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Articles by I. Ahmad
Total Records ( 12 ) for I. Ahmad
  M. A. Akhtar , I. Ahmad , J. I. Mirza , A. R. Rattu , E-Ul-Haque , A. A. Hakro and A. H. Jaffery
  The national uniform wheat and barley yield trial (NUWYT) 2000-2001 comprised of 33 promising candidate lines (29bread wheat, 1 durum wheat and 3 barley). The trial was grouped into three categories viz, rain fed (12 entries), seeding date (18 entries) and barley (3 entries). These promising lines were evaluated at multilocations in different agro-ecological zones against prevalent pathotypes of leaf and stripe rusts. Out of 33 lines, 10 lines were common to NUWYT 1999-2000, of these lines seven lines (NR-149, 95C004, 91BTO10-5, V-97112, SD1200/14, B96038 and B92044) had desirable/acceptable RRI for leaf rust. As these lines have fulfilled two years testing requirement for leaf rust resistant. So these lines can be recommended in those areas where leaf rust problem. Extremely dry weather prevailed throughout the year, so stripe rust could not develop inspite of artificial inoculations.
  M. Asif , S.Z. Mustafa , M. Asim , N.S.Kisana , M. Y. Mujahid , I. Ahmad and Z. Ahmed
  Thirteen genotypes developed for rainfed areas of Pakistan viz., NR-155, 97C027, SN-6, PR-72, BWL-9736, NR-149, 96R37, DN-14, V-97005, 95C004, NR-178, CHAKWAL-97, SN-16, were evaluated for stability of grain yield under twelve diverse environments. The interaction between the genotypes and environments (G X E interaction) was used as an index to determine the yield stability of genotypes under all the environments. Both predictable (linear) and unpredictable (non-linear) portions of variation were found to be significant indicating equal importance in determining the stability of grain yield. The genotypes "96R37" and SN-16" were the most adapted showing considerable good performance in the entire set of environments under study.
  Yasmin, T. , S. Khalid , M..H. Soomro , S.A. Malik , H. Shah and I. Ahmad
  An attempt was made to investigate host-vector relationship of Banana Bunchy Top Disease. The affinity of different host plants was investigated via black banana aphid (Penlalonia nigronervosai for the transmission of BBTV to Canna (Canna indica), Cucumber (Cucumis sativus), Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum cv. Samsun), Chenopodium (Chenopodium amranticotor) and Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum). The host plants, at 3-4 leaf stage were exposed to viruliferous P. nigronervosa for 24 hours. Similarly four different insect-vectors viz. Aphis gossypii, Myzus persicae, fiophalosiphum padj and BemisSa tsbaci, beside P. nigronervosa were tried for transmission studies under controlled conditions. The vectors were allowed inoculation access period of 24 hours following an acquisition-feeding period of 8-10 days in separate cages on healthy banana. None of the vectors except P. nigronervosa was found to transmit BBTV to banana. Likewise P. nigronervosa was also found restricted to its original host banana for propagation and BBTV transmission.
  Shah, H. , S. Khalid and I. Ahmad
  To ascertain the prevalence and distribution of four major pepper viruses viz. chili veinal mottle potyvirus (CVMV), cucumber mosaic cucmovirus (CMV), tobacco mosaic tobamovirus (TMV) & potato virus Y (PVY). Surveys of chili crop in three major provinces of Pakistan were conducted during 1996-98. At each location 3-5 farmer`s fields were inspected and samples showing virus-like symptoms were collected. A total of 500 samples (200 Punjab, 200 Sindh and 100 NWFP) were collected and tested through direct double antibody sandwich Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (DAS-ELISA). CVMV & CMV appeared as the most prevalent viruses in almost all the surveyed areas. In Sindh, the incidence of CVMV, CMV, TMV, and PVY was 9, 16, 5 and 3.5%, respectively. In Punjab, CVMV appeared as the most important virus (63%) infecting pepper crop in all districts followed by CMV (20%). Co-infection of CVMV and CMV (10%) was recorded in Faisalabad, Multan and Darya Khan. In most CMV positive samples, TMV or CVMV or PVY were also detected (co-infection). In NWFP, CVMV incidence was 50% followed by CMV (17.8%). On the average, survey data showed that CVMV (40.6% incidence) is still the most prevalent virus infecting pepper followed by CMV (17.8%) in these three provinces. PVY was only detected in Sindh (3.5%) and NWFP (6%). TMV was not detected in any place of NWFP and Punjab, but detected in mixed infection in Sindh (5%). Thus there is 19.6% increase in CVMV incidence while frequency of other three viruses remained the same as compared to previous reports.
  Z.I. Qureshi , L.A. lodhi , A. Sattar , I. Ahmad and H. Jamil
  The colostral and seral antibody titre was significantly higher in leavamisole treated group of buffaloes. Other immunopotentiator group differed non significantly.Levamisole hydrochloride can be used effectively along with vaccine in pregnant buffaloes to produce colostral specific antibodies.
  M. A. Khan , Mushabar Zahoor , I. Ahmad , G. Hassan and M. S. Baloch
  The relative efficacy of hand weeding and six herbicides on the yield components and yield of wheat variety Inqalab 91 was studied. Hand weeding and herbicides significantly increased the number of fertile tillers, spike length, number of Spikelets per spike, number of grains per spike, 1000-grain weight, biological yield and grain yield. The herbicides application decreased the weed population. The grain yield corresponded with the weed mortality of the different treatments Buctril-M, Tolkan and Logran produced the highest grain yield and comparable with the hand weeding. Buctril-M was in turn statistically at par with all other herbicidal treatments but it out yielded the weedy check. All other herbicides could not produced higher yield from the weedy check, statistically. It is recommended from the data that Buctril-M is a herbicide of choice for controlling broad leaf weeds spectrum of D.I.Khan area.
  Muhammad Iqbal , K. Ahmed , I. Ahmad , M. Sadiq and M.Y. Ashraf
  The effect of water stress on yield and yield components of two durum wheat varieties was studied at various growth stages, i.e. at vegetative, flowering or grain-filling stage and no stress (control). The decrease in grain yield per plant was more pronounced (72.62 percent) associated with a reduced number of grains per ear (59.62 percent) and 1000-grain weight (31.98 percent) under water stress applied at flowering stage. Stress at grain-filling stage was less effective than at vegetative and flowering stage in both varieties. Variety D-88628 was less affected which showed its adaptability under water stress conditions.
  I. Ahmad , S. Hariyadi and T. Anggraeni
  Last instar larvae of the armyworm, Spodoptera exempta WALKER were given the opportunity to self-select from two defined diets, both complete except that one contained protein (casein) but no digestible carbohydrate (sucrose) and the other contained carbohydrate but no protein. The larvae ate the protein and carbohydrate diets in a ratio of 80:20. In general, the growth and efficiency of food use of the larvae were not significantly different between the self-selectors and that of the controls. When the larvae were provided with a nutritionally complete diet with a protein:carbohydrate (casein:sucrose) ratio of 80:20, 50:50 , or 20:80, they performed best in 80:20 diet, "the self-selected ratio" as compared with the 50:50 diet. The larvae grew very poorly in 20:80 diet, with all nutritional indices significantly inferior as compared to those of 80:20, or 50:50 diets.
  M. Asif , M. Asim , M.Y. Mujahid , S.Z. Mustafa , N.S.Kisana , Z. Ahmed , I. Ahmad and M. Sohail
  Nine genotypes of wheat developed for rainfed areas of Pakistan viz., DN-18, NRL-9822, NR-200, V-99166, 98C013, V-3, PR-72, NR-181 and SN-7 were evaluated for stability of grain yield under seventeen diverse rainfed environments. The interaction between the genotypes and environments (G X E interaction) was used as an index to determine the yield stability of genotypes under all the environments during 2001-02. Both predictable (linear) and unpredictable (non-linear) portions of variation were found to be significant indicating equal importance in determining the stability of grain yield. The genotype V-99166 was the most adapted showing considerable good performance in the entire set of environments under study.
  F. Subhan , M. Anwar , N. Ahmad , A. Gulzar , A. M. Siddiq , S. Rahman , I. Ahmad and A. Rauf
  An experiment was conducted at Cereal Crops Research Institute Pirsabak Nowshera during 2000-01 to study the effect of gamma radiation at the rate of 10, 20 and 30 Krads on growth and yield of barley fertilized with 30,60 and 90 kg ha-1 of nitrogen. Nitrogen was applied in split doses at sowing and tillering stages with 100 kg ha-1 of Single Super Phosphate (SSP) as a basal dose. Nitrogen significantly increased plant height, straw yield, 1000-grain weight and grain yield. The application of 90 kg N ha-1 produced 3875 kg of grain and 13667 kg ha-1 straw yield. Irradiation had positive effects on grain yield with maximum production at the rate of 10 krads of gamma rays. An increase in straw yield was also observed with increase in radiation doses, where maximum straw yield was recorded with 30 krads of radiation. Moreover, spike length and 1000-grain weight were also significantly increased with radiation. The interaction of both variables in most cases was significant with positive relation ships with the characters studied in the experiment.
  L.A. Lodhi , Z. I. Qureshi , F.R. Chohan , J. Iqbal and I. Ahmad
  The present project was designed to study the effect of substitution of buffalo bull seminal plasma with that of cow bull on liveability and fertility of buffalo bull spermatozoa. After collection, semen was divided into three fractions. a) Half of the seminal plasma of buffalo bull was substituted with equal amount of cow bull seminal plasma, b) The seminal plasma of buffalo bull was completely substituted with that of cow bull, c) No substitution was made (control group). The liveability (hrs) of buffalo bull spermatozoa stored at 37°C was significantly higher (p<0.05) in half substituted seminal plasma (21.3) as compared to that in full substituted (8.4) and control groups (13.7). Significantly higher conception rate was observed with half substituted seminal plasma semen samples (65.58) as compared to inseminations with control group (54.4) semen samples.
  S. Abdullah , M.D. Ibrahim , A. Zaharim and I. Ahmad
  This study describes the analysis of fatigue road loading using the Moving Average approaches. Thus, techniques for preserving data associated to the underlying probabilistic properties were introduced. Fatigue damage cumulating is a random variable in essence. The randomness comes from the loading process and fatigue resistance of material. Seldom have models dealing with fatigue damage cumulating considered the co-influence of the two aspects of randomness at the same time. This article has established a probabilistic distribution model of moving average fatigue damage. In the model, the moving average trend can be estimated by smoothing the data to reduce the random variation and randomness at fatigue resistance of material is described by introducing a random variable of a variable amplitude loading sampled at 200Hz. This model can calculate the fatigue damage cumulating distribution after moving.
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