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Articles by N. Huda
Total Records ( 20 ) for N. Huda
  N. Huda , Y.H. Shen , Y.L. Huey , R. Ahmad and A. Mardiah
  The aim of the study was to evaluate the physico-chemical properties of commercial beef meatballs. A total of six samples of beef meatballs from different manufacturers were analyzed for proximate composition, mineral content (Ca and Na), color and textural analysis. The proximate analysis showed that there was a significant (p<0.05) difference among the samples. There was a large variation in the Ca and Na content in commercial beef meatballs. Significant differences among the samples’ colors (L, a, b values) were also observed. All samples were significantly different in terms of the folding test, but not significantly different in terms of hardness, except for one sample that had a high hardness value. The study revealed showed that there were variations in the nutritional values as well as the textural properties in Malaysian beef meatballs produced by different manufacturers.
  F. Adzitey , C.Y. Liew , A.P. Aronal and N. Huda
  The conventional method was used to isolate Escherichia coli from ducks and duck related samples. The samples were obtained from a wet market and two duck farms. The average occurrence of Escherichia coli was 78.00% and was highest in duck faeces (87.93%), followed by duck intestines (81.25%), soil (70.83%) and wash water (50.00%) samples. The prevalence in Farm B (90.45%) was higher than in Farm A (80.33%). The occurrence of Escherichia coli did not differ significantly (p>0.05) among the samples examined. In addition, most of the isolates belongs to the serotype O517 (82.44%) and biotype 1 (82.44%). The study indicates that ducks like other farm animals are primary reservoirs for Escherichia coli including potential pathogenic types and the opportunity for cross contamination and consequently foodborne poisoning or illness exists through the consumption of contaminated food.
  N. Huda , I. Ismail and R. Ahmad
  The study was envisaged to determine the effect of washing processes (unwashing and a single washing) and addition of palm oil (0, 3 and 6%) on the proximate compositions and physicochemical properties of the duck sausages. Washing was carried out at meat to water ratio of 1:1 (w/v). Samples with higher oil levels demonstrated significantly higher fat content and at the same evidence showed lower moisture and protein contents. Treated samples were lighter after washing, while their yellowness value increased with fat content. In regards to texture profile analysis, samples with lower levels added oil had higher values for hardness and shear force and the microstructure of the samples became less porous after washing. It can be concluded that, quality characteristics of sausages were affected by washing processes and oil addition.
  I. Ismail , N. Huda and A. Fazilah
  Invention of surimi technology in poultry meat processing can provide a new approach toward increasing its value and utilization. Surimi technology is an effective method to remove fat, connective tissue, pigment, flavor components and soluble protein. Approaches to improve the quality of poultry surimi can be adopted from the process innovations in fish surimi processing. Research has shown that cryoprotectants have a marked effect on the preservation of the functionality of poultry myofibrillar protein. As poultry meat possesses good animal protein quality as well as lower fat and saturated fatty acid contents than those of red meat, there is a higher potential of poultry meat to be a surimi replacer. However, further studies of non-chicken poultry surimi (duck, turkey and quail) are necessary in the future due to the limited information available on the use of these types of meat as surimi replacers.
  A. Syuhairah , N. Huda , Z.A. Syahariza and A. Fazilah
  Objective: The effects of incorporation of vegetables (30, 40 and 50%) in chicken sausage formulations were examined. Methodology: The five selected vegetables used were capsicum, carrot, spinach, purple cabbage and grey oyster mushroom. A total of 16 samples included control were prepared and analyzed for pH, cooking loss, water holding capacity, textural properties (hardness, springiness, cohesiveness, gumminess, chewiness and Warner-bratzler) color and sensory evaluation. Results: The results revealed that 14 samples had the range of 4.0-5.0 score for folding test. The pH, cooking loss and water holding capacity was affected significantly (p<0.05) by the different formulations of sausages. Samples with higher vegetable levels demonstrated significantly lower values in hardness and Warner-bratzler. The color of sausages varied significantly among samples due to the differences in the original color of vegetables. The sensorial evaluation results demonstrated that sausages with capsicum, carrot and oyster mushroom gave significant overall acceptability as compared to control. Conclusion: In general, the study suggested that vegetables can be valuable to the modification of sausage formulations particularly in the case of quality as well as consumer acceptability.
  N. Huda , A.A. Putra and R. Ahmad
  In the present study, two different samples of buffalo skin crackers were analyzed for their chemical composition, linear expansion, specific volume, color and amino acid content. The method of analysis is according to official method. The results indicated that both buffalo skin cracker samples had high protein content and that pre-fried skin crackers contained more protein than fried skin crackers. The expansion parameters of the buffalo skin crackers indicated that the sample that was lighter in weight, of smaller size and of lower moisture content expanded more during frying. According to amino acid data, the most common amino acid in the buffalo skin crackers was glycine. Chemical score, amino acid score and amino acid index were calculated from the amino acid data; these results indicated that the quality of protein in the buffalo skin crackers was lower than that of meat. Skin crackers have higher protein content but lower protein quality than common meat products in the market. The attendance of this cracker was diversifying the meat-based food products.
  B. Ikhlas , N. Huda and I. Noryati
  Quail meatballs using different types of flour were analyzed for their proximate composition (moisture, protein, fat, ash and total carbohydrate) and physicochemical properties (cooking yield, moisture retention, fat retention, juiciness, folding test, color, texture profile analysis and sensory qualities). Meatballs were produced using 65% quail meat, 3% flour (cassava, corn, wheat, sago and potato flour), 3.2% soy protein isolate, 10% palm oil, 2.1% salt, 2% sugar, 0.9% mixed spices and 13.8% cool water. The proximate composition of the quail meatballs produced was comprised of 64.94-66.33% moisture, 13.43-14.47% protein, 10.32-13.77% fat, 2.30-2.95% ash and 4.80-7.67% carbohydrates. The cooking yield was highest for the quail meatball formulation using potato flour (98.97%), followed by the yields of formulations using, cassava (97.99%), sago (97.46%), corn (91.06%) and wheat flour (91.00%). Folding test scores were in the range of 3.50-4.67. Lightness (L*) was in the range of 66.06-69.10, redness (a*) was in the range of 1.79-2.25 and yellowness (b*) was in the range of 17.75-17.98. The analyzed texture profiles were significantly different (p<0.05). The hardness of the quail meatballs using potato flour was highest (10.08 kg), followed by the hardness of formulations using wheat (9.18 kg), corn (9.08 kg), sago (8.45) and cassava flour (7.90). The sensory evaluation of the quail meatballs generally produced a moderate score (5) on a 7-point hedonic scale. The sensory score showed that quail meat can be successfully used in the manufacture of meatballs as an alternative to other meats such as beef and chicken, using different types of flour. Cassava flour is one of the best formulations produced and is the most acceptable.
  A.A. Putra , N. Huda and R. Ahmad
  In the process of manufacturing duck meatballs, three different fillers (corn, sago and cassava) are used as representatives of grain, root and palm sources of fillers. Different stages of duck meatball processing, such as dough, pre-heating and heating, were analyzed to further the research on the manufacturing process of duck meatballs. In this study, the nutritional contents, physicochemical characteristics and sensory attributes are collected. In general, there were no significant differences (p>0.05) among the fillers in the characteristics that we examined. However, there were significant differences (p<0.05) among the different stages of the processing. After preheating and heating, the moisture contents were significantly increased (p<0.05) and the increase in moisture content directly caused other nutrient components to decrease. The pH, lightness, texture, cooking yield, moisture retention, diameter and folding test results were increased (p<0.05) after the preheating and heating stages. Cassava treatment showed a significant higher (p<0.05) in the terms of aroma of the final products meanwhile other sensory attributes were not significantly different (p>0.05). Sensory evaluation for overall acceptability showed that all treatments were acceptable.
  A.P. Aronal , N. Huda and R. Ahmad
  The amino acid and fatty acid profiles of the breasts and thighs of Peking and Muscovy ducks were analyzed in this study. Amino acid profiles were performed in duplicate and fatty acid profiles were performed in triplicate. The chemical score, amino acid score and essential amino acid index were calculated from the amino acid profiles, whereas the SFA, MUFA, PUFA, ω3, ω6 and ω6:ω3 ratio were calculated from the fatty acid profiles. In general lysine and methionine were the highest EAA found in Pecking and Muscovy ducks, whereas their methionine contents were relatively higher than in other poultry meat. Muscovy meat possesses a higher (p<0.05) chemical and amino acid score compared to Peking duck meat. No significant difference (p>0.05) in the EAA index was observed between different body parts and different species. The concentration of the fatty acid C18:1ω9 was the highest observed in both Peking and Muscovy duck species. The SFA of Muscovy breast was significantly higher (p<0.05) than that of Peking breast. The MUFA of Muscovy was significantly higher (p<0.05) than that of Peking duck, both in breast and thigh cuts; moreover, the MUFA of Muscovy thigh was significantly higher (p<0.05) compared to that of Muscovy breast. The PUFA of Muscovy breast was significantly lower than that of Peking breast. Both Peking and Muscovy ducks meats show high protein quality and are good sources of fatty acids for human consumption.
  N. Huda , E.K. Seow , M.N. Normawati and N.M. Nik Aisyah
  Duck feet collagen was extracted using 5% lactic acid and examined for their physicochemical properties (chemical composition and amino acid, yield, pH and swelling percentage, color and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy). Chemical composition of duck feet collagen such as moisture, protein, fat and ash content was 5.85, 29.11, 35.43 and 28.60%, respectively. 17 amino acids were detected in duck feet collagen and included 20.46% glysine, 7.73% hydroxyproline and 10.24% proline. The yield of collagen obtained from this treatment was 28.37%. The collagen extracted was light in color with a pH 2.67 (soaking period) and the swelling percentage was 240.50%. Duck feet collagen (DC) possessed similar bands (Amide A, Amide I, Amide II and Amide III) with commercial Fish Collagen (FC) and commercial Cow Collagen (CC) for the FTIR.
  I. Ismail , N. Huda and F. Ariffin
  The quality characteristics of duck sausages prepared using different treatment were evaluated. Physicochemical, sensory and microbial properties of sausages containing duck surimi-like material substitution with cryoprotectant added (CPP) and without cryoprotectant added (NPP), antioxidant added (BHA) and, duck mince (as the control, CON) were compared. CPP and NPP sample had significantly higher (p<0.05) moisture content and lower protein and fat content compared with CON sample. The thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) value of all sample increased as the storage time increased up to day 30, but thereafter it decreased in all of the samples. CPP sample had significantly lower TBARS value (p<0.05) and this value remained lower than those of the other samples throughout the refrigerated storage time. Addition of duck surimi-like material to the sausages had significant effects (p<0.05) on hardness, gumminess and chewiness values of CPP and NPP sample. Treatment had no significant effect on sensory attributes of sausages prepared from duck meat. CPP sample had lower microbial activity during 40 days of refrigerated storage. However, BHA sample had no significant difference in microbial activity compared with CON sample. The results indicate that duck surimi-like material substitution with cryoprotectant added improves quality characteristics of duck sausages during refrigerated storage than the other treatments.
  A. Frederick and N. Huda
  The gram-negative bacteria and member of the family Enterobacteraceae is one of the most important causes of human food-borne illnesses in recent times. These pathogens may occur naturally in the gastrointestinal tract of poultry and sometimes in eggs through transovarian transmission. A number of factors have contributed to the spread of Salmonella in poultry. Among these are stocking densities of poultry farms, poultry feeds, farming activities, mice, wild animals, transportation of live birds to slaughter houses, slaughtering of live birds and processing of poultry carcasses into processed finished products. Lesser concerned area is the association between Salmonellas, poultry house environments and feeds and the significant role they may play to integrate other factors in contributing to the spread of Salmonella in poultry. Furthermore, techniques for isolating and identifying Salmonella species in poultry house environments and feeds are crucial for reliable reporting purposes to reduce the spread of Salmonella by poultry thus the objective of this study.
  F. Adzitey , N. Huda , G.R.R. Ali and C.S. Manuel
  A total of Five Listeria-like strains were isolated from ducks and the environment in Penang, Malaysia between 2009 and 2010. These strains were small Gram-positive rods, utilize dextrose, esculin and maltose and fitted well into the description of Listeria spp. 16S ribosomal RNA sequence analysis confirmed a close phylogenetic similarity (99 bootstrap value) to Listeria sp. 102, Listeria fleischmannii LU2006-1 and Listeriaceaec bacterium TTU M1-001 and a more distant relationship to other Listeria spp. The five Listeria-like strains also harboured the virulence-associated gene, hlyA (haemolysin gene). Plasmid DNA band sizes ranged from 2.1-25 kb and were detected in all isolates. All the isolates were susceptible to ampicillin and nitrofurantoin, but resistant to cefotaxime nalidixic acid and tetracycline. Genotyping by amplified polymorphic deoxyribonucleic acid (RAPD), Enterobacterial Repetitive Intergenic Consensus (ERIC) and repetitive extragenic palindromic (REP) grouped the Listeria-like strains into four similar types at a coefficient of 0.63. This study draws attention to the emerging importance of foodborne pathogens and the need for monitoring changes in antibiotic resistance patterns so that efficient risk and control management strategies can be developed.
  N. Huda , R.S. Dewi and R. Ahmad
  Commercial smoked fish from two species of Catfish (Macrones nemurus and Cryptopterus micronema) were purchased from local markets and analyzed for their proximate composition, color and amino acid profile. Proximate analysis showed that there were significant differences (p<0.05) among the samples. Smoked Macrones nemurus showed higher fat contents and lower protein contents compared to smoked Cryptopterus micronema. The protein and fat contents of Macrones nemurus were 32.25 and 32.06%, respectively and they were 38.81 and 8.02%, respectively for Cryptopterus micronema. Color analysis showed that there were no significant differences among the samples. The color range of L (lightness), a (redness) and b (yellowness) values of the samples were 40.12-41.59, 5.84-6.28 and 20.79-21.74, respectively. The samples showed the presence of essential amino acids. Smoked Cryptopterus micronema fish showed a higher chemical score, amino acid score and essential amino acid index compared to smoked Macrones nemurus fish. The chemical score, amino acid score and essential amino acid index for smoked Cryptopterus micronema fish were 70.81, 100.00 and 83.18, respectively and were 69.57, 85.69 and 77.62 for Macrones nemurus. Generally, these results showed that the quality characteristics of smoked fish are influenced by the fish species, smoking process or other factor. However the smoking process did not cause a reduction in protein quality.
  Herpandi , N. Huda and F. Adzitey
  Fish gelatin is an important alternative gelatin which can be considered as Halal and acceptable by all religions. It is made from fish by-products of which fish skin is the most widely used part. The collagen and gelatin-like property of fish bones and scales coupled with their readily availability make it a potential source for development into gelatin products. This review discusses the potentials for the development and utilization of fish bones and scales in the production of gelatins. It also looks at the raw materials, processes, properties and the improvement of fish gelatins for future commercial use.
  N. Huda , O.H. Leng and R. Nopianti
  The aim of the study was to determine the influence of different levels of polydextrose (0, 3, 6, 9 and 12%) in maintaining the physicochemical properties of threadfin bream surimi during 16 weeks of frozen storage. The analysis of these effects included the studying the changes in gel strength, gel whiteness, juiciness, folding, water-holding capacity, protein solubility and the pH level of the surimi. The cryoprotective effectiveness generally increased with the increase in polydextrose content. The highest gel strength, water-holding capacity and protein solubility were maintained by 12% of polydextrose at 83, 94 and 83%, respectively; moreover, 32% of the moisture in juiciness was lost and an average gel whiteness of 76.33 was maintained over 16 weeks of storage. These values are measured against those of 0% polydextrose and surimi with 0.3% sodium trypolyphosphate. The addition of 6% polydextrose can maintain the gel strength, water-holding capacity and protein solubility at 82, 97 and 78%, respectively, lose 28% of moisture in juiciness and produce an average gel whiteness of 78.15. However, higher levels of polydextrose result in a larger extent of reduction in gel whiteness due to the Maillard reaction. Therefore, a 6% level of polydextrose was determined to be the optimal level for the cryoprotection of surimi.
  N. Huda , R. Abdullah , P. Santana and T. A. Yang
  This study investigated the effect of five different dryoprotectants (sucrose, sorbitol, polydextrose, palatinose and trehalose) to protect protein of surimi powder during the drying process. Threadfin bream (Nemipterus japonicus) surimi powders treated with five different dryoprotectants and a control without dryoprotectant were produced using the oven-drying method at 60±5°C and their functional properties were compared. Treated surimi powders contained 74.80-75.34% protein which was lower than that of the control (88.60%). In contrast, the carbohydrate content of treated surimi powders (13.06-14.83%) was also higher than that of the control (0.01%). Treated surimi powders exhibited better emulsification, foaming properties and protein solubility in 3% NaCl compared to the control. However, there was no significant difference in water holding capacity among treated samples and the control (p>0.05). Overall, this study found that the addition of trehalose provided the best dryoprotective effect, followed by palatinose, sucrose, polydextrose and sorbitol.
  Herpandi , N. Huda , A. Rosma and W.A. Wan Nadiah
  The goal of this study was to optimize enzymatic hydrolysis of the dark flesh of skipjack tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis). Alcalase 2.4 L® was used as the hydrolytic enzyme at various concentrations (1, 1.5, 2, 2.5 and 3% w/w) at pHs from 6 to 10, temperatures from 35 to 75°C and times of 2 to 6 h. The experiment was performed following a five-level second-order central composite design with six replications at the center points. The high coefficients of determination for degree of hydrolysis (R2 = 0.8909) and free tryptophan content (R2 = 0.9732) indicate the suitability of the design for predicting the responses. The optimum hydrolytic conditions predicted by the response surface methodology were 2% Alcalase® at pH 8.86 and 65.4°C for 5.74 h. These conditions resulted in an experimental degree of hydrolysis of 20.74% and free tryptophan content of 102.23 mg kg-1.
  N. Huda , Y. Fatma , A. Fazillah and F. Adzitey
  Serunding (shredded meat) is one of the traditional meat based-product popular among Malaysians. Eight commercial serunding prepared using beef, chicken and fish as raw material were collected from markets and analyzed to determine their chemical composition, colour and sensory characteristics. The results showed that moisture, fat and protein contents were within the range of 8.60-13.56, 3.20-31.14 and 19.86-30.15%, respectively. Serunding ayam or shredded chicken was the lightest in colour followed by serunding daging or shredded meat and serunding ikan or shredded fish. Sensory evaluation showed that panelists preferred shredded fish with darker colour. However there was no significant difference between the overall acceptability for shredded meat and chicken.
  N. Huda , T.L.J. Alistair , H.W. Lim and R. Nopianti
  Five brands of Malaysian commercial fish sausages were analyzed for proximate and physicochemical properties. The proximate contents showed significant differences (p<0.05) among the samples. The protein and fat contents ranged from 8.18-10.77% and 0.93-6.53%, respectively. There were significance differences (p<0.05) among the fish sausages in the lightness value. A folding test showed no significant differences among the fish sausages, with all samples receiving the highest score. Hardness, elasticity, cohesiveness, gumminess, chewiness and shear force were significantly different (p<0.05) among the samples. This study showed that physicochemical properties among the sample were relatively different, but most of the samples fulfilled the requirements of a good-quality sausage.
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