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Articles by T. Arai
Total Records ( 4 ) for T. Arai
  Y. Okada , K. Kawasumi , N. Mori , I. Yamamoto and T. Arai
  Obesity is associated with the metabolic syndrome, diabetes, hypertension and chronic inflammation and early detection of weight gain and prompt intervention are the keys to promoting increased quality of life and longevity in veterinary animals. We evaluated the changes in Malate Dehydrogenase (MDH), Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH) and MDH/LDH ratio as energy metabolism markers in dogs before and after the 4-week overfeeding trial. The acute weight gain was attained by overfeeding of 2x Daily Energy Requirement (DER) separated into 3 meals/day (overfed group). The experimentally overfed dogs showed about 28.2% increase in the Body Weight (BW), the increase of Body Condition Score (BCS) from 1.9-3.4 and significant elevations were noted in Triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), glucose (GLU) alkaline phosphatase (ALP), Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN), leukocyte MDH and LDH. Although not significant, both the plasma MDH and LDH activities decreased, whereas leukocytic MDH and LDH activities increased in the overfed group after the feeding trial. Both the resultant plasma and leucocytic M/L ratios showed mild increase in the over-fed group after the feeding trial. In conclusion, assays of MDH, LDH and M/L ratio on plasma and leukocytes are not sensitive as diagnostic tools for detecting acute weight gain. The diagnostic significance of the above mentioned parameters should be further examined on various types of weight gain and target tissues.
  Y. Okada , K. Kawasumi , M. Koide , Y. Hirakawa , N. Mori , I. Yamamoto and T. Arai
  Background: Aging is generally associated with alterations in physical activity, weight status and energy metabolism, which predisposes aged individuals to metabolic syndrome. In this manuscript, age effects on energy metabolic indicators of similar physical activity and weight status but of varying ages were investigated. Materials and Methods: Energy metabolic indicators, such as plasma adiponectin, leukocytic AMP-activated protein kinase, plasma malate dehydrogenase and lactate dehydrogenase along with common plasma metabolites, were measured in healthy young (AV = 7.1 years) and aged (AV = 14.1 years) riding horses of similar physical activity, diet and weight status. Malate dehydrogenase and lactate dehydrogenase ratio was also calculated as the indicator of energy metabolism. Results: Plasma adiponectin concentration and leukocytic AMP-activated protein kinase activity in aged horses were significantly lower than those in young horses (p<0.05, Mann-Whitney U test). Although not significant, energy metabolism indicators, malate dehydrogenase, lactate dehydrogenase and their ratio were lower in aged group when compared to those of young group. Conclusion: The present results indicate the decline in energy metabolism with aging in healthy horses even without any visible changes in adiposity. Such changes reflect dysfunction of energy metabolism and predispose the aged individuals to the development of metabolic syndrome.
  K. Kawasumi , Y. Hirakawa , P. Lee , N. Mori , I. Yamamoto , T. Arai and F. Terasawa
  In this study, plasma glucose and lipid concentrations and cholesterol lipoprotein profile were measured and compared in 5 captive bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus), 6 Thoroughbred riding horses and 12 lactating Holstein cows. Plasma glucose concentrations of cows (71.36±5.05 mg dL-1) were significantly lower than those of dolphins (107.00±16.20 mg dL-1) and horses. Plasma TG concentrations of dolphins (22.80±8.70 mg dL-1) were demonstrated significant difference compared to horses and cows (14.33±5.28 and 8.14±1.46 mg dL-1), respectively. Total cholesterol concentrations of horses (73.50±2.88 mg dL-1) were significantly lower than those of dolphins (195.20±61.20 mg dL-1). Furthermore, NEFA values of dolphins (0.32±0.12 mEq L-1) were demonstrated significant difference compared to horses and cows (0.04±0.02 and 0.09±0.03 mEq L-1, respectively). All animals showed HDL-cholesterol dominant patterns in plasma and dolphins and horses showed clear LDL-cholesterol peak which was lower than HDL-cholesterol.
  K. Kawasumi , T. Suzuki , M. Fujiwara , N. Mori , I. Yamamoto and T. Arai
  Researchers attempted to establish temporary criteria to detect hyperlipidemia at early stage in dogs. To verify the usefulness of the criteria, researchers investigated plasma Glucose (GLU) Triglyceride (TG), Total Cholesterol (TC) and Non-Esterified Fatty Acid (NEFA), Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT) and insulin levels as diagnostic markers in 38 clinically healthy dogs. Hyperlipidemia dogs were detected based on the any two of the following three factors, namely elevated the TG, TC and NEFA levels. In addition, measurement of raised insulin levels, the dogs were diagnosed as hyperlipidemia with insulin resistance. Based on these criteria, nine (23.7%) of 38 dogs were diagnosed as hyperlipidemia. In these dogs, plasma TG, NEFA and insulin levels were significantly higher than those in the control dogs without hyperlipidemia (n = 29).
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