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Articles by Souravh Bais
Total Records ( 7 ) for Souravh Bais
  Souravh Bais , Renu Kumari and Yash Prashar
  Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia worldwide, characterized as a progressive and irreversible neurodegenerative disease. It is probably caused by complex interactions among multiple genetic, epigenetic and environmental factors. The pathophysiology of AD is largely represented by the neurotoxic events triggered by the proteins like β-amyloid cascade and the hyper phosphorylation of microtubule associated tau proteins and other copathogens in neurons. These processes lead respectively to the formation of neurotic plaques and neurofibrillary tangles which are the pathological hallmarks of the disease. Last 20 years extensive study was done to search (through the internet, books, journals and software’s) available data to elaborate the current update on Alzheimer’s disease. The available data related to etiology, pathophysiology, molecular pathway, traditional cure and available treatment of AD were discussed throughout this study. This study will provide an enough data to various academicians regarding current pharmacological, non-pharmacological interventions, ethnopharmacological treatments and other relevant data related to AD. Due to in availability of proper cure for this disorder and much of the treatment available has been able only delay the progression of the disease or provide symptomatic relief for a short period of time. So much more targeted approach should be discovered to resolve the complications. Arise due to tau proteins and further study on amyloids in underway.
  Souravh Bais and Naveena Abrol
  Amentoflavone is a polyphenolic compound present in various plants including Ginkgo biloba, Chamaecyparis obtusa (hinoki), Hypericum perforatum (St. John’s Wort) and Xerophyta plicata. It mainly shows its antagonist activity at κ-opioid receptor and at the allosteric benzodiazepine site of the GABA (A) receptor as a negative allosteric modulator. Its boiling point is 910.00-911.00°C at 760.00 mmHg (est) and melting point is more than 572°F. It occurs in solid state and weight is 538.46. Its chemical formula is C3OH18O10 and molar mass is 538.45 g moL–1. Amentoflavone is analytically observed by various spectroscopical parameters i.e., HPLC, TLC, paper chromatography. Structural determination can be done by UV, NMR and IR parameters. Amentoflavone shows various molecular mechanisms i.e., phosphodiesterase inhibition, muscular strength, acetylcholinesterase inhibition, inhibition of PTP1B, weak vasodilation and also inhibit fatty acid synthesis.
  Kangtao , Yangqian and Souravh Bais
  Background and Objective: Recent studies have revealed that monoamine oxidase-B (MAO-B) inhibitors effective in treating Alzheimer’s disease (AD), with a promotable extension of life span. It modulates nitric oxide (NO), which contribute to cognitive function in AD. The present study investigated the potential of protocatechuic acid (PCA) as MAO-B inhibitor and its effect on release of MAO, TNF-α, acetylcholine esterase enzyme, in cognitive dysfunctions associated with experimental dementia in rats. Materials and Methods: Aluminium chloride (AlCl3) was administered at a dose of 175 mg kg–1 per oral (p.o) for a period of 25 days in rats and then divided into different groups, i.e. standard group, negative control and two groups of PCA, (at a dose of 10 and 20 mg kg–1, p.o.), where these groups treated and observed until the 35th day of experimental trial. Morris water mazes (MWM), photoactometer test were performed on 5th, 16th, 26th and 36th day to access learning, memory and ambulatory movements. Later, the animals were sacrificed for biochemical and histopathological studies. Extent of oxidative stress was measured by estimating the levels of Glutathion (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), nitrite, catalase. Brain acetylcholine esterase activity and MAO-A, MAO-B were also estimated. The brain levels of TNF-α was measured as marker of inflammation. Results: AlCl3 produced a marked decline in MWM performance and ambulatory movements’ of animals, reflecting impairment of memory and learning. PCA treatment significantly modulates AlCl3 induced memory deficits, biochemical and pathological alterations. Conclusion: The findings demonstrated that the memory restorative ability of PCA may be attributed due to its anti-cholinesterase, anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory potential.
  Yonglin Zhu , Xiaoxiao Li , Weiqin Yang , He Jia , Chunling Liu , Yash Prashar and Souravh Bais
  Background and Objective: Macrotyloma uniflorum (MU) is claimed to be used in treatment of depression traditionally, in ayurveda, siddha and unani medicine. Also, the role of MU has potential source in curing depression is still unexplored. The present study was designed to evaluate the ethanolic extract of Macrotyloma uniflorum (EEMU) in experimental models of depression in rats. Materials and Methods: In the present study, phytochemical screening, including Thin-Layer Chromatography (TLC) and High-Performance Thin-Layer Chromatography (HPTLC) was performed to confirm the presence of isoflavone, daidzein, genisteins in standardized EEMU. The EEMU was screened at two doses (200 and 400 mg kg–1/p.o), based on acute toxicity study in rats. Each dose of EEMU was given to rats twice a day. Antidepressant activity was accessed by force swim test, tail suspension test and potentiation of nor-epinephrine toxicity. The duration of study was 1 week for all four groups. Antioxidants parameters like Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances (TBARs), Reduced Glutathione (GSH) and nitrite/nitrate level were also accessed in brain homogenate to check the oxidative defence of EEMU extract. Results: The extract showed the presence of daidzein, genistein in EEMU. Further, study indicates that EEMU at doses (200 mg kg–1/p.o.) and (400 mg kg–1/p.o.) increase the mobility levels in rats as compared to control group. The treatment of rat with EEMU at a dose of (400 mg kg–1/p.o.) produced significant decrease in the levels of TBARs, nitrite/nitrate contents and increases the level of GSH that revealed the antioxidant nature of the extract. Conclusion: The antidepressant activity of EEMU due to its antioxidant and tyrosine kinase inhibiting nature.
  Shuyuan Wang , Shujing Wu , Souravh Bais and Ruihua Hou
  Background and Objective: Anxiety is an emotional state with imbalance of neurotransmitters like Gamma Amino Butyric Acid, serotonin and leads to feeling of discomfort, concern or fears to define or undefined objects/situation. The aim of present study was to evaluate the potential effect of Lagenaria sicereria extracts in various models of anxiety in rats. Materials and Methods: Three well established models (Elevated Plus maze, Light Dark and social interaction in rats) were selected for evaluation of anxiety in rats. The protocol was designed by giving drugs for seven days and various behavioral parameters like Time spent in the open and closed arm, No. of entries in each arm, Latency, Time spent in light and dark compartment, No. of crossings, Immobility, Sniffing, Crawling and Aggressive behaviors were evaluated on 1st, 3rd and 7th day of study. The rats were treated at two doses (250 and 500 mg kg–1, p.o.) of methanolic extract of Lagenaria sicereria (MELS) leaf. The dose selections were based on acute toxicity study in mice. The standard drug, Fluoxetine (10 mg kg–1, p.o.) were also given to compare its beneficial effects in anxiety. At the end of an experiment, all animals were subjected to dissection and serotonin and GABA levels were determined in brain tissues. Results: MELS was found to possess a therapeutic effect against anxiety disorder. The Rats treated with 500 mg kg–1, p.o. showed significant changes in behavioral and mobility in all three models during experiment. Conclusion: From the present findings, it was concluded that MELS extracts poss significant anxiolytic effects in rats and its due to modulation of GABA and serotonin level in brain tissues of rats.
  Qinghua Chen , Xuemei Chen , Zhenshuai Fu , Souravh Bais and Xunyao Hou
  Background and Objective: Amnesia is one of the major complications associated with memory loss in the patents of neurodegenerative disease like Alzheimer’s disease (AD). The present study investigated the potential of Leea indica extract in amnesia of Alzheimer’s type induced in by scopolamine rats. Materials and Methods: Scopolamine was administered at a dose of 3 mg kg1, i.p. (One time before and after to study anterograde and retrograde amnesia) to rats for four days and then divided into different groups. Group I considered as control, Group II as Negative control, Group III animals represented Piracetam (120 mg kg1, i.p.) treated group and Group IV were administered the dose of 500 mg kg1 (p.o) of methanolic extract of Leea indica (MELI), followed by scopolamine after 45 min. All the animals after 30 min of scopolamine administration were subjected to morris water maze test. On last day of trial, all animals were dissected and subjected to estimate different biochemical estimations like superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase. AchE, TNF-α and mono amine oxidase (MAO-A and MAO-B) were also estimated. Results: Scopolamine produced a marked decline in escape latency time and increased the TNF-α in both retrograde and anterograde amnesia and also effect on various other biochemical parameters of brain and brain tissues. The MELI act as MAO-B inhibitor and effected on TNF-α, acetylcholine esterase enzyme, in cognitive dysfunctions associated with experimental amnesia in rats. The MELI and Piracetam treated animal showed reduction in AchE and elevation SOD and catalase in retrograde and anterograde amnesia. Conclusion: So this study concluded that MELI significantly modulated the induced memory deficits, biochemical alterations.
  Yanxin Zhao , Dong Wang , Souravh Bais and Hongxin Wang
  Background and Objective: Alzheimer disease is one of the common types of dementia, which involves progressive neuronal cell's degeneration. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the in vitro anti-choline esterase activity of four phenyl propanoids derivatives (Eugenol, Gallic acid (GA), Sinapic acid and Scopolin) and evaluation of Eugenol in AlCl3 induced dementia in rats. Materials and Methods: The four phenyl propanoids derivatives (Eugenol, Gallic acid (GA), Sinapic acid and Scopolin) were evaluated for in vitro anti-choline esterase activity. For in vivo screening the rats were treated with aluminum chloride at a dose of 175 mg kg–1, for a period of 25 days to produce dementia. Then rats divided in 4 different groups and further evaluated for 10 days of treatment , i.e., Negative control, Standard group and one group received sub maximal dose of rivastigmine along with Eugenol (1.25 mg kg–1 p.o+ 50 mg kg–1 Eugenol, p.o) and other group received Eugenol (50 mg kg–1, p.o) alone. All rats were observed until the 35th day of experimental protocol. The different behavioral and biochemical parameters like GSH, TBARS and Nitrite level were also determined. Neuro-protective activity of eugenol against neuro inflammation produced by AlCl3 was accessed by estimations of two pro inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β) in brain tissues. Results: Rats treated with aluminum chloride (175 mg kg–1, p.o.) produced a significant decline in behavioral and biochemical parameters in rats. The rats treated with Eugenol showed significant reversal of memory deficit Dementia of AD type. Conclusion: The study concluded that Eugenol had a synergistic effect with rivastigmine when used in combination and showed neuro protection against AlCl3 induced dementia of AD type in rats and modulates the neuro inflammation produced by AlCl3.
 
 
 
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