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Articles by S. Ignacimuthu
Total Records ( 11 ) for S. Ignacimuthu
  P. Subash-Babu , S. Ignacimuthu and P. Stanely Mainzen Prince
  The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of Hyponidd, a herbomineral formulation and its effect on key enzymes of glucose metabolism and lipid metabolism in STZ-induced diabetic rats. Female Wistar rats with a body weight of 180-200 g were used in this study. The rats were divided into seven groups of six rats each after the induction of STZ-diabetes: normal rats; normal rats given Hyponidd (200 mg kg 1 b. wt.); diabetic control; diabetic rats given Hyponidd (50 mg kg 1 b. wt.); diabetic rats given Hyponidd (100 mg kg 1 b. wt.); diabetic rats given Hyponidd (200 mg kg 1 b. wt.); diabetic rats given glibenclamide (600 µg kg 1 b. wt.). After 45 days of treatment, fasting blood glucose, plasma insulin, serum and tissue carbohydrate metabolizing enzymes and lipid profiles were determined in normal and streptozotocin induced-diabetic rats. Oral administration of Hyponidd for 45 days resulted in significant (p<0.05) reduction in blood glucose, serum and tissue glucose-6-phosphatase, fructose-1, 6-bis phosphatase, total cholesterol, triglyceride and free fatty acids level. At the same time there was a significant increase in the levels of plasma insulin, hexokinase and HDL cholesterol in streptozotocin induced-diabetic rats. The effect of Hyponidd was compared with an oral hypoglycaemic agent, glibenclamide. Present study shows, that Hyponidd significantly restored the altered carbohydrate and lipid metabolism by exerting a beneficial action against secondary complications associated with diabetes mellitus.
  S. Antony Ceasar , M. Ayyanar and S. Ignacimuthu
  An improved protocol was developed for the micropropagation of Plumbago zeylanica L. from nodal explants. The best response of shoot induction was observed on Murashige and Skoog (MS) basal medium supplemented with 1.0 mg L-1 thidiazuron (TDZ) and 1.0 mg L-1 Kinetin (KN). The regenerated shoots rooted best on half strength Murashige and Skoog basal medium containing 1.0 mg L-1 indole-3-butyricacid (IBA). In vitro propagated plants were transferred to soil with 90% survival rate. The in vitro obtained plants did not show any detectable morphological variation compared to the normal plants. This system will help in the mass production of Plumbago zeylanica and other medicinally important plants.
  S. Raveendar and S. Ignacimuthu
  Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain LBA4404 carrying binary vector pCAMBIA1305.1, with a hygromycin phosphotransferase gene (hpt) and a β-glucuronidase (GUS) gene interrupted with an intron, was used for transformation of Vigna unguiculata cotyledonary node explants. High concentration of acetosyringone (200 μM) in the Agrobacterium culture and co-cultivation medium with 1 g L-1 L-cysteine, 250 mg L-1 Na-thiosulphate and 150 mg L-1 dithiothretiol (DTT) proved to be indispensable for successful transformation. Three days old cotyledonary nodes were used for transformation studies. Binary vector pCAMBIA 1305.1 proved to be very efficient for transformation. Stable transformation with 1.61% efficiency was achieved using optimized conditions. Transformed green shoots were rooted on medium containing hygromycin. Transformed shoots tested positive for hpt gene by polymerase chain reaction. GUS activity was detected in cotyledonary nodes and leaves of the putative transformants. Southern analysis of putative transformants showed the integration of hpt into the plant genome.
  S. Ignacimuthu and P. Kannan
  A new Agrobacterium-mediated transformation system was developed for pearl millet using shoot apex explants, conferring resistance to leaf blast disease by inserting a rice chitinase (chi11) gene. Transgenic pearl millet lines (Pennisetum typhoides (L.) R.Br.) expressing rice chitinase gene with high levels of resistance to rust pathogen, Puccinia penniseti, were developed using Agrobacterium-mediated gene transfer method. The emryogenic calli derived from shoot apex of CO9 cultivar were transformed with LBA4404 (pSB1/pKAN-Rchit1.1) that harboured rice chitinase gene (chit11) under the control of maize ubiquitin (Ubi 1) promoter intron. Transgene (chit 11) in the middle of the T-DNA as used as probe in southern analysis. Out of six independent T0 plants tested for southern, three had single copy T-DNA insertions and three had two copies T-DNA insertions. All the six T0 plants carried complete T-DNA with the chitinase transgene. A segregation ratio of 3:1, reflecting T-DNA insertion at a single locus, was observed in the progeny of all the T0 plants which showed normal Mendelian pattern of transgene segregation. Western blot analysis of T1 plants revealed constitutive expression of chitinase at high levels. Bioassays of T1 plants indicated enhanced resistance to the rust pathogen, P. penniseti, in comparison to control plants. This is the first report on Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of pearl millet and first transgenic pearl millet with fungal resistance. This study underpins the introduction of numerous agronomically important genes into the genome of pearl millet in the future.
  V.M. Chakkaravarthy , T. Ambrose , S. Vincent , R. Arunachalam , M.G. Paulraj , S. Ignacimuthu and G. Annadurai
  The aim of the present investigation is to test the larvicidal activity of Azadirachta indica (A. Juss) and Datura metel (Linn.) leaf extract against the third instar larvae of C. quinquefasciatus (Say) (Diptera: Culicidae). A. indica and D. metel leaf extracted by hexane and chloroform extract method at various concentrations. The hexane extract of A. indica and D. metel at 62.5, 125, 250, 500 and 1000 ppm were showed 24, 36, 55, 64 and 72.50% mortality where second one shows 9, 17.50, 30, 42 and 57% mortality, respectively. The chloroform extract of A. indica was showed 12, 48.50, 56.50, 73 and 87% mortality where D. metel shows 13.75, 27, 32, 47 and 62% mortality respectively. The hexane and chloroform extract of A. indica and D. metel had significant larvicidal effect with LC50 values were 246.38, 198.82, 709.96 and 562.07 ppm respectively. At 24 h post-treatment against late third instar larvae, the chloroform extracts of A. indica and D. metel were found to be more effective than hexane extracts and caused a larval mortality of 87 and 62%, respectively at 1000 ppm concentration. The larvicidal effect of A. indica and D. metel against C. quinquefasciatus make these plant products are potential alternative to synthetic insecticide in mosquito control plans.
  M.G. Paulraj , A.D. Reegan and S. Ignacimuthu
  The larvicidal, pupicidal and knockdown effects of benzaldehyde, propionic acid and their blend (1:1 ratio) were evaluated against Aedes aegypti (Linn.) and Culex quinquefasciatus (Say) mosquitoes in laboratory trials to find out the possibilities of using these compounds in mosquito control programmes. Larvicidal and pupicidal activities were tested at six different concentrations and mortality was recorded after 48 h. Knockdown bioassay was performed inside a cage at single concentration. Lethal concentrations (LC50 and LC99) and knockdown time (KT50 and KT99) were calculated. Benzaldehyde treatment killed maximum larvae and pupae and its knockdown effect was also significantly high. LC50 values of benzaldehyde for Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus were recorded as 30.39 and 40.48 ppm, respectively. Fifty % populations of Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus were knocked-down in 9.44 and 12.08 min, respectively by benzaldehyde treatment. Knocked-down Ae. aegypti adults could not recover from the fumigant effect of benzaldehyde treatment and 100% adult mortality was noticed within 24 h. Hundred percent mortality of knocked-down Cx. quinquefasciatus was recorded in both benzaldehyde and propionic acid treatments. The blend of benzaldehyde and propionic acid (1:1 ratio) was not as effective as benzaldehyde treatment. Ae. aegypti larvae were more susceptible than Cx. quinquefasciatus to all the three treatments tested. But the adult stage of Ae. aegypti was less susceptible to propionic acid treatment than Cx. quinquefasciatus. The aromatic compound benzaldehyde can be used in mosquito control programme.
  A.R. War , M.G. Paulraj and S. Ignacimuthu
  Indiscriminate use of synthetic insecticides for insect pest management has resulted in many harmful effects like, insect resistance, effects on the beneficial organisms etc. There is a need to use alternative methods for insect pest control to reduce the frequency of insecticides utilized for pest management. Furthermore, there is now more emphasis on the ban of endosulfan due to its relatively higher toxicity to non-target organisms. Series of experiments were conducted to find out the synergistic activity of a neem oil formulation with endosulfan against Spodoptera litura. Antifeedant activity and effect on detoxifying enzyme activities, viz., esterase and Glutathione-S-Transferase (GST) were studied. Antifeedant activity was studied by no-choice method using castor leaf discs. Esterase and GST activities were estimated spectrophotometrically. Antifeedant activity was significantly greater (85.34%) in neem oil formulation+endosulfan (endosulfan 0.01% and neem oil formulation 1% at 1:1 ratio) treatment than in individual treatments. Esterase activity was significantly lower and GST activity slightly higher in neem oil formulation+endosulfan (endosulfan 0.01% and neem oil formulation 1% at 1:1 ratio) treatment. A considerable influence of the combined treatment was observed on esterase and GST activities. Present study reveals that using little amounts of synthetic insecticides along with neem oil could be effective in controlling insect pests. Therefore, this neem oil formulation could be used as a synergist with endosulfan to reduce the quantity of synthetic insecticides for insect pest control.
  A. Jeyasankar , N. Raja and S. Ignacimuthu
  Impact of new crystal compound 2, 5-diacetoxy-2-benzyl-4, 4, 6, 6-tetramethyl-1, 3-cyclohexanedione on feeding physiology, developmental indices and quantitative changes in haemolymph protein on the larvae of armyworm, Spodoptera litura was studied. The novel compound was isolated from the leaves of medicinal plant, Syzygium lineare. The percentage of feeding physiology parameter such as Consumption Index (CI), Growth Rate (GR), Approximate Digestibility (AD), Efficiency of Conversion of Digested Food (ECD) and Efficiency of Conversion of Ingested Food (ECI) and weight gained by the larva was decreased significantly (p<0.05 by LSD). The developmental indices such as time taken for pupation, pupal weight, adult longevity, eggs laid per moths and the percentage of egg hatchability were also decreased significantly (p<0.05 by LSD) compared to control. Statistically significant (p<0.05 by LSD) reduction in total haemolymph protein was recorded at 100 ppm concentration of crystal compound treated larvae. This compound has potential to serve as an alternative botanical pesticide in the management of agricultural important filed insect pests.
  C. Muthu , K. Baskar , S. Kingsley and S. Ignacimuthu
  Antifeedant and larvicidal activities of hexane, chloroform and ethyl acetate extracts of Clerodendrum phlomidis and Flueggea leucopyrus at 5, 2.5, 1.0 and 0.5% were studied against III instar larvae of Earias vittella. Hexane extract of F. leucopyrus and chloroform extract of C. phlomidis showed maximum antifeedant activity of 81.00 and 80.48%, respectively at 5% concentration. The least LC50 and LC90 values of 1.21 and 1.36% for hexane extract of F. leucopyrus and 4.96 and 5.11% for chloroform extract of C. phlomidis, respectively. Cent percent larvicidal activity was observed in chloroform extract of C. phlomidis at 5% concentration, while hexane extract of F. leucopyrus recorded at 87.52 and 5% concentration. The LC50 and LC90 values for larvicidal activity ware 0.51 and 1.74% for chloroform extract of C. phlomidis and 1.74 and 4.69% for hexane extract of F. leucopyrus, respectively. No adult emergence was observed at all concentrations of C. phlomidis chloroform extract and at 5 and 2.5% concentrations of F. leucopyrus hexane extract. The chi-square values for both antifeedant and larvicidal activities were significant. The results clearly indicated that chloroform extract of C. phlomidis and hexane extract of F. leucopyrus could be exploited to develop a new pesticidal formulation for eco-friendly pest management.
  S. Vimalanathan , S. Ignacimuthu and J.B. Hudson
  In order to evaluate the potential of medicinal plants of Tamil Nadu as sources of antiviral activities, we used seven different viruses to evaluate the methanol extracts of 30 plants, derived from 22 families and recognized for their local medical applications. Antiviral activity was the minimum concentration of extracts required to completely inhibit viral cytopathic effects (CPE), i.e., MIC100 values. Many extracts showed strong activities against Herpes simplex virus (HSV) and mouse corona virus (MCV, the surrogate for human SARS virus). Some extracts were also active against influenza virus and Sindbis virus (SINV, surrogate for hepatitis C virus), but fewer were active against the non-membrane viruses feline calicivirus (FCV, the surrogate for Norovirus), rhinovirus (common cold virus), and poliovirus. The most potent extracts (low MIC100 and broad spectrum of activity) were obtained from Gymnema sylvestre R. Br. (Asclepiadaceae), Pergularia daemia (Forsskal) Chiov. (Asclepiadaceae), Sphaeranthus indicus L. (Asteraceae), Cassia alata L. (Caesalpiniaceae), Evolvulus alsinoides L. (Convolvulaceae), Clitoria ternatea L. (Fabaceae), Indigofera tinctoria L. (Euphorbiaceae), Abutilon indicum G. Don. (Malvaceae), Vitex trifolia L. (Verbenaceae), Clerodendrum inerme (L.) Gaertn (Verbenaceae), and Leucas aspera Spr. (Lamiaceae), which showed anti-MCV and anti-HSV activities at a concentration as low as 0.4 μg/mL. In some cases the activities were enhanced by light, suggesting the presence of photosensitizers. Some of these antiviral activities could contribute to the medicinal properties of the plants, and also provide more support for the concept of scientific validation of traditional plant medicines in the fight against infectious diseases.
  M. Saravanan , P. Pandikumar , N. Prakash Babu and S. Ignacimuthu
  Context: Ichnocarpus frutescens (L.) R.Br. (Apocynaceae) is used to treat diabetes and hyperlipidemia in folk medicine. Objective: The crude methanol extract and fractions of I. frutescens were investigated for antihyperlipidemic effect. Materials and methods: Fresh leaves of I. frutescens were extracted with methanol and fractionated with hexane, benzene, ethyl acetate, acetone, and methanol. The active acetone fraction was subfractionated, which resulted in active fraction 3. The antihyperlipidemic effects of the methanol extract and fractions of I. frutescens were studied in triton WR-1339-induced and high-fat diet (HFD) obese animals. Further, lipid absorption and excretion were studied. Results and discussion: The methanol extract significantly reduced total cholesterol (TC) by 29.63% and triglyceride (Tg) by 51.10% at 400 mg/kg in triton WR-1339-induced animals and significantly reduced TC (27.81%) and Tg (37.03%) at 400 mg/kg in HFD animals. Fraction 3 showed significant reduction in TC (25.03%) and Tg (58.05%) at 200 mg/kg. Feeding of HFD consisting 3% of fraction 3 increased feces weight and Tg level in mice. Fraction 3, showed significant decrease in plasma Tg level at the second hour, after oral administration of the lipid emulsion to rats. Conclusion: The observed properties apparently validate the folk medicinal use of this plant in amelioration of hyperlipidemia.
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