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Circulation: Cardiovascular Quality and Outcomes
Year: 2009  |  Volume: 2  |  Issue: 4  |  Page No.: 328 - 337

The Association of Cognitive and Somatic Depressive Symptoms With Depression Recognition and Outcomes After Myocardial Infarction

K. G Smolderen, J. A Spertus, K. J Reid, D. M Buchanan, H. M Krumholz, J Denollet, V Vaccarino and P. S. Chan    

Abstract:

Background— Among patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI), depression is both common and underrecognized. The association of different manifestations of depression, somatic and cognitive, with depression recognition and long-term prognosis is poorly understood.

Methods and Results— Depression was confirmed in 481 AMI patients enrolled from 21 sites during their index hospitalization with a Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) score ≥10. Within the PHQ-9, separate somatic and cognitive symptom scores were derived, and the independent association between these domains and the clinical recognition of depression, as documented in the medical records, was evaluated. In a separate multisite AMI registry of 2347 patients, the association between somatic and cognitive depressive symptoms and 4-year all-cause mortality and 1-year all-cause rehospitalization was evaluated. Depression was clinically recognized in 29% (n=140) of patients. Cognitive depressive symptoms (relative risk per SD increase, 1.14; 95% CI, 1.03 to 1.26; P=0.01) were independently associated with depression recognition, whereas the association for somatic symptoms and recognition (relative risk, 1.04; 95% CI, 0.87 to 1.26; P=0.66) was not significant. However, unadjusted Cox regression analyses found that only somatic depressive symptoms were associated with 4-year mortality (hazard ratio [HR] per SD increase, 1.22; 95% CI, 1.08 to 1.39) or 1-year rehospitalization (HR, 1.22; 95% CI, 1.11 to 1.33), whereas cognitive manifestations were not (HR for mortality, 1.01; 95% CI, 0.89 to 1.14; HR for rehospitalization, 1.01; 95% CI, 0.93 to 1.11). After multivariable adjustment, the association between somatic symptoms and rehospitalization persisted (HR, 1.16; 95% CI, 1.06 to 1.27; P=0.01) but was attenuated for mortality (HR, 1.07; 95% CI, 0.94 to 1.21; P=0.30).

Conclusions— Depression after AMI was recognized in fewer than 1 in 3 patients. Although cognitive symptoms were associated with recognition of depression, somatic symptoms were associated with long-term outcomes. Comprehensive screening and treatment of both somatic and cognitive symptoms may be necessary to optimize depression recognition and treatment in AMI patients.

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