Effects of Alkaloid Rich-Fraction (ARF) of Methanol Extract of Ricinus Communis (RC) Seeds on Immune Responses, Inflammatory Reactions and Liver Functions
Njoku Ugochi Olivia,
Nwodo Okwesili Fred Chiletugo
Uroko Robert Ikechukwu
Background and Objective:Ricinus communis seeds are widely consumed for nutritional and medicinal benefits. This study investigated the effects of Alkaloid-Rich Fraction (ARF) of methanol extract of Ricinus communis seed on inflammatory reactions, immune response and its hepatoprotective potentials on male wistar albino rats challenged with CCl4 in order to maximize its health benefits. Materials and Methods: In vitro study was employed in determining the effect of ARF on the hemolytic activity of complement proteins and immunostimulatory activity. The effects of ARF on immune response and hepatoprotective potentials were carried out using male Wistar albino mice and rats challenged with CCl4 in corn respectively. Results: The ARF of Ricinus communis seed caused significant (p<0.05) increase in the phagocytic index and stimulated phagocytosis in a concentration dependent manner when compared to the control. Complement protein activity significantly (p<0.05) increased hemolysis of the sensitized sheep red blood cells in a concentration-dependent manner when incubated in the ARF indicating that the ARF could be used in prevention of infections associated with complement protein deficiency. A dose dependent significant decrease (p<0.05) in the delayed type hypersensitive response was observed while significant increase (p<0.05) in the primary and secondary antibody titers of the test groups relative to normal control were also observed. However, there was significant decrease (p<0.05) in both primary and secondary titer values when compared to the standard control that received 2.5 mg kg1 of levamisole. At higher dose of the ARF, aspartate aminotransferase activity significantly (p<0.05) increased when compared with the control. In addition, alanine aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase activities of the treated groups significantly decreased (p<0.05) when compared to positive control indicating that the ARF could maintain liver integrity and functions. Conclusion: The findings of this study suggest that the ARF has hepatoprotective potentials and positive effects on immune system coupled with potentials anti-inflammatory activity that could help the body defense system, fight diseases and pathogenic organisms.
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