusion: This study, thus, revealed anti-diabetic potentials of the plant parts and supports earlier inclusion and use of the plant against pathogenic micro-organisms and management of diabetic conditions.