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Articles by Uroko Robert Ikechukwu
Total Records ( 7 ) for Uroko Robert Ikechukwu
  F.C. Nwodo Okwesili , C. Nweje-Anyalowu Paul , E. Joshua Parker and Uroko Robert Ikechukwu
  The study investigated phytochemical, antihyperglycaemic and lipid profile effects of methanol extract fraction of Ricinus comminus seeds in alloxan induced diabetic male Wistar albino rats alloxan. Eighteen mice were used for the lethal dose (LD50) study while 54 Wistar albino male rats were used for the antihyperglycaemic and lipid profile, respectively. The result of the phytochemical analysis showed the richness of the extract in important phytochemicals that could confer some health benefits. The methanol extract fraction had LD50>5000 mg kg–1 b.wt., which indicate that the extract was safe to larger extent. The baseline blood glucose concentration showed non-diabetic glucose level 105.10±4.61 mg dL–1. Diabetes was induced with alloxan monohydrate. Significant decrease (p<0.05) in blood glucose levels in the test animals were observed when compared with positive control. The extract had significant effect on the blood glucose levels and lipid profile of the treated rats closer to that of the standard drug (metformin) with the serum total cholesterol and triacylglycerol levels decreasing significantly (p<0.05) in all test groups relative to positive control. However, serum HDL showed significant increase (p<0.05) in group 4 and 5 when compared with positive control. The results of the study showed that the methanol extract fraction of Ricinus communis seeds exhibited significant antihyperglycaemic activities against alloxan induced diabetes in Wistar albino rats. It suggests that the methanol extract fraction possess bioactive compounds that when properly harnessed could help in improving the health state of diabetic patients.
  Uroko Robert Ikechukwu , Agbafor Amarachi , Uchenna Oluomachi Nancy , Achi Ngozi Kalu , Egba Simeon Ikechukwu , Nweje-Anyalowu Paul Chukwuemaka and Ngwu Ogochukwu Rita
  Background and Objective: Local consumers of whole palm fruit extract claim that it is rich in nutraceutical properties. This claim has not been validated as there is no scientific evidence or data to take back up. This study was designed to investigate in vitro antioxidant activity of the aqueous extracts of palm fruits and their effects on the antioxidant parameters of male Wistar albino rats with a view of improving human health. Materials and Methods: The acute toxicity study was carried out with 18 male Wistar albino mice while 45 male Wistar albino rats were used for the study of the effects on antioxidant parameters. The rats were grouped into 5 groups: Group 1 serving as normal control and received 2 mL kg–1 b.wt., of normal saline. Five rats each in group 2-5 received 100, 200, 400 and 600 mg kg–1 b.wt., of the fresh and fermented extracts of palm fruits respectively for 28 days and the rats were sacrificed on the day 29. The data obtained were statistically analyzed using one way analysis of variance and t-test. Results: The aqueous extracts were relatively safe as their administration resulted to no death or adverse reactions. The extracts possess high total antioxidant capacity, ferric reducing antioxidant power and effectively inhibited lipid peroxidation depicted by low concentrations of thiobarbituric acid and malondialdehyde. In addition, the extracts exhibited a dose dependent increase in percentage inhibition of 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radicals. The extracts caused a dose dependent significant (p<0.05) decrease in catalase activity and significant increase in superoxide dismutase activity of all the rats administered the extracts. Whereas, the fermented extract administration led to significant (p<0.05) dose dependent increase in myeloperoxidase and glutathione peroxidase activity in the rats, the fresh extract caused significant (p<0.05) decrease in myeloperoxidase and glutathione activity of group 2 rats and a dose dependent increase in groups 3-5. Conclusion: These findings suggest that the extracts possess antioxidant properties which could effectively prevent oxidative stress, lipid peroxidation, ameliorate damage and associated health consequences resulting from activity of excess free radicals, if taking in adequate concentration.
  Ogugua Victor Nwadiogbu , Uroko Robert Ikechukwu , Egba Simeon Ikechukwu and Agu Obiora
  Background and Objective: Nauclea latifolia root-bark extracts are used traditionally to treat various diseases. The study investigated phytochemical compositions and effects of methanol extract of Nauclea latifolia root-bark on liver and kidney function parameters of alloxan induced diabetic male wistar rats to understand possible effect it could have on those who use the extract to manage diabetes. Materials and Methods: The acute toxicity study was carried out using 18 male mice while 30 male Wistar albino rats were used to study the effects of the extract on the liver and kidney function parameters using standard analytical methods. The rats were divided into six groups of five rats each with group 1 as normal control, group 2 as the negative that was alloxan induced but not treated, group 3 rats were alloxan induced but treated with 2.5 mg kg–1 body weight glibenclamide . Group 4-6 rats were alloxan induced but treated with 100, 200 and 400 mg kg–1 body weight of the methanol extract respectively for 14 days. The data obtained were statistically analyzed using one way analysis of variance at 95% confidence level. Results: Phytochemical analysis of the extract showed high concentrations of pharmacological active phytochemicals like flavonoids, saponins, proteins, carbohydrate and alkaloids. The acute toxicity study showed that the extract was relatively safe as no death or adverse reactions were observed after extract was administered to the mice. The induction of diabetic condition in rats with alloxan resulted in significant (p<0.05) increase in activities of liver marker enzymes (AST, ALT and ALP) concentrations of total bilirubin, urea, creatinine and serum electrolytes. Treatments with glibenclamide and the methanol extract, respectively showed significant (p<0.05) decreases in the activities of these liver marker enzymes and concentrations of total bilirubin, urea, creatinine and serum electrolytes when compared to the negative control. The effects of the methanol extract were inversely proportional to the dose of the extract administered. Conclusion: The findings of this study suggest that the methanol extract possesses hepatoprotective and pharmacological activities that could promote liver and kidney function and thus, could protect these organs from both endogenous and exogenous stressors.
  Njoku Ugochi Olivia , Nwodo Okwesili Fred Chiletugo and Uroko Robert Ikechukwu
  Background and Objective:Ricinus communis seeds are widely consumed for nutritional and medicinal benefits. This study investigated the effects of Alkaloid-Rich Fraction (ARF) of methanol extract of Ricinus communis seed on inflammatory reactions, immune response and its hepatoprotective potentials on male wistar albino rats challenged with CCl4 in order to maximize its health benefits. Materials and Methods: In vitro study was employed in determining the effect of ARF on the hemolytic activity of complement proteins and immunostimulatory activity. The effects of ARF on immune response and hepatoprotective potentials were carried out using male Wistar albino mice and rats challenged with CCl4 in corn respectively. Results: The ARF of Ricinus communis seed caused significant (p<0.05) increase in the phagocytic index and stimulated phagocytosis in a concentration dependent manner when compared to the control. Complement protein activity significantly (p<0.05) increased hemolysis of the sensitized sheep red blood cells in a concentration-dependent manner when incubated in the ARF indicating that the ARF could be used in prevention of infections associated with complement protein deficiency. A dose dependent significant decrease (p<0.05) in the delayed type hypersensitive response was observed while significant increase (p<0.05) in the primary and secondary antibody titers of the test groups relative to normal control were also observed. However, there was significant decrease (p<0.05) in both primary and secondary titer values when compared to the standard control that received 2.5 mg kg–1 of levamisole. At higher dose of the ARF, aspartate aminotransferase activity significantly (p<0.05) increased when compared with the control. In addition, alanine aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase activities of the treated groups significantly decreased (p<0.05) when compared to positive control indicating that the ARF could maintain liver integrity and functions. Conclusion: The findings of this study suggest that the ARF has hepatoprotective potentials and positive effects on immune system coupled with potentials anti-inflammatory activity that could help the body defense system, fight diseases and pathogenic organisms.
  Uroko Robert Ikechukwu , Sangodare Rose Simon Adeyi , Muhammad Kabir Hadiza and Asadu Chidimma Lilian
  This study evaluates qualitative and quantitative phytochemical properties of Abrus precatorius leaves. The vitamins and therapeutic effect of methanol extract against tetrachloride (CCl4) induced liver damage in male Wistar albino rats. The results of phytochemical and vitamins indicates richness in saponins, tannins, alkaloids and flavonoids with value 30.05±0.22%, while vitamins such as thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, antioxidant and vitamins A, C and E was quantified. The liver damage was observed in the animals with significant increase in ALT, AST and ALP following the in traperitoneal administration of CCl4. The methanol extract caused significant decrease (p<0.05) in the activities of these enzymes in the treated animals relative to positive control that received CCl4 but were not treated. The extract showed potentials to mopping-up of free radicals generated by CCl4. The extract reduced lipid peroxidation in concentration dependent manner. The findings suggests that the extract have the capacity to improving liver functions and liver regeneration at high concentration. The extracts are safe for consumption, abundant phytochemicals and antioxidant vitamins could offer reasonable protections against oxidative stress.
  E. Joshua Parker , Nweje-Anyalowu Paul Chukwuemeka , O.F.C. Nwodo and Uroko Robert Ikechukwu
  The study investigated the effect of methanol extract of R. communis seeds on blood glucose levels, antioxidant enzymes and haematological parameters of alloxan induced male Wistar albino rats. The methanol extract had LD50 value above 5000 mg kg–1 b.wt. After alloxan induction of diabetes, a significant (p<0.05) decrease in blood glucose levels were observed in all the test groups treated with the extract, when compared with positive control (group 2). The extract treated groups showed significant (p<0.05) increase in PCV, Hb, RBC and significant decrease (p<0.05) in WBC counts, when compared with positive control, however, no significant (p<0.05) difference was observed in total serum protein. With exception of group 4, malondiadehyde concentration decreased significantly (p<0.05) in test groups relative to positive control. A concentration dependent increase in glutathione activity in extract treated groups close to metformin treated group was observed when compared with normal and positive controls respectively. At higher concentrations of the extract, superoxide dismutase activity increased significantly (p<0.05) when compared with positive control. At lower concentrations of the extract, catalase activity increased significantly (p<0.05) close to metformin treated group but decreased significantly (p<0.05) with increasing concentrations of the extract close to positive control. The results of the study showed that the methanol extract of RC possess antihyperglycaemic properties and ability to modulate activities of antioxidant enzymes. It also suggests that the extract has positive effect on the haematological parameters.
  Uroko Robert Ikechukwu , Egba Simeon Ikechukwu , Achi Ngozi Kalu , Uchenna Oluomachi Nancy , Agbafor Amarachi , Ngwu Ogochukwu Rita , Nweje-Anyalowu Paul Chukwuemaka and Ogbonna Chisom Esther
  Background and Objective: There is increase in the rate of consumption of aqueous extracts of ripe palm fruits (Elaeis guineensis) by humans in their daily diets but there is little or no toxicological data to support the safety of their consumption. This study investigated the effects of aqueous extracts of palm fruits on liver function indices of male Wistar albino rats with the view of understanding the hepatotoxic potentials of the extracts. Materials and Methods: Acute toxicity study was carried out with 18 male Wistar albino mice. Liver function indices were evaluated using 45 male Wistar albino rats and by following standard analytical protocols. The rats were divided into 5 groups with group 1 having 5 rats only and group 2-5 had 10 rats each. Group 1 rats were the normal control that received 2 mL kg–1 b.wt., of normal saline. Five rats each from group 2-5 received 100, 200, 400 and 600 mg kg–1 b.wt., of the fresh and fermented aqueous extracts of palm fruits, respectively for 28 days. Data was analyzed by one way ANOVA using SPSS. Results: The aqueous extracts were relatively safe as no death or adverse reactions were observed in the mice in 24 h after administration. There were significant (p<0.05) dose-dependent increase in all the liver marker enzymes assayed in all the groups administered the aqueous extracts when compared with the normal control. Total protein concentrations of groups 2 and 3 that received low doses of the fresh aqueous extract of palm fruit decreased significantly (p>0.05) when compared to the normal control. However, groups 4 and 5 that received higher doses of the fresh extract showed significant (p<0.05) increase in total protein and bilirubin concentrations when compared to the normal control. A significant (p<0.05) decrease in albumin concentrations was observed when the extracts were administered to the rats in higher doses, respectively when compared to the normal control. Conclusion: The findings suggest that the fresh and fermented aqueous extracts of palm fruit have little or no toxic effects on liver integrity and functions at very low concentration, however, it could cause significant chronic toxic effects on liver integrity and functions at higher concentrations.
 
 
 
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