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Articles by Y.H. Siddique
Total Records ( 5 ) for Y.H. Siddique
  Y.H. Siddique , G. Ara , S. Jyoti and M. Afzal
  Parkinson’s Disease (PD) is characterized by the progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons. Drosophila mutants and transgenes have provided a platform to understand the mechanistic insight associated with the degenerative disease. In the present study, the effect of capsaicin was studied on the climbing ability of the PD model Drosophila expressing normal human alpha synuclein (h-αS) in the neurons. These flies exhibit locomotor dysfunction as the age progresses. Capsaicin at final concentration of 0.1, 0.5, 0.75 and 1.0 μL mL-1 was supplemented with the diet and the flies were allowed to feed for the 21 days. Capsaicin showed a dose dependent significant (p<0.05) delay in the loss of climbing ability of PD model flies as compared to the untreated PD flies. The results suggest that the capsaicin is potent in delaying the climbing disability of PD model flies and also supports the utility of this model in studying PD symptoms.
  Y.H. Siddique and M. Afzal
  The present review gives the details of the genotoxic studies carried out till date for some selected synthetic progestins. Mutagenicity is defined as a permanent change in content or structure of the genetic material of an organism. A mutagenic hazard can be manifested as a heritable change resulting from germ-line mutations and/or somatic mutations leading to cancer or other chronic degenerative processes such as aging. Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) generated through normal metabolic processes or from toxic products, can lead to a state of oxidative stress that contributes to the pathogenesis of a number of human disease by damaging lipids, protein and DNA. Oral contraceptives have been used since the early 1960s and are now used by about 90 million women world wide. The pill is given as a combination of an estrogen and a progestogen. The estrogen component of combined oral contraceptives is either ethinylestradiol or mestranol and the progestogens used are cyproterone acetate, desogestrol, ethynodiol diacetate, levonorgestrel, lynestrenol, megestrol acetate, norethisterone, norethisterone acetate, norethynodrel, norgestimate and norgestrel. Little is known about the long term health risks and potential protective effects of these individual components. Synthetic progestins induced the genotoxic damage and also various types of cancers, both singly as well as in combination with estrogens. Various synthetic progestins have been tested for their genotoxic effects in different experimental models, using different genotoxic end points. Ethynodioldiacetate, norethynodrel, norgestrel, lynestrenol and medroxyprogesterone acetate were found to be genotoxic only in the presence of metabolic activation supplemented with NADP. Megestrol acetate, cyproterone acetate and chlormadinone acetate were found to be genotoxic in the absence of metabolic activation. On the basis of reports available it is suggested that the progestins in which double bond between carbon-6 and carbon-7 is present, they undergo nucleophilic reaction and generates free radical in the system to show the genotoxic effects and the progestins in which double bond between carbon-6 and carbon-7 is absent, they need metabolic activation like estrogens, such as estradiol-17β and ethinylestradiol to show the genotoxic effects.
  J. Gupta , Y.H. Siddique , T. Beg , G. Ara and M. Afzal
  The aim of this review is to focus some light on the beneficial effects of the tea polyphenols on human health, based on various laboratory, epidemiological and clinical studies carried out on tea and tea polyphenols in the last few years. Tea is second only to water as the most consumed beverage in the world. Tea has been consumed worldwide since ancient times to maintain and improve health. The health benefits associated with tea consumption have resulted in the wide inclusion of green tea extracts in botanical dietary supplements, which are widely consumed as adjuvants for complementary and alternative medicines. Depending upon the level of fermentation, tea can be categorized into three types: green (unfermented), oolong (partially fermented) and black (highly to fully fermented). Black tea represents approximately 78% of total consumed tea in the world, whereas green tea accounts for approximately 20% of tea consumed. Tea is particularly rich in polyphenols, including catechins, theaflavins and thearubigins, which are thought to contribute to the health benefits of tea. Tea polyphenols comprise about one-third of the weight of the dried leaf and they exhibit biochemical and pharmacological activities including antioxidant activities, inhibition of cell proliferation, induction of apoptosis, cell cycle arrest and modulation of carcinogen metabolism. Several studies demonstrate that most tea polyphenols exert their effects by scavenging Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) since excessive production of ROS has been implicated in the development of a variety of ailments including cancer of the prostate gland (CaP). Tea catechins include (-)-epicatechin (EC),(-)-epigallocatechin (EGC), (-)-epicatechin gallate (ECG) and (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG). These catechins have been shown to be epimerized to (-)-catechin (C), (-)-gallocatechin (GC), (-)-catechin gallate (CG) and (-)-gallocatechin gallate (GCG), respectively, during heat treatment. Tea polyphenols act as antioxidants in vitro by scavenging reactive oxygen and nitrogen species and chelating redox-active transition metal ions. Among the health-promoting effects of tea and tea polyphenols, the cancer-chemopreventive effects in various animal model systems have been intensively investigated; meanwhile, the hypolipidemic and antiobesity effects in animals and humans have also become a hot issue for molecular nutrition and food research. In vitro and animal studies provide strong evidence that tea polyphenols may possess the bioactivity to affect the pathogenesis of several chronic diseases, especially cardiovascular disease and cancer. Research conducted in recent years reveals that both black and green tea have very similar beneficial attributes in lowering the risk of many human diseases, including several types of cancer and heart diseases.
  M. Afzal , Y.H. Siddique , G. Ara , T. Beg and J. Gupta
  Mental retardation has been the traditional foothold of psychologists and psychometricians, apart from clinicians and biologists. Nearly 30,000 genes control neurogenetic disorders. While these genes are yet to be explored, their ultimate expression and regulation defies a mechanistic model of behavioural and intellectual deficiency. Mental retardation, therefore, will be a complex problem to be diagnosed and cured. A polygenic theory demands delineating Quantitative Trait Locus (QTL) problem, yet to be formulated among humans. At the molecular level, molecular genetics of neurological disorders have been worked out. Taking from basic roots of neuronal functioning and their integration at various levels of the central nervous system, the mutations of neuronal channelopathies resulting into loss of brain function (seizures, convulsions, epilepsy), uncontrolled muscle movement (ataxia), headache with vomiting and nausea (migraine) have been worked out. The trinucleotide disorders in huntington and mutations in the prion protein causing various types of encephalopathies have been established. Present study touches upon some important areas of mental retardation and psychiatry through history, cutting across diverse disciplines and methodologies and attempts recent developments in the field.
  F. Naz , S. Jyoti , N. Akhtar , M. Afzal and Y.H. Siddique
  Oral Contraceptives (OCs) are the most popular type of birth control pills. The study was designed to examine the biochemical changes which occur due to the use of oral contraceptive pills (OCs). The study was based on the questionnaire for having the information of any reproductive history fasting, age, health, nature of menstrual cycle, bleeding, disease etc and blood profiling for biochemical analysis of the women includes High Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (HDL-C), Low Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (LDL-C), Total Cholesterol (TC) and Triglycerides (TG). Lipid profiling was carried out by using a commercially available diagnostic test kits. SPSS was used to analyze the data. The results showed statistically significant differences among users of OCs compared to non-users. Total cholesterol (242.92±2.842 mg dL-1), HDL-C (58.65±1.098 mg dL-1), LDL-C (115.84±1.266 mg dL-1) and triglycerides (105.56±2.341 mg dL-1) were significantly higher compared to the Non-users (Total cholesterol 218.49±1.762, HDL-C 48.17±0.543, LDL-C 100.32±0.951 and triglycerides 83.77±2.299 mg dL-1). The result suggests that OCs increase the level of High Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (HDL-C), Low Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (LDL-C), Total Cholesterol (TC) and Triglycerides (TG).
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