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Articles by P.K. Mandal
Total Records ( 17 ) for P.K. Mandal
  P.K. Mandal , A.K. Biswas , K. Choi and U.K. Pal
  Food borne pathogens are a growing concern for human illness and death. There is increasing demands to ensure safe food supply. There is continuous development of methods for the rapid and relible detection of food borne pathogens. Advent of biotechnology has greatly altered food testing methods. Improvements in the field of immunology, molecular biology, automation and computer technology continue to have a positive effect on the development of faster, more sensitive and more convenient methods in food microbiology. Further, development of on-line microbiology, including ATP bioluminescence and cell counting methods, is important for rapid monitoring of cleanliness in HACCP programs. One of the most challenging problems is sample preparation. More research is needed on techniques for separating microorganisms from the food matrix and for concentrating them before detection to ensure food safety, by immunological or nucleic acid-based assays. The possibilities of combining different rapid methods, including immunological and DNA based methods should be further exploited. Further developments in immunoassays and PCR protocols should result in quantitative detection of microorganisms and the simultaneous detection of more than one pathogen or toxin. Lastly, technology continuing to advance at a great pace, the next generation of assays currently being developed potentially has the capability for near real time and online monitoring of multiple pathogens. Modern methods are based on molecular biology techniques like PCR, RFLP, DNA microarray assay, immunological techniques like ELISA, biophysical and biochemical principles with the application of biosensers like bioluminescence sensor, bio-analytical sensors utilizing enzymes, electrical impedometry and flow cytometry. In this review we have tried to summarize the conventional methods and newly developed rapid pathogen detection techniques and the need for newer and rapid methods are discussed.
  H.K. Lim , K. Choi , P.K. Mandal , O. Baatartsogt , C.H. Lee , J.H. Lee and H.B. Kim
  This study was carried out to investigate the differentially expressed genome between S. gallinarum infected and uninfected control in the spleen lymphocytes of Ross broiler chicks using microarray analysis. GeneChip Chicken Genome Array containing 32,773 transcripts corresponding to over 28,000 chicken genes for simultaneous expression was used. The signal intensity of each gene was normalized and expressed in fold change. A large numbers of genes were found with differential expression majority of which are still unknown in chicken genome. Thirty one known genes were found to have differential expression of which, 25 were up-regulated and 5 were down regulated. Majority of the up-regulated genes belong to immune response system viz., IL8, IL1B, IL10, IL18, IL17A, IL15, transferrin, IFNg, TLR2, TNFRSF1b, TNFRSF15 and the down regulated genes were B-FIV, B-LA, SDF1, B-LBI, belonging to MHC-I and II and CD1d. To validate the expression of these genes RT-PCR was done using primers of 12 selected genes′ with total mRNA isolated from spleen lymphocytes which has confirmed the similar pattern of expression of all the genes as in microarray. The findings in this study have lead to the identification of novel genes which may be useful in further studies to understand the patho-physiology of fowl typhoid towards development of diagnostics and therapeutics.
  Hyun-Kyung So , P.K. Mandal , O. Baatartsogt , Hee-Kyong Lim , Chi-Ho Lee , Jun-Heon Lee and Kangduk Choi
  To find the alternative for antibiotic this study was carried out to investigate the differentially expressed proteome between Salmonella gallinarum infected and uninfected control in the spleen lymphocytes of ROS broiler chicks fed with Korean mistletoe using proteomic approach. Total four protein spots were detected with differential expression from the chicken spleen lymphocyte in 2DE gels after silver staining. These proteins were characterized by MALDI-TOF MS and MS/MS. Two known proteins were up-regulated viz., Fatty Acid Binding Protein (FABP) and MRP-126 and 2 proteins were down regulated viz., ribosomal protein12, pyruvate kinase. In this experimental fowl typhoid infection in broilers fed with Korean mistletoe through proteomics approach significant differential expression of four proteins were found which appears to be candidate molecules for fowl typhoid.
  Go-Eun Hong , P.K. Mandal , Chang-Won Pyun , K. Choi , Soo-Ki Kim , Kyu-Ho Han , M. Fukushima , Ho-Chul Shin and Chi-Ho Lee
  This study was done to investigate the effects of fermented soy pulp on the osteoporosis in ovariectomized rats. Sprague-Dawley female rats were randomly assigned to four groups as Sham Control (SC), Ovariectomized Control (OC), Ovariectomized and Soy Pulp (OSP) fed and Ovariectomized and Fermented Soy Pulp (OFSP) fed. All rats were fed on purified diets, supplemented with non-fermented and fermented soy pulp on basic diet for 7 weeks. It was observed that isoflavone aglycone was very high in soy pulp fermented for 12 h in comparison to non-fermented soy pulp. Body weight of the rats increased significantly (p<0.05) in comparison to other groups. Atrophy of uterus in OFSP group was significantly (p<0.05) prevented in comparison to OC group. The concentration of estradiol in OFSP group was higher than those of OC and OSP groups. The bone density in OFSP group was significantly (p<0.05) higher than those of OC and OSP groups. The histopathology indicated that OFSP group has better retarded the progress of osteoporosis than other groups. The results showed that isoflavone from the fermented soy pulp has prevented the osteoporosis in ovariectomized rats must be due to its estradiol like function. It is expected that the fermented soy pulp might serve as a functional food in osteoporosis of postmenopausal women.
  K.P. Mini , K.V. Venkateswaran , S. Gomathinayagam , S. Bijargi and P.K. Mandal
  Haemonchosis is one of the common helminthic diseases of ruminants which causes high mortality. Course of infection depends on the worm burden, age and nutrition of the host. The principal feature of Haemonchus species infection is anaemia. Anthelmintics with different modes of action are the necessity of the hour, which has changed the focus to other sources like plants. Screening of medicinal plants for their anthelmintic activity has become great scientific interest. Ethnopharmacological surveys provide the rationale for selection and scientific investigation of medicinal plants. Herbal drugs are extensively used as anthelmintics in the developed world before the era of broad spectrum drugs. Many currently available therapeutic compounds are plant derived or synthetic analogues derived from those compounds. Plants of the genus Artemisia were used against the nematodes Ascaris suum and Toxocara spp. as well as cestodes of poultry. From time immemorial, plant derivatives like Nicotiana tabaccum have been used against Moneizia, Ascaridia and several species of GI nematodes including Cooperia, Haemonchus, Nematodirus and Trichostrongylus. Arecoline and several other alkaloids from the dried ripe seeds of Areca catechu were found to be active against tapeworms in dogs and poultry. Aristolochia species of plant are traditionally used for neatodiasis in India. In this review an effort is made to compile the available reports and studies about the anthelmintic activity and use of different plants especially of Aristolochia with special reference to Haemonchosis.
  R. Banerjee , P.K. Mandal , S. Bose , M. Banerjee and B. Manna
  The aim of this study was to evaluate meat quality of Indian Garole sheep for human consumption and to provide better understanding about its skin and wool quality to stimulate its utilization and marketing. Meat production in India is much lower than the actual demand might be due to improper exploitation of animal resources particularly sheep and goat. West Bengal in India is having a unique sheep breed named as Garole with outstanding genetic potentialities. Total 60 meat, 60 skin and 200 wool samples from 12 different sources were used in this study. The meat quality parameters viz. pH, water holding capacity, refrigeration loss, muscle fiber-diameter, proximate analysis viz. moisture, protein, fat, ash and carbohydrate contents, mineral analysis for common macro and micro minerals viz. sodium, potassium, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, iron, cupper, zinc, manganese and chloride contents were studied in this research. The study revealed that dressing percentage (55.87%) was higher than other sheep breeds and pH (5.96) water holding capacity (43.33%) and refrigeration loss (0.86%) was comparatively better than known sheep standard. The average value of moisture, protein, fat, ash and carbohydrate contents (76.02, 18.20, 3.53, 1.65 and 0.60%, respectively) is comparable to average sheep standards with lower fat content. The macro and micro minerals contents are optimum or higher than average sheep standards indicating its higher nutritive value. The skin quality parameters viz skin length (61.43 cm), skin width (53.37 cm), skin weight (wet-1.188 kg, dry-0.59 kg), total skin area (3403 cm2) and skin weight percentage (12.02%) was good and comparable with other sheep breed. Wool parameters like fiber length (4.95 cm), fiber diameter (54.77 μm), coefficient of variation (57.48%), type of wool (carpet type), medulation (88.13%), crimp (2.21 cm), bundle strength (7.36 g t-1), elongation (29.56%) and weight of wool per shearing (308 g) are almost similar to common sheep breed of India. The high genetic potential and good quality of meat, skin and wool of Garole sheep of West Bengal, India is highly encouraging and shows a great promise for improving rural economy if proper developmental efforts are made.
  A.K. Biswas , N. Kondaiah , A.S.R. Anjaneyulu and P.K. Mandal
  The aim of this review was to focus on food safety in relation to pesticide and veterinary drug residues and mycotoxins in meat and meat products. The impact of these consumers awareness is a large concern for the meat industry. In order to be more prepared, the consumer strive to have more complete information on the sources of inputs in their products, because consumers are becoming more worried about this. Residues in meat and their products are generally classified as naturally present, caused by man and arise secondarily. In the past, most contamination of meat resulted from natural toxicants. However, usage of synthetic chemicals for regular house-hold and agricultural practices while benefiting society has also provided new sources of potential contamination. The levels of pesticide residues are now over alarming situation in certain countries. Drug residues in meat are relatively uncommon whereas, aflatoxin or ochratoxin are rarely found. Residues from secondary residues also occur less frequently. This study reviews the causes of residues in meat, types of residues found, their detection methods, incidences and their regulation with emphasis on public health risk and their assessment.
  U.K. Pal , P.K. Mandal , V.K. Rao and C.D. Das
  The aim of this study was to project the importance and significance of goat milk and milk products with special reference to India. Goats are important component of livestock industry and play a vital role in the socio-economic structure of rural poor. South Asian countries including India, Bangladesh and Pakistan are the major producers of goat milk, whereas, in Europe the most developed dairy goat industry is in France, Greece, Spain and Italy. Indian breeds such as Jamunapuri, Barbari, Beetal, Surti, Jakhrana produce fairly good amount of milk. Goats in Greece and Sardinia produce milk with higher level of total solids, fat and protein. Breeds like Alpine and Saanen produce milk with lower fat, protein and casein contents. Goat milk contains higher amount of Ca, Mg and P than cow and human milk but vitamin D, vitamin B12 and folate contents are less. Goat milk is recommended for infants, old and convalescent people. Three fatty acids viz., caproic, caprylic and capric have great medicinal values for patients suffering from a variety of ailments. In this review we have discussed the goat population and goat milk production, gross composition with nutritive value in terms of energy, minerals and vitamin contents goat milk, details fraction of protein and fat, characteristics of goat milk, medicinal value of goat milk, goat milk products and marketing potential of goat milk and milk products.
  O. Baatartsogt , K. Choi , P.K. Mandal , H.K. Lim , J.D. Oh and S.H. Chang
  This research was done to study the protein expression profile of synovial cells of knee using proteome analysis during the development of experimental Post-Traumatic Arthritis (PTA) in swine. PTA was induced by transection of the Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) of left knee in three piglets. Articular cartilage and synovial tissues were obtained after 0, 2, 5 and 8 weeks for histopathologic examination. After sacrificing the piglets at 8 weeks, synovial tissues were collected for 2-dimensional electrophoresis and mass spectrometric analysis. Histopathologic examination at 8 weeks showed overt chronic inflammation indicating the development of ETA. Through proteome analyses more than 1,500 protein spots were identified in which 7 differentially expressed protein spots were observed in ACL-transacted synovial tissue. Five proteins were down-regulated (cytoskeletal β actin, cofilin-1, destrin, Rho GDP dissociation inhibitor α and an unnamed protein product) and two proteins were up-regulated (α-B crystalline and Smooth Muscle Protein (SMP) 22α). These results showed that proteins that are related to cellular organization and signal transduction are down-regulated and those that are related to cell rescue, defense and stress are up-regulated. Therefore, the proteome analysis of synovial tissue provided us new candidate molecules which may be useful to understand the pathogenesis for diagnostic and therapeutic studies of Post Traumatic Arthritis (PTA).
  O. Baatartsogt , K. Choi , P.K. Mandal , Hee-kyong Lim , Guan-Hao Li , Hong-Sik Kong , Dae-Hyun Hahm , Chi-Ho Lee and Jun-Heon Lee
  To get insights into pathological pathways of Post Traumatic Arthritis (PTA) this study was done on gene expression profile of synovial cells of knee using gene chip analysis developing experimental post traumatic arthritis (ETA) in swine. ETA was induced by transection of the Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) of left knee in 3 piglets. Articular cartilage and synovial tissues were obtained after 0, 2, 5 and 8 weeks for histopathologic examination. Synovial cells collected after sacrificing the piglet at 8 weeks, were used at 5 passage for gene expression profiling using Affimetrix Gene Chip. Histopathologic examination showed overt chronic inflammation indicating the development of ETA. Through genome analyses it was observed that 87 known genes were up-regulated and 76 known genes were down regulated. By analyzing, it was found that many genes with differential expression are related to inflammation, immune response, lipid binding, cell adhesion, growth activity and muscle development. The present study provided an insight into the TA related gene expression pattern. The genome analysis of synovial cells provided us new candidate molecules which may be useful to understand the pathogenesis of Post Traumatic Arthritis (PTA). The established porcine model may serve as in vivo disease model for further research on traumatic arthritis to elucidate molecular pathogenesis.
  A.H. Jana and P.K. Mandal
  Mozzarella cheese is a soft, unripened cheese variety of the Pasta-filata family which had its origin in the Battipaglia region of Italy. Mozzarella cheese was traditionally made from buffalo milk. It is made all over Italy, in other European countries and USA from cow milk, however the process needs to be modified accordingly. The finished cheese, lightly salted, is white, soft with a very lively surface sheen and has unique property of stretchability. Mozzarella cheese owes its characteristics mainly to the action of lactic acid on dicalcium-para-caseinate. Pure white color is the basic requirement of Mozzarella cheese, because of which buffalo milk is preferred over cow milk.. The current review discusses about the principle and chemistry of mozzarella cheese making, legal standards, mozzarella cheese manufacture, factors affecting quality of mozzarella cheese, composition of mozzarella cheese, value-added ingredients as additive,, equipment for mozzarella cheese manufacture, flavour of mozzarella cheese and the recent developments in mozzarella cheese manufacture. The microstructure and rheological characteristics of cheese, functional properties of mozzarella cheese for use on pizza, browning/blistering of mozzarella cheese, packaging, shelf life and storage changes of mozzarella cheese have been discussed at length in this review. Understanding the factors that determine the characteristics of the cheese product for its suitability for end usage can help the cheese makers to produce ‘tailor-made’ cheeses as per the whims and wishes of the food retailers and even the varied consumers.
  A.K. Biswas , N. Kondaiah , A.S.R. Anjaneyulu and P.K. Mandal
  The aim of this study was to evaluate status of microbial contaminants in food of animal origin. Emergence and re-emergence of diseases due to pathogenic bacteria are the key issue of the new pattern of food trades. Food poisoning or food intoxication syndrome is a global problem for meat industry. The bacterial pathogens most frequently identified from illness associated with beef products are Salmonella sp., Campylobacter, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, Clostridium perfringens, Yersinia enterocolitica, Bacillus cereus and Vibrio parahaemolyticus. Microbial contaminants rather common than any other form of contaminants as food animals itself harbour them hence, microbial contamination of carcass surfaces is unavoidable. Most of the micro floras transferred to the carcasses are nonpathogenic, but some pathogens like Salmonella sp., Escherichia coli O157:H7, Campylobacter sp. and L. monocytogenes may be present and poses a safety challenge to the meat industry. Novel methods such as immunological, chemical, biochemical, biophysical, nucleic acid probe, Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) and more recently biosensor based techniques have been developed to monitor the incidence of pathogenic bacteria in meat foods. In recent years, increase in global trade and awareness of the consumers about the hygienic quality of the meat, international attention is being focused on ways to improve the microbial quality and safety of meat foods. The present review confirmed the importance of maintaining good process hygiene at meat packing plants for further improvement of microbiological status of meat.
  K. Sudheer , C. Das , P.K. Mandal , U.K. Pal and V.K. Rao
  This study was planned to study the quality of low fat restructured chicken block incorporated with gizzards during frozen storage. The partially thawed meat was minced through 8 mm plate and mixed with curing ingredients and water, then filled in stainless steel mould and kept overnight in refrigerator for curing. Next day the filled moulds were cooked in water at 90°C for 45 min then cooled and stored overnight in refrigerator. The next day chicken blocks were obtained from the moulds and sliced (3 mm). This standardized recipe was used as control and over that 40% gizzard and 3% fat was found to be best suited and these two products were studied under frozen (-18°C) storage for 60 days. pH of the product reduced significantly (p<0.05) in the test product on day 40 and 60 and it was higher in the test product in comparison to the control up to 40 day. TBARS and tyrosine values increased significantly (p<0.05) in both test and control product throughout the storage period studied. Standard Plate Count (SPC) and Psychrophillic count (PPC) in test and control product increased significantly (p<0.05), however, coliform and yeast and mould counts were not detected in both the products. In general sensory scores were significantly (p<0.05) higher in the test product than the control. Sensory scores reduced significantly (p<0.05) during the storage period in both the products but remained well above the acceptable range. Based on physicochemical, microbiological and sensory quality it is concluded that the low fat restructured chicken block incorporated with 40% gizzard and 3% fat replacing lean meat could be stored safely at frozen temperature (-18±1°C) for 60 days without any deterioration in quality.
  H.T. Santosh Kumar , U.K. Pal , V. Kesava Rao , C.D. Das and P.K. Mandal
  The present study was planned to find the differences in quality of fresh chicken obtained from different sources with different processing practices viz., market/road side chicken shop (MSC), Retail outlets (RSC) and semi automatic processing plant (Scientifically Slaughtered Chicken) (SSC). The sources of meat had no significant effect (p<0.05) on pH and tyrosine value of fresh chicken meat. However, SSC samples had significantly (p<0.05) higher water holding capacity, extract release volume and lower thiobarbituric acid value compared to other samples. Similarly, SSC samples harboured significantly (p<0.05) lower total viable count, coliform count, psychrophilic count and yeast and mould counts. Sensory evaluation of cooked samples did not reveal any difference in organoleptic attributes viz., appearance, flavour, juiciness and texture but overall palatability scores of SSC meat was significantly (p<0.05) higher than meat from other two sources. It was concluded that SSC meat was of better quality than MSC and RSC meat.
  K.S. Bhuvana , P.K. Mandal and U.K. Pal
  Natural preservation of meat and meat products is one of the important areas of meat science research. It was observed that the traditional pork curry (with addition of Garcinia cambogia fruit extract) of Coorg district, Karnataka, India had a longer shelf-life and higher acceptability. Hence, a study was conducted to assess the bio-preservative effect of the aqueous extract of G. cambogia fruit (Kachampuli in Coorgi). The pork cubes of 1 cm3 were marinated with salt (1.75%) and dry spice mixture (2%), shallow fried in low flame for 45 min in sunflower oil (10%) along with the green curry stuff. The aqueous extract of G. cambogia fruit was added at levels of 1 and 2%. The treated products along with a control were stored at room temperature analyzed for physico-chemical, microbiological and sensory quality. The results indicated that the pH of the pork fry was significantly (p<0.05) lower in the treatment 1 and 2 (5.32 and 5.1) compared to the control (5.84). The Thiobarbituric acid reacting substances (TBARS) and tyrosine values of the pork fry with 1% extract (1.65 mg malonaldehyde kg-1 and 5.57 mg kg-1) were also significantly (p<0.05) lower than that of the control (1.94 mg malonaldehyde kg-1 and 6.73 mg kg-1). The standard plate count remained within safe limits up to 6th day of storage in case of the treatments (3.84 log colony forming units gram-1) whereas, the control samples with SPC of 4.92 log CFU g-1 deteriorated after 48 h of preparation. The flavor, texture, juiciness and overall acceptability were better for both the treated pork fry throughout the study. The use of aqueous extract of Garcinia cambogia fruit at 1% level was optimum for the room temperature preservation of the pork fry for about six days.
  G.V. Bhaskar Reddy , P.K. Mandal , A.R. Sen and K.S. Reddy
  To provide the consumer with a highly palatable product at a reasonable cost is the main objective of any food industry. Particular to meat industry, utilization of less valuable carcasses and carcass cuts and carcass components (plates, flanks, shanks, etc.) is of prime interest in periods of economic pressure. One such relevantly new technological approach is restructuring technology, which enables the production of value-added meat products from low value cuts and trimmings of carcasses. Although the economics and processing of restructuring meats appear favourable to producing a product that has the palatability attributes that are between an intact muscle steak and ground meat. This review of restructured meat products discuss the actual science and technology behind the restructuring of muscles, how muscle chunks are binding each together at protein molecules stage, factors influencing the meat pieces binding, type of restructuring methodologies, quality attributes of restructured meat products, problems of oxidation, use of natural antioxidants and recommends research needs for the future.
  A.R. Sen and P.K. Mandal
  Meat and meat products, especially fish and poultry is more prone to oxidation. Lipid oxidation in meat and fish-products leads to rancidity and off-flavor and development of many harmful substances. Antioxidants provide protection by neutralizing free radicals, which are toxic by-products of natural cell metabolism. Synthetic antioxidants have been successfully used to block or delay the oxidation process in meat and fish. To prevent or delay oxidation reactions, several endogenous antioxidant systems are found in muscle tissue. Amines, peptides and amino acids are known to have significant antioxidant properties. Due to the potential health hazards of synthetic antioxidants, natural products, especially natural antioxidants have been intensively examined. Use of natural antioxidants is emerging as an effective methodology for controlling rancidity and limiting its deleterious consequences. Thus, most of the recent study has been directed towards identification of novel antioxidants from natural sources, particularly of plant origin. This study suggested about the endogenous antioxidants in fish meat, the potential of natural antioxidants and their beneficial role for human health.
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