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Articles by A.C. Ene
Total Records ( 11 ) for A.C. Ene
  A.C. Ene , A.A. Gadzama and E.A. Nwankwo
  The prevalence of HIV infection was assessed in about 160 people (healthy and sick) in Maiduguri, Nigeria. Three hospitals were used as the study sites. They are the University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital, chest disease Hospital and TB Hospital all in Maiduguri Nigeria. Medical questionnaires were filled by each of the subjects, before their blood samples were collected. The subjects were divided into four groups i.e., apparently healthy controls (group 1), condition apparently unrelated to HIV disease (group 2), conditions suggestive of early HIV disease (group 3) and conditions indicative of progressive HIV disease (group 4). Forty subjects were allocated to each of the four groups based on the reports from the medical questionnaires. The 160 blood samples (the four groups) were screened for HIV and their results recorded. The percentage HIV infection among the different age groups in the four groups were also recorded. From the results obtained 12.5% of the apparently healthy controls (group 1) were HIV positive, 22.5% of the condition apparently unrelated to HIV disease were positive, 30% of the condition suggestive of early HIV disease were positive and 60% of the condition indicative of progressive HIV disease were also positive. It can be concluded that prevalence of HIV among apparently healthy persons particularly the young, is now very high and some conditions not associated with HIV infection may indeed be the result of HIV infection.
  A.C. Ene , A.A. Gadzama and E.A. Nwankwo
  A.C. Ene , B.B. Ajayi and E.A. Nwankwo
  A.C. Ene , A.A. Gadzama and E.O. Idigbe
  The serum enzymes (i.e., Aspartate and Alanine amino transaminases and Alkaline phosphatase) levels in HIV-1 infected symptomatic/AIDS patients in Maiduguri, North- Eastern Nigeria was studied. The sample population used in this study comprised forty AIDS patients and forty healthy subjects as healthy controls. Five milliliter blood sample was collected by aseptic means after obtaining the consent of the patients and subjects. The two groups were screened for HIV. The 40 AIDS patients were confirmed HIV positive and the forty healthy controls were confirmed HIV negative. The serum enzyme levels in both the AIDS patients and the healthy subjects were assessed by serum assays of Aspartate and alanine amino transaminases and alkaline phosphatase. The results show that there is an elevation in serum enzyme levels in HIV/AIDS patients compared to the healthy subjects. This study is aimed at providing information which will help in managing HIV/AIDS patients.
  L.M. Samdi , S. Oguche , N.B. Molta , I.M. Watila , P.U. Agomo and A.C. Ene
  The prevalence of malaria in 411 severely infants and children aged under 8 years old (6-9 months) was studied by consecutively screening each child for malaria parasites in accordance with WHO (1996) and WHO (2003) methods for a period of 8 months. One hundred and twelve infants and children (27.2%) were positive for asexual malaria parasites. 15.8% were males while 47 (11.4%) were females. Infection rate was not significantly different between the sexes (p>0.05). The level of parasitaemia were significantly related to age (p<0.05) the majority 87 (77.6%) of infected infants and children were between the ages of 12-36 months. 77 (66.1%) had <1000 ap/μl, 7 (6.2%) had 1000-5000 ap/μl while 6 (5.3%) had >5000 ap/μl. During the rainy season 87 (77.6%) had <1000 ap/μl, 7 (14.2%) had 1000-5000 ap/μl while 4 (8.1%) had >5000 ap/μl. During the dry cold season 57 (90.4%) infants and children had < 1000 ap/μl, 1 (1.5%) had 1000-5000, while 5(7.9%) had > 5000 ap/μl. There was a significant difference between the seasons (p<0.05). The low parasite density of <1000 ap/μl in 84% of all the cases confirms the distinctive epidemiology of urban malaria and highlights the need for the use of rapid diagnostic tests in addition to thick blood film microscopy to help reduce the margin of errors in the diagnosis of malaria in the sahel.
  A.C.U. Ezimah , E.A. Nwankwo , G.R.A. Okogun , J.C. Ihongbe , P.A. Onyeyili , A.C. Ene , P.U. Bassi and S.J. Yahaya
  In this case control study, we compared the Total Antioxidant Status (TAS) of two groups of HIV positive persons that consisted of 262 AIDS patients and 158 asymptomatic HIV-antibody positive subjects with a control group of 204 HIV-antibody negative subjects. The mean CD4+ cell counts per cubic millimeter were 187 for the AIDS patients, 495 for the asymptomatic HIV patients and 920 for the control group. TAS levels in mmol L-1 were 0.34 ± 0.08 for AIDS patients, 0.77 ± 0.29 for asymptomatic patients and 1.4 ± 0.13 for controls. The CD4+ counts and TAS showed no gender biases but they differed significantly between the groups; p<0.05. The TAS was progressively depleted in HIV infected persons as the disease progressed from asymptomatic state to AIDS.
  A.C. Ene , M.A. Milala and E.A. Nwankwo
  The effect of different doses of Black caraway oil on the Liver enzymes (i.e., alkaline phosphatase, aspartate amino transferase and alanine amino transferase) of alloxan-induced diabetic rats was studied. Forty white male albino rats of the winster strain weighing between 125-215 g were used. They were divided into eight groups. Diabetes was induced in the experimental rats with alloxan (70 mg kg-1 body weight). Group 1 rats served as the normal control, group II served as the caraway control whereas group III served as the diabetic control. Groups IV to VIII were the test groups. They were administered various doses of caraway oil ranging from 5, 10, 20, 40 and 80 mg kg-1 body weight respectively. The experiment lasted for a period of 10 weeks. The following liver enzymes were assayed: Aspartate Amino Transferase (ASAT), Alanine Amino Transferase (ALAT) and alkaline phosphatase. Histopathology was also done for the liver. The results showed that the levels of the liver marker enzymes were significantly high (p<0.05) in the treatment groups administered with black caraway oil at 20, 40 and 80 mg kg-1 body weight. This is also evident in the histopathological analysis of the liver. Due to the fact that the liver marker enzymes were not significantly elevated at 10 mg kg-1 body weight and also that the histopathology of the liver did not show any sign of tissue damage at that concentration, the black caraway oil is said to be safe at 10 mg kg-1 body weight.
  A.C. Ene , E.A. Nwankwo and L.M. Samdi
  The effect of different doses of Black caraway (Carum carvi L.) oil on the body weights of alloxan-induced diabetic rats was studied. Forty white male albino rats of the Winster strain weighing between 145-240 g were used for this study. Diabetes was induced in the experimental rats with alloxan (70 mg kg-1 body weight). Group 1 rats served as the normal control, group 2 served as the caraway control, whereas group 3 rats served as the diabetic control. Groups 4, 5, 6, 7 and 8 were the test groups. All the test groups were administered various doses of the black caraway oil ranging from 5, 10, 20, 40 and 80 mg kg-1 body weights, respectively. Group 2 (the caraway control) rats were administered 10 mg kg-1 body weight of black caraway oil. The duration of the experiment was 10 weeks. The weights of the animals in each group were recorded daily throughout the duration of the experiment. The blood glucose levels in the different groups were assayed. The results show that the normal control, the caraway control and the diabetic rats treated with 10 mg kg-1 body weight of black caraway oil showed progressive and steady increase in the % mean weekly body weights, while the diabetic untreated rats and the other test groups showed decreasing and alternating increments, respectively in the % mean weekly body weights. The blood glucose level in the 10 mg caraway treatment group was significantly reduced (p< 0.01) compared to the diabetic control and the other treatment groups. This shows that the black caraway oil increases the % mean weekly body weights of the diabetic/non-diabetic rats at a dose not more than 10 mg kg-1 body weight. It can also be inferred that the 10 mg kg-1 body weight of caraway oil is the safe dose that can be used in managing Diabetes mellitus. The information obtained from this study would be used in the management of diabetic patients.
  A.C. Ene , T.M. Adisa , E.A. Nwankwo and P.U. Agomo
  Pregnant mice were examined to determine whether or not they transmitted Plasmodium berghei to their fetuses. On the 14th day of pregnancy, mice were inoculated with approximately 3x106 P. berghei infected red blood cells by intraperitoneal injection. The parasitemia in 20 adult females and 145 neonates was assessed using thin blood films fixed with methanol and stained with 10% giemsa solution. The average parasitemia of females at delivery was 7.5%. Malaria parasites were microscopically confirmed in 8 of the 145 neonates. Maternal parasitemia at the time of delivery was not correlated with the incidence of vertical infection (8.71%). Present study showed that this model may be used to examine vertical transmission of malaria.
  A.C. Ene , D.A. Ameh , H.O. Kwanashie , P.U. Agomo and S.E. Atawodi
  Fifteen plants were screened for in vivo antimalarial activity in albino mice. The plants are Mormodica balsamina, Artemisia maciverae, Xylopia aethiopica, Cyperus articulatus, Guiera senegalensis. Syzygium aromaticum, Zingiber officinale, Thonningea sanguinea, Sorghum sp., Securinega virosa B, Chrozophora senegalensis, Feretia apodanthera, Diospyrous mespiliformis, Centaturea perrottetti and Acacia nilotica Del. The petroleum ether, chloroform and methanol extracts from the various parts of the plants were screened for in vivo antimalarial activity in mice experimentally infected with Plasmodium berghei. Three days after inducing the malaria, the plant extracts were administered intraperitoneally to the mice daily for four days, while chloroquine was used as a standard drug control. Parasitaemia was monitored microscopically in all the groups for four days using thick and thin blood films obtained from tail vein of each mouse. At the end of this study, it was observed that the chloroform extracts of Artemisia maciverae (whole plant), Xylopia aethiopica (fruits) and Acacia nilotica Del (Leaves) have antimalarial activity. The methanol extracts of Syzygium aromaticum (cloves) and Zingiber officinale (tuber stem) showed slight antimalarial activity, while the rest of the plant extracts earlier listed showed no noticeable activity. These results suggest that many plants used as recipes in ethnomedical preparation for malaria, have no direct antimalarial activity.
  A.C. Ene , S.E. Atawodi , D.A. Ameh , H.O. Kwanashie and P.U. Agomo
  The possibility of developing experimental chloroquine resistant Plasmodium berghei NK65 from chloroquine sensitive Plasmodium berghei NK65 was evaluated. Five mice of about 12 weeks old were inoculated with Plasmodium berghei (CQ sensitive strain). Exactly 72 h after inoculation and confirmation of parasitemia, these mice were treated with 10 mg kg-1 body weight (b.wt.) every 48 h for one month. After this period, treatment was withdrawn for one week, following which sub-inoculation was made from each of the five mice to four new mice for each group respectively. Seventy two hours after parasitemia was confirmed in the sub-inoculated mice, two of the four mice in each group were treated with the correct dose of chloroquine, that is, 25 mg kg-1 b.wt. daily for four days, while the rest were not treated. Parasitemia was monitored in all the groups for two weeks using thick and thin smears of blood films made from the tail vein of mice and stained with 10% Giemsa stain at pH 7.2. Two weeks after treatment with 25 mg kg-1 b.wt. dose of chloroquine was stopped, four mice died in the first two groups, while one mouse each died in the remaining three groups. Six of the untreated mice from the replicate groups equally died beyond two weeks, while four survived. At death, the % parasitemia of mice that died were higher than those that survived after 2 weeks. These results suggest that those mice that survived two weeks after treatment with the right dose of chloroquine (25 mg kg-1 b.wt. for 4 days) contained chloroquine sensitive Plasmodium berghei NK65 before they were cleared, while those that had persistence of parasitemia at relatively high level which resulted in their death contained chloroquine resistant Plasmodium berghei NK65. This finding should be of importance in studies involving development of new therapy for chloroquine resistant malaria.
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