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Articles by L.C. Saalu
Total Records ( 16 ) for L.C. Saalu
  B. Ogunlade , L.C. Saalu , O.S. Ogunmodede , G.G. Akunna , O.A. Adeeyo and G.O. Ajayi
  Alcohol is currently recognized as the most prevalent known cause of abnormal human health. Furthermore, the liver remains the most commonly affected organs following alcohol abuse. The effect of Allium cepa against alcohol-induced hepatic damage in rabbits was investigated in the present study. Rabbits were divided into four groups; The Allium cepa-alone group received physiological saline 5 mL kg-1 b.wt., daily per oral (p.o) for 60 days followed by Allium cepa 100 mg kg-1 b.wt., daily p.o for another 60 days. The alcohol-alone group was given alcohol 5 mg kg-1 b.wt., daily p.o for 60 days followed by saline 5 mL kg-1 b.wt., daily p.o for another 60 days. The alcohol plus Allium cepa group were similarly given alcohol, but had Allium cepa 100 mg kg-1 b.wt, daily p.o post-treatment for another 60 days. Another group of rabbits were given peanut oil (the vehicle) 100 mg kg-1 b.wt., daily p.o, for 60 days, after saline 5 mL kg-1 b.wt., daily p.o for 60 days to serve as the control. The gross anatomical parameters of the liver and liver histology were assessed. Liver oxidative stress was evaluated by liver Superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), Glutathione Peroxidase (GPx), reduced glutathione (GSH) and malondialdehyde (MDA) assays. In addition, the activities of the biomarker enzymes of the liver (alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, alkaline phosphatase and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase) were assayed. An assessment of the histological profiles of the liver showed a derangement of the liver cytoarchitecture following alcohol abuse and a marked improvement was observed after Allium cepa administration. Similarly, Allium cepa improved the reduction of antioxidant parameters (SOD, CAT, GPx and GSH) and the increased MDA and serum hepatic markers levels caused by alcohol ingestion. It was concluded that Allium cepa may offer protection against free radical mediated oxidative stress of rabbits with alcohol-induced hepatotoxicity.
  L.C. Saalu , G.G. Akunna and J.O. Ajayi
  The characteristic bitter taste of Vernonia amygdalina has been attributed to its anti-nutritional contents such as alkaloids, saponins, tannins and glycosides. Recently the spermiographic effect of the plant in male rats has been reported. The present study examined the effect of bitter leaf extract on 30 days oral administration of 50, 100, 200 mg kg-1 and 60 days oral administration of 200 mg kg-1 b.wt. of the extract on some fertility indices in male wistar rats. At 30 days administration, the extract produced a significant and dose dependent increase (p<0.05) in sperm concentration, percentage motility, morphology and percentage live sperm. There was a decrease in the blood level of Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH) but no significant increase in the levels of Leutinizing Hormone (LH) and Testosterone. Administrations of bitter leaf extract at higher dosage (200 mg kg-1 b.wt.) and duration provoked varying degrees of testicular degeneration ranging from a significant reduction in sperm concentration, motility, percentage normal morphology, percentage number of live sperm to a significant increase in the number of percentage abnormal sperm. Evidences suggest that higher dosage of bitter leaf (Vernonia amygdalina) extract administered for a longer duration could be deleterious to the testes.
  L.C. Saalu , A.A. Osinubi , P.I. Jewo , A.O. Oyewopo and G.O. Ajayi
  The therapeutic value of Doxorubicin (DOX) as anticancer antibiotic is limited by its organotoxicity. It has been shown that free radicals are involved in doxorubicin-induced toxicity. Doxorubicin causes the generation of free radicals and the induction of oxidative stress, associated with cellular injury. Because of the great importance of DOX in cancer therapy, researchers have expended great efforts trying to prevent or attenuate the side effects of DOX administration. There has, however, been only a little success in this regard. In this study the ameliorating role of antioxidant-rich ethanolic seed extract of Citrus paradisi (CP) on DOX-induced testicular oxidative stress and impaired sperm parameters was investigated. Three experimental groups of Wistar rats were used; CP-alone group that received orally CP 10 mg kg-1 b.wt. daily for 14 days followed by intraperitoneal (i.p.) Normal Saline (NS) 2.5 mg kg-1 b.wt. DOX-alone group that had ip DOX 10 mg kg-1 b.wt. as a single dose. CP plus DOX-group that were similarly given DOX, but also had oral CP 10 mg kg-1 b.wt. pretreatment for 14 days. There was also a corresponding control group. The animals were autopsied 8 weeks after DOX or NS injections. Results showed that DOX-induced reduction in sperm motility and epididymal sperm concentrations as well as increase in total abnormal sperm rates were all normalized in the group pretreated with CP. Pretreatment with CP ameliorated the testicular content of Glutathione (GSH) and Auperoxide Dismutase (SOD), Catalase (CAT) and Glutathione Peroxidase (GPx) activities. Similarly, CP treatment attenuated the DOX-induced increase in testicular lipid peroxidation reflected by malondialdehyde (MDA) levels. These data indicate that CP protects the rat testis against DOX-induced oxidative stress and deranged sperm characteristics.
  L.C. Saalu , A.A. Osinubi and J.A. Olagunju
  In the present study, we assessed the early and delayed effects of a single dose of DOX on the testicular oxidative status and spermatogenesis in rats. Forty male adult (11 to 13 weeks old) Wistar rats weighing 185-210 g were used for this research work. The rats were randomly divided into four groups of ten rats each. The control group of rats were given a single dose of normal saline (2.5 mL kg-1) b.wt. intraperitoneally (i.p.) and then were sacrificed two weeks after. Group A animals had 10 mg DOX kg-1 b.wt. i.p. as a single dose. These rats were sacrificed two weeks after DOX administration. Group B animals had 10 mg DOX kg-1 b.wt. i.p. as a single dose but were sacrificed 8 weeks after. Group C rats had similar treatment as those in group B, except that they were sacrificed at the end of the 16th week after DOX administration. Epididymal sperm characteristics were evaluated. In addition, biomarkers of oxidative stress namely testicular antioxidants and lipid peroxidation in the testicular tissue were determined using spectrophotometric methods. The testicular oxidative status of DOX-treated rats was severely compromised as evidenced by the significant decrease in the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), in addition to the significant reduction in the reduced glutathione (GSH) level as well as the significantly enhanced lipid peroxidation measured as malondialdehyde (MDA). There was also a demonstratable worsening of the rat testicular oxidative status and sperm parameters with passage of time following DOX administration. The results indicate that DOX produces persistent damage to the spermatogenic compartment of the testis as well progressive increase in the testicular oxidative stress.
  L.C. Saalu , G.O. Ajayi , A.A. Adeneye , I.O. Imosemi and A.A. Osinubi
  In the present study, we examined the ameliorating effect of the 100% ethanol extract of Citrus paradisi (grapefruit) seed (GSE) on survival of doxorubicin treated rats and on DOX- induced cardiomyopathy. Whereas only 20% of the rats treated with DOX (20 mg kg-1 body weight intraperitoneally) survived at the end of 14 days, almost all the DOX-treated rats survived when GSE (20 mg kg-1 body weight) was administered by gastric gavage. In the second experiment, GSE (20 mg kg-1 body weight) was administered daily by gavage for 14 consecutive days before a cumulative single dose of DOX (20 mg kg-1 body weight, intraperitoneally) was given. DOX induced marked biochemical alterations characteristic of cardiac toxicity. There was enhanced lipid peroxidation measured as malondialdehyde (MDA). The anthracycline antibiotic drug reduced the cardiac enzymatic activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione S transferase (GST) and catalase (CAT). Besides, it reduced significantly the reduced glutathione (GSH) level; prior administration of grapefruit seed extract ahead of doxorubicin challenge ameliorated all these biochemical markers. Taken together, one could conclude that grapefruit seed extract has a protective role in the abatement of doxorubicin-induced cardiac toxicity that resides, at least in part, on its anti-radical effects.
  L.C. Saalu , A.A. Osinubi , J.A. Oguntola , I.O. Adeneye and A.S. Benebo
  Doxorubicin (DOX), one of the anthracycline antibiotic drugs isolated from the soil fungus Streptomyces peucetius caesius, which has been widely used to treat cancer effectively. It has also been known to induce reproductive abnormalities in males. The implication of natural phenolic compounds in the prevention of many pathologic diseases has been reported. Herein, the ability of polyphenolic-rich Grapefruit Seed Extracts (GSE), to protect rat testis against DOX-induced histomorphometric impairment was investigated. Four groups of Wistar rats were used; The GSE- alone group received intraperitoneal (i.p.) Normal Saline (NS) 2.5 mg kg-1 b.wt. followed by orally GSE 10 mg kg-1 b.wt. daily for 16 weeks. The DOX-alone group were given i.p., DOX 20 mg kg-1 b.wt. as a single dose. The GSE plus DOX-group were similarly given DOX, but also had oral GSE 10 mg kg-1 b.wt. post-treatment for 16 weeks. Another group of rats were each given orally 2.5 mL kg-1 b.wt. peanut oil (vehicle) daily for 16 weeks, after 2.5 mL kg-1 b.wt. normal saline was given as a single dose i.p., to serve as the control. The animals were sacrificed 16 weeks after DOX or NS injections. The testicular toxicity induced by DOX was assessed by histologic and stereologic evaluation of the testis. Present results demonstrated that post-treatment with GSE was capable of reversing the reduction of body and testicular weights as well as the testicular histomorphometric evidences of high dose and delayed DOX toxicity in the animals. The GSE was therefore shown to exert testicular cytorejuvinative effects on rats challenged with DOX.
  O.S. Ogunmodede , L.C. Saalu , B. Ogunlade , G.G. Akunna and A.O. Oyewopo
  Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disorder of carbohydrate metabolism whose prevalence is raising globally, especially the resource -starved countries such as Nigeria. Since antiquity, diabetes has been treated with plant medicines. Several investigations have confirmed the efficacy of many of these traditional preparations, some of which have proven efficacy. In the present study, the hypoglycemic, antioxidant and hepatoprotective effects of Allium cepa (A.cepa) aqueous extracts on alloxan-induced diabetic rabbits was investigated. Diabetes mellitus was induced in 15 adult male rabbits, using 200 mg kg-1 of alloxan monohydrate as a single intraperitoneal injection. These alloxan -diabetic rabbits were then divided into three groups; one group was administered aqueous extract of A. cepa 100 mg Kg-1 b.wt. orally daily for 30 days, another group received A. Cepa 300 mg kg-1 b.wt. orally daily for 30 days and the last group of diabetic rabbits received peanut oil (the vehicle) instead of A. cepa to serve as the diabetic control. There were also five rabbits which received neither alloxan nor A. cepa (the negative control group). All the liver histological derangements caused by diabetes were attenuated in the A. cepa-treated group. Increasing dosages of A. cepa aqueous extract produced a dose-dependent significant reduction in the blood glucose levels. Additionally, A. cepa remarkably improved the reduction of antioxidant parameters-Superoxide dismutase, catalase (SOD), catalase (CAT) Glutathione Peroxidase (GPx) , Reduced Glutathione (GSH) and increased malondialdehyde (MDA), a product of lipid peroxidation. It is concluded based on these findings that A. cepa may be effective in ameliorating diabetic’s related hepatotoxicity and alterations of biochemical parameters.
  L.C. Saalu , V.A. Togun , A.O. Oyewopo and Y. Raji
  The study investigated the effect of melatonin on artificial crytorchidism in Sprague-Dawley rats. Forty rats weighing 220-270 g were divided into five treatment groups A, B, C, D and E with group A as control. The rats were rendered unilaterally (B and D) or bilaterally (C and E) cryptorchid by anchoring the upper pole of the testis to the abdominal wall. Groups D and E in addition received 0.7 mg kg-1 body weight of melatonin intraperitoneally between 9.00-10.00 am daily for 56 days. The control group gained 40% of their initial body weight while the mean weight losses of the cryptorchids were 27 and 23% (unilateral and bilateral without melatonin) and 45 and 39% (unilateral and bilateral with melatonin). Mean Paired Testes Weight (PTW) of control rats did not differ significantly (p>0.05) from those of groups B and D (unilateral cryptorchids with and without melatonin respectively) and E (bilateral cryptorchid with melatonin) but was significantly higher than the mean PTW of group C (bilateral cryptorchid without melatonin respectively). The ipsilateral testis without melatonin was lower in weight than the contralateral testis (B) while the weights were equal in melatonin treated rats (D). The mean PTW of bilateral cryptorchids with melatonin (E) was higher than the PTW of bilateral cryptorchids without melatonin. There was no sperm cell in the ipsilateral cauda epididymis of group B and the bilateral epididymides of group C rats that did not receive melatonin treatment (azoospermia). The epididymis of groups D and E rats, with melatonin administration had significantly (p<0.05) lower spermatozoa concentration (oligospermia) than the control rats. There was no significant (p>0.05) difference between epididymal sperm concentration and motility of the control rats compared with the contralateral testis of groups B and D rats. Motility of cryptorchid epididymal sperm was slow and non-linear. It was concluded that artificial cryptorchidism negatively affected metabolic activities in male Sprague Dawley rats. The contralateral testes of artificial, unilateral cryptorchids were not significantly (p>0.05) affected by the negative effect of artificial cryptochidism on the ipsilateral testes. Artificial cryptorchidism did not affect blood plasma testosterone level. Melatonin alleviated the deleterious effect of artificial cryptorchidism.
  L.C. Saalu , T. Kpela , L.A.J. Shittu and O.A. Ashiru
  The study investigated the moderating role of Grapefruit Seed Extract (GSE) on Epidoxorubicin (EPI)-induced testicular injury. Thirty rats weighing 200-250 g were divided into three treatment groups A, B and C. Group A (Control) received a single dose intraperitoneal injection of 1 mL physiological saline following treatment with 0.5 mL peanut oil (vehicle) for 2 weeks. Groups B and C each received a single dose intraperitoneally of 10 mg kg-1 body weight EPI following 2 weeks gavage administration of 10 mg kg-1 body weight ethanol extract of grapefruit seed and 0.5 mL peanut oil respectively. All animals were sacrificed 4 days after EPI or physiological saline injections by decapitation. Results showed that GSE attenuated testicular weight loss resulting from EPI treatment. EPI-induced reduction in sperm motility and epididymal sperm concentration as well as increase in total abnormal sperm rates were all normalized in the group pretreated with GSE. Similarly histopathological changes in the testis following EPI administration were effectively reverted by GSE pretreatment. Testicular lipid peroxidation as reflected by malondialdehyde level was significantly more in group C than group B (p< 0.05). Lipid peroxidation in Group B was higher but not significantly different from the control. There was however no significant difference in the plasma testosterone levels in all the groups. We conclude that pretreatment with grapefruit seed extract may attenuate epidoxorubicin-induced testicular toxicity.
  L.C. Saalu , P.I. Jewo , I.O. Fadeyibi and S.O. Ikuerowo
  Experimental animal models have been extensively used to assess the effect of unilateral varicocele on ipsilateral testicular histology and function. There is therefore an enormous body of evidence on the detrimental effects of varicocele on the affected testis. A vacuum however still exists in our knowledge of the effects of unilateral varicocele on the contralateral testicular morphology and function. The present study evaluated the effect of left unilateral varicocele on the right testicular anatomy and physiology in Sgrague-Dawley rats (Rattus norvegicus). Fifty five immature rats were divided into two groups (group A, 45 rats and group B, 10 rats). Group A rats were rendered experimentally varicocelized by the complete ligation of their left main spermatic veins. Group B rats were sham operated to serve as control. Sixteen weeks after varicocele induction, bilateral testicular weight, bilateral testicular volume, bilateral caudal epididymal sperm characteristics, bilateral testicular histomorphometry and fertilizing capacity were all tested. The results show that left testicular weight and volume were significantly lower (p<0.05) than the right testicular weight and volume in varicocelized rats. The right testicular weights and volumes in varicocele rats were however also significantly lower (p<0.05) compared to the testicular weights and volumes of the control group. Further the sperm content and percentage motility were significantly lower (p<0.05) in the left epididymides than the right epididymides of the varicocele rats. However, the caudal epididymal sperm concentration and percentage sperm motility were significantly lower (p<0.05) bilaterally in the varicocele group compared to the control rats. Histomorphological profiles of the groups of animals parallel the sperm parameter findings. Present results indicate a bilateral derangement of testicular morphology and function with unilateral varicocele.
  G.G. Akunna , L.C. Saalu , O.S. Ogunmodede , B. Ogunlade , G.A. Adefolaju and A.J. Bello
  The use of perfumes is becoming increasingly popular in our environment. Attention is therefore understandably being focused on the safety of these perfumes. Hence, this study aimed to determine changes in the anatomical parameters of the liver and the activities of the biomarker enzymes of the liver (alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, alkaline phosphatase and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase) following the exposure of the rats to two popularly used Nigerian made perfumes. Thirty-six Wistar rats were allocated into groups: A, B, C, D, E and F with each group consisting of six rats. Animals in groups C and D were exposed to the first and second perfumes by inhalation respectively for 77 days; animals in groups E and F were exposed to the first and second perfumes by inhalation respectively for a period of 154 days, while groups A and B animals served as the control groups for the periods of 77 days and 154 days, respectively. The rats were sacrificed at the end of each period of exposure after which blood was obtained for enzyme assay and the liver weights, liver volumes, liver weight/body weight ratio were evaluated. The results showed a significant decrease in the animals body weights, liver weights, liver volumes and liver weight/bodyweight ratios in the experimental groups of rats as compared to the control groups. There were also increases in the activities of alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase. It is concluded that these perfumes have a deleterious effect on the rat liver.
  G.G. Akunna , L.C. Saalu , B. Ogunlade and L.A. Enye
  Various commonly-used products have been reported to contain chemicals that could disrupt estrogen and testosterone hormone. As trade secrets, these chemicals are generally listed as fragrance to mask individual identity. In this study, the reproductive implications of two commonly used perfumes (designated as F1 and F2) in Nigeria were carried out. Sixty adult male wistar rats (12-13 weeks old) were randomly divided into four groups (A-F) of ten rats each. Group A and B rats were exposed to 5 mL kg-1 b.wt. of normal saline for 56 days and 112 days, respectively via whole body inhalation. Group C and D rats were exposed to 5 mL kg-1 b.wt. of a fragrance product designated as F1 for a period of 56 days and 112 days, respectively while Group E and Group F rats were exposed to 5 mL kg-1 b.wt. of a designated fragrance product F2 for a period of 56 days and 112 days, respectively. The results obtained from this study showed a significant (p<0.005) decrease in body weight and absolute testicular weight of the rat models exposed to fragrance when compared to the control groups. It was also observed that the concentration, mobility, livability and morphology of spermatozoa from groups C, D, E and F were significantly lower (p>0.005) when compared to values of the control group A and B. Based on the spermiographic evaluation from this study, fragrance materials could have an adverse effect on spermatozoa of the intact male wistar rats.
  L.C. Saalu , P.I. Jewo , O.E. Yama and J.A. Oguntola
  Hydroxyurea (HDU) is approved for reducing the frequency of painful crises and the need for blood transfusions in adults with sickle cell disease who experience recurrent moderate to severe pain. Treatment with HDU is however, associated with known side effects such as cytotoxicity and myelosuppression. In the present study we evaluated the effect of a clinically relevant dose of HDU used in the treatment in sickle cell disease on the seminiferous tubules of rats. Adult male Sprague -Dawley rats were orally treated with 25 mg HDU kg-1 body weight/day for 28 consecutive days. Control rats received the vehicle for HDU which was normal saline 2.5 mL kg-1 body weight. Groups of rats were sacrificed variously on the next day, the 56th and the 112 day after the last dosing with HDU or saline. The testis were recovered, weighed and subjected to histopathology. The gross anatomical parameters assessed included the testicular weights and volumes while stereological parameters estimated includes diameter and cross-sectional area of the seminiferous tubules; number of profiles per unit area and numerical density of seminiferous tubules. The results show that treatment with HDU exhibited significant atrophic degeneration in the seminiferous tubules compared with controls. There was an initial manifestation of progressive worsening of the testicular profiles with passage of time, as the animals sacrificed on day 56 demonstrated greater toxicity than those autopsied a day after day 28. However, the animals sacrificed on day 112 showed some improvement in their testicular profiles, suggesting some degree of self-reversal or recovery of the effect. We conclude that HDU has a deleterious effect on the rat testis even at the clinically relevant dose used in management of sickle cell disease.
  A.M. Akingbade , L.C. Saalu , O.O. Oyebanji , D.A. Oyeniran , O.O. Akande and G.G. Akunna
  This study evaluates the testicular degeneration induced by Rhodinol-based incense using testicular histology, sperm characteristics, as well as testicular oxidative status bio-markers. Twenty four male adult albino rats (10-12 weeks old) weighing 200-230 g were divided into four groups (A, B, C and D) of six rats each. Group A served as the control group and the animals in this group were exposed to 1 g of natural solid air freshner. Groups B, C and D, were exposed to 1, 2 and 3 g of rhodinol-based incense smoke, respectively for 30-40 min every day for 62 days. All the exposures were via whole body inhalation. The animals were sacrificed 24 h after. The results obtained from this study showed a significant (p<0.05) decrease in the gross anatomical parameters of absolute and relative testicular weights in rats exposed to 2 g and 3 g rhodinol based incense when compared to the control group. The rhodinol-based incense exposed groups of rats also demonstrated a reduction of basal seminiferous epithelia, testicular atrophy, germinal aplasia and hypo-spermatozoa formation. Furthermore, there was a statistically significant (p<0.05) decrease in sperm count, sperm motility, normal sperm morphology and a significant (p<0.05) increase in total abnormal sperm morphology in group of animals exposed to 2 and 3 g rhodinol-based incense when compared to the control group. In addition, groups of animals exposed to 2 and 3 g rhodinol-based incense demonstrated a derangement in their oxidative status when compared to the control group as evidence by the significant (p<0.05) decreased in activities of superoxide peroxidase, catalase, glutathione, reduced glutathione and significant (p<0.05) increase malondialdehyde (a product of lipid perioxidation). Taken together, it was concluded that rhodinol-based incense produces testicular derangement in testicular histology, sperm parameters and oxidative status in albino rats. This derangement may be mediated at least in part through the oxidative pathway.
  L.C. Saalu
  The male factor is considered a major contributory factor to infertility. Apart from the conventional causes for male infertility such as varicocoele, cryptorchidism, infections, obstructive lesions, cystic fibrosis, trauma and tumours, a new and important cause has been identified as being responsible for the so-called idiopathic male infertility: oxidative stress. Oxidative Stress (OS) is a condition that occurs when the production of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) overwhelms the antioxidant defense produced against them. In male reproductive pathological conditions, the OS significantly impairs spermatogenesis and sperm function, which may lead to male infertility. Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) known as free radicals are oxidizing agents generated as a result of metabolism of oxygen and have at least one unpaired electron that make them very reactive species. Spermatozoa generate Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) in physiological amounts, which play a role in sperm functions during sperm capacitation, Acrosome Reaction (AR) and oocyte fusion, but they need to be controlled and their concentrations maintained at a level that is not deleterious to the cells. Administration of antioxidants in patients with ‘male factor’ infertility has begun to attract considerable interest. The main difficulty of such an approach is our incomplete understanding of the role of free radicals in normal and abnormal sperm function leading to male infertility. The purpose of the present review is to address the relationship between ROS and idiopathic male factor infertility.
  I.O. Fadeyibi , L.C. Saalu , P.I. Jewo , A.S. Benebo and S.A. Ademiluyi
  The aim of this study is to investigate the histopathological features of the testis of Burns patients where the burns did not involve the perineum. The present study is a case series report of the testicular histopathological changes of adult patients that died from major burns not involving the perineum. All adult male patients that sustained major burns, were managed at Lagos State University Teaching Hospital (LASUTH) and satisfied the inclusion criteria were recruited into the study. Testicular specimens were obtained during the routine postmortem examinations of patients that died from burns. Histological evaluation of the testes was done by light microscopy. There was mild to moderate testicular interstitial oedema with markedly reduced Leydig and Sertoli cells. Cells of the Spermatogenic series were present and of normal appearances. However, cells of the Spermiogenic series were scanty and no mature spermatozoon was observed. These findings show that major burns result in indirect derangement in the testicular morphology.
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