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Articles by V Vaccarino
Total Records ( 5 ) for V Vaccarino
  V Vaccarino , J Votaw , T Faber , E Veledar , N. V Murrah , L. R Jones , J Zhao , S Su , J Goldberg , J. P Raggi , A. A Quyyumi , D. S Sheps and J. D. Bremner

Background  Major depressive disorder (MDD) is associated with coronary heart disease (CHD), but the mechanisms are unclear. The presence of MDD may increase CHD risk by affecting microvascular circulation. It is also plausible that genetic factors influencing MDD may overlap with those for CHD. We sought to examine the relationship between MDD and coronary flow reserve (CFR), the ratio of maximum flow during stress to flow at rest measured in milliliters per minute per gram of tissue.

Methods  We examined 289 male middle-aged twins, including 106 twins (53 twin pairs) discordant for a lifetime history of MDD and 183 control twins (unrelated to any twins in the experimental group) without MDD. To calculate CFR, we used positron emission tomography with nitrogen 13 (13N) ammonia to evaluate myocardial blood flow at rest and after adenosine stress. A standard perfusion defect score was also used to assess myocardial ischemia.

Results  There was no difference in myocardial ischemia between twins with and without MDD. Among the dizygotic twin pairs discordant for MDD, the CFR was 14% lower in the twins with MDD than in their brothers without MDD (2.36 vs 2.74) (P = .03). This association was not present in the monozygotic discordant pairs who were genetically matched (2.86 vs 2.64) (P = .19). The zygosity-MDD interaction after adjustment was significant (P = .006). The CFR in the dizygotic twins with MDD was also lower than in the control twins.

Conclusions  Our results provide evidence for a shared genetic pathway between MDD and microvascular dysfunction. Common pathophysiologic processes may link MDD and early atherosclerosis.

  V Vaccarino , L Parsons , E. D Peterson , W. J Rogers , C. I Kiefe and J. Canto

Background  Previous studies have shown that women younger than 55 years have higher hospital mortality rates after acute myocardial infarction (MI) than age-matched men. We examined whether such mortality differences have decreased in recent years.

Methods  We investigated temporal trends in the hospital case-fatality rates of MI by sex and age from June 1, 1994, through December 31, 2006. The study population included 916 380 patients from the National Registry of Myocardial Infarction with a confirmed diagnosis of MI.

Results  In-hospital mortality decreased markedly between 1994 and 2006 in all patients but more so in women than men. The mortality reduction in 2006 relative to 1994 was largest in women younger than 55 years (52.9%) and lowest in men younger than 55 years (33.3%). In patients younger than 55 years, the absolute decrease in mortality was 3 times larger in women than men (2.7% vs 0.9%). As a result, the excess mortality in younger women (<55 years) compared with men was less pronounced in 2004-2006 (unadjusted odds ratio, 1.32; 95% confidence interval, 1.07-1.67) than it was in 1994-1995 (unadjusted odds ratio, 1.93; 95% confidence interval, 1.67-2.24). The sex difference in mortality decrease was lower in older patients (P = .004 for the interaction among sex, age, and year). Changes in comorbidity and clinical severity features at admission accounted for more than 90% of these mortality trends.

Conclusions  In recent years, women, particularly younger ones, experienced larger improvements in hospital mortality after MI than men. The narrowing of the mortality gap between younger women and men is largely attributable to temporal changes in risk profiles.

  K. G Smolderen , J. A Spertus , K. J Reid , D. M Buchanan , H. M Krumholz , J Denollet , V Vaccarino and P. S. Chan

Background— Among patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI), depression is both common and underrecognized. The association of different manifestations of depression, somatic and cognitive, with depression recognition and long-term prognosis is poorly understood.

Methods and Results— Depression was confirmed in 481 AMI patients enrolled from 21 sites during their index hospitalization with a Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) score ≥10. Within the PHQ-9, separate somatic and cognitive symptom scores were derived, and the independent association between these domains and the clinical recognition of depression, as documented in the medical records, was evaluated. In a separate multisite AMI registry of 2347 patients, the association between somatic and cognitive depressive symptoms and 4-year all-cause mortality and 1-year all-cause rehospitalization was evaluated. Depression was clinically recognized in 29% (n=140) of patients. Cognitive depressive symptoms (relative risk per SD increase, 1.14; 95% CI, 1.03 to 1.26; P=0.01) were independently associated with depression recognition, whereas the association for somatic symptoms and recognition (relative risk, 1.04; 95% CI, 0.87 to 1.26; P=0.66) was not significant. However, unadjusted Cox regression analyses found that only somatic depressive symptoms were associated with 4-year mortality (hazard ratio [HR] per SD increase, 1.22; 95% CI, 1.08 to 1.39) or 1-year rehospitalization (HR, 1.22; 95% CI, 1.11 to 1.33), whereas cognitive manifestations were not (HR for mortality, 1.01; 95% CI, 0.89 to 1.14; HR for rehospitalization, 1.01; 95% CI, 0.93 to 1.11). After multivariable adjustment, the association between somatic symptoms and rehospitalization persisted (HR, 1.16; 95% CI, 1.06 to 1.27; P=0.01) but was attenuated for mortality (HR, 1.07; 95% CI, 0.94 to 1.21; P=0.30).

Conclusions— Depression after AMI was recognized in fewer than 1 in 3 patients. Although cognitive symptoms were associated with recognition of depression, somatic symptoms were associated with long-term outcomes. Comprehensive screening and treatment of both somatic and cognitive symptoms may be necessary to optimize depression recognition and treatment in AMI patients.

  J. L Schnipper , C. L Roumie , C Cawthon , A Businger , A. K Dalal , I Mugalla , S Eden , T. A Jacobson , K. J Rask , V Vaccarino , T. K Gandhi , D. W Bates , D. C Johnson , S Labonville , D Gregory , S Kripalani and for the PILL CVD Study Group

Background— Medication errors and adverse drug events are common after hospital discharge due to changes in medication regimens, suboptimal discharge instructions, and prolonged time to follow-up. Pharmacist-based interventions may be effective in promoting the safe and effective use of medications, especially among high-risk patients such as those with low health literacy.

Methods and Results— The Pharmacist Intervention for Low Literacy in Cardiovascular Disease (PILL-CVD) study is a randomized controlled trial conducted at 2 academic centers—Vanderbilt University Hospital and Brigham and Women’s Hospital. Patients admitted with acute coronary syndrome or acute decompensated heart failure were randomly assigned to usual care or intervention. The intervention consisted of pharmacist-assisted medication reconciliation, inpatient pharmacist counseling, low-literacy adherence aids, and tailored telephone follow-up after discharge. The primary outcome is the occurrence of serious medication errors in the first 30 days after hospital discharge. Secondary outcomes are health care utilization, disease-specific quality of life, and cost-effectiveness. Enrollment was completed September 2009. A total of 862 patients were enrolled, and 430 patients were randomly assigned to receive the intervention. Analyses will determine whether the intervention was effective in reducing serious medication errors, particularly in patients with low health literacy.

Conclusions— The PILL-CVD study was designed to reduce serious medication errors after hospitalization through a pharmacist-based intervention. The intervention, if effective, will inform health care facilities on the use of pharmacist-assisted medication reconciliation, inpatient counseling, low-literacy adherence aids, and patient follow-up after discharge.

Clinical Trial Registration— Identifier: NCT00632021.

  A Goyal , C. R Norton , T. N Thomas , R. L Davis , J Butler , V Ashok , L Zhao , V Vaccarino and P. W. F. Wilson

Studies on the incidence and predictors of heart failure (HF) are often restricted to elderly persons or identify only inpatient cases.

Methods and Results—

We determined the incidence and predictors of new HF diagnosed in either outpatient or inpatient settings, among 359 947 women and men (age ≥18 years) insured by Kaiser Permanente Georgia at any time during calendar years 2000 to 2005. Subjects were free of HF at baseline, and incident HF was identified with ICD-9 codes (1 inpatient or 2 outpatient HF visits). We developed multivariable Cox models to assess the association of antecedent factors (coronary heart disease, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, atrial fibrillation, and valvular heart disease) with incident HF. Separate models were created for each sex and for newly diagnosed HF in outpatient or inpatient settings. There were 4001 incident HF cases (50% women and 48% in subjects <65 years old), during 1 015 794 person-years of follow-up. The incidence rate of HF was greater in men than in women (4.24 versus 3.68 per 1000 person-years) but was stable across the study interval in both sexes. Two thirds of incident HF cases from this population occurred in outpatients. These 5 antecedent factors and age yielded excellent discrimination for incident HF in both outpatients and inpatients and in both sexes (C >0.85 in all models).


Common modifiable risk factors accurately discriminate women and men at risk for HF diagnosed in either outpatient or inpatient settings. Approximately two thirds of new HF cases in our insured population were diagnosed in outpatients; more research is needed to characterize these subjects and their prognosis.

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