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Articles by Muhammad Iqbal
Total Records ( 16 ) for Muhammad Iqbal
  Mahmood-ul-Hassan , Taj Muhammad , Saeed Ahmad , Muhammad Iqbal , Abdul Karim and Muhammad Yousaf Akhtar
  To explore N- use efficiency of MNH554 a tetraploid cotton (Gossvpium hirsutum L.) in relation to various irrigation regimes, a three year project was launched in 1998 under agro-ecological conditions prevailing at Multan. The experiment was seeded in the open field during the normal growing season, with pure and true to type seed of variety MNH554. Four nitrogen doses and three irrigations regimes were applied to the crop. In addition, the crop had also received 56 kg P ha-1 and 55 kg K ha-1 as a basal dose. Growth and development characteristics comprising of height of the plant, number of mature bolls per plant, boll weight, yield of seed cotton and ginning outturn were studied. Plant height, bolls per plant, boll weight and yield of seed cotton registered a positive and significant response to increasing doses of nitrogen and irrigation. On an average of three years, the maximum yield of 4105 kg ha-1 of seed cotton was obtained by 168 kg N ha-1 with seven irrigations, well distributed throughout the growth and development period. Nitrogen and irrigation application did not improve the ginning outturn, rather it ensued a slight drop.
  Mahmood-ul-Hassan , Muhammad Nasrullah , Muhammad Zaffar Iqbal , Taj Muhammad , Muhammad Iqbal and Saghir Ahmad
  An experiment was conducted to assess the effect of sowing date on two cotton varieties MNH552 and MNH554 grown on Ist April, 15th April, Ist. May, 15th May, Ist. June, 15th June, Ist. July and 15th July during 1998 and 1999 under Multan conditions. 15th May and Ist June sown cotton displayed significantly maximum seed cotton yield of 2998 and 2883 kg ha-1 in 1998 and 4027 and 3894 kg ha-1 respectively in 1999 as compared to 595 and 253 kg ha-1 (1998) and 1269 and 223 kg ha-1 (1999) from crop sown on Ist and 15th July respectively. The increase in both sowing dates in seed cotton yield was associated with boll weight and bolls per plant. On average of two years data 15th May produced highest seed cotton yield of 3513 kg ha-1, whereas the lowest figure was 238 kg ha-1 (15th July). Comparing varietal performance MNH552 (2310 kg ha-1) yielded higher as compared to MNH554 (2288 kg ha-1). However two cultivars declined the yield in late planting.
  Mahmood-ul-Hassan , Taj Muhammad , Muhammad Nasrullah , Muhammad Iqbal , Abdul Nasir and Inamul-Haq
  To investigate the effect of split application of nitrogen on cotton yield and its components for medium stapled commercial cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) variety MNH554, a field trial was carried out at Cotton Research Station, Multan during 1998 to 2000. Ten nitrogen levels viz., 0, 56, 84, 112, 112, 140, 168, 168, 196 and 224 kg N ha-1 were tested in Randomized Complete Block Design having three replications. Nitrogen was applied in split doses at planting. Ist irrigation, flowering and boll fermentation. 56 kg P2O2 ha-1 was also applied as a basal dose . N168 kg ha-1 proved superior over others when split applied in three equal doses i.e., 56, 56, 56 kg N ha-1 at Ist irrigation, flowering and boll formation stages. This produced a significant increase in plant height, bolls per plant, boll weight and seed cotton yield. On the average of three years 168 kg N ha-1 gave 212.8% increase in seed cotton yield over O.N.
  Muhammad Iqbal , M. Zafar Iqbal , Rao Sohail Ahmad Khan and Khezir Hayat
  A trial was conducted at Cotton Research Station, Multan for three years (2001 to 2003) to compare developmental characteristics, quality traits, yield and its components among thirty two obsolete and modern varieties of Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L). To verify the experimental results, historical data (1986 to 2003) of seed cotton yield, GOT and Staple length of top three high yielding lines was collected from National Coordinated Varietal Trials (NCVT) conducted in Multan region. Significant differences among varieties for node of first fruiting branch, monopodial branches per plant, days taken to first flower and ginning out turn percentage were exhibited. NCVT data showed that among varieties recommended for general cultivation since 1986, variety S-12 showed highest seed cotton yield and ginning outturn (40.5%). The cultivar CIM499 has highest staple length (29.8 mm). From the study, it was concluded that cotton breeders have improved earliness (node of first fruiting branch, monopodial branches per plant, days taken to first flower), lint percentage but improvement in seed cotton yield, yield components and staple length is still needed.
  Muhammad Iqbal , Khezir Hayat , Rao Sohail Ahmad Khan , Attiq Sadiq and Noor-ul-Islam
  The objective of this study was to get information about a character that is useful for selection in segregating generations for improving seed cotton yield. The present study was conducted to determine correlation and path coefficient analysis of earliness and yield components of upland cotton. The results showed that node of first fruiting branch, monopodial branches/ Plant, boll number and boll weight was positively and significantly correlated with yield in present genetic material understudy. Similarly path coefficient analysis revealed that node of first fruiting branch, monopodial branches/ Plant, boll number and boll weight had maximum direct positive effect on seed cotton yield, whereas the traits ginning out turn percentage (GOT%) and staple length had the direct negative effect on seed cotton yield. The results indicated that for evolving a superior genotype possessing all the three basic characteristics i.e., earliness, high yield and improved fiber quality of international standard, breeder had to use reciprocal recurrent selection method or modified back cross or three- way cross within genetic material under study. The result of present study indicated that for evolving a superior genotype possessing earliness, high yield, breeder should focus on improving no. of bolls and boll weight with lower no. of monopodial branches and node of first fruiting branch.
  Muhammad Iqbal , Noor-ul-Islam , Khezir Hayat and Taj Muhammad
  The objective of this study was to compare yield, yield components and fiber traits of different genotypes/varieties under different plant spacings and nitrogen fertilizer levels. Field experiment was conducted during 2006-2007 to evaluate the effect of genotype, plant spacing and nitrogen fertilizer on cotton. Five genotypes (MNH-786, MNH-789, MNH-6070, CIM-496 and BH-160), three plant spacings (15, 30 and 45 cm) and three nitrogen fertilizer levels (6.5, 8.6 and 11 bags of urea ha-1) were studied. Results showed that significant differences exit for plant height, no. of bolls m-2, seed cotton yield kg ha-1 due to genotypes, interaction of genotype and plant spacing and nitrogen fertilizer levels. Where as boll weight (B. wt.), Ginning out turn percentage (G.O.T %), staple length (SL) and fiber fineness were not affected significantly by the plant spacing, nitrogen fertilizer but effect due to genotype was significant for these traits. CLCuV (Cotton leaf curl virus) infestation % varied significantly due to genotypes while all other factors i.e., plant spacing and nitrogen fertilizer has non-significant effect. As the major objective of cotton cultivation is lint production for country and seed cotton yield for the farmers, the genotypes grown in narrow plant spacing 15 cm and higher nitrogen fertilizer level 11.0 bag of urea ha-1 produced maximum seed cotton yield under higher CLCuV infestation % (CIM-496, MNH-789 and BH-160) while the variety MNH-6070 gave maximum yield under 30 cm plant spacing and 8.6 bag of urea ha-1 as the 2.3% CLCuV infestation was observed upon this variety. From the present study it is concluded that the genotypes that are severally affected by CLCuV can be managed with increasing plant population and nitrogen fertilizer to achieve optimum seed cotton yield.
  Hizbullah Khan , Muhammad Iqbal , Abdul Ghaffoor and Kashif Waseem
  Various plant spacing resulted in the increased plant height, onion bulb size, weight of the bulbs, number of the bulbs per plot and yield of the bulbs. In case of different nitrogen levels, all the parameters under the study were significantly affected. However, 12 cm plant spacing with 100 kg N ha -1 gave the best results. Maximum yield of onion bulbs (22.90 and 22.82 t ha -1) was obtained from 12 cm plant spacing with 100 kg N ha -1, respectively.
  Abdul Ghaffar , Muhammad Afzal and Muhammad Iqbal
  The physico-chemistry of two fresh water fish ponds was investigated for a duration of 255 days to see the affect of two different doses of inorganic fertilizers (urea and SSP). Both the ponds were treated with fertilizers at the basis of 0.08 and 0.1 % N of body weight of fish daily. Statistically, ammonia, nitrates and biomass were significant in both the treatments. But, temperature, light penetration, pH, electrical conductivity, dissolved oxygen, total alkalinity and total hardness were non-significant. Environmental changes were observed in the pond ecosystem when fertilized with different doses of inorganic fertilizers.
  Saeed Ahmad , Abdul Karim , Abdul Jabbar , Mahmood-ul-Hassan , Taj Muhammad and Muhammad Iqbal
  A wide range of average performance and genetic variability was estimated for F1 crosses of nine commercial varieties of cotton viz., CIM443, MNH147, FH-682, N. Krishma, SLS-1, CIM-446, CIM448, FVH-53 and MNH552 for bolls and seed cotton yield per plant, boll weight, staple length, ginning out turn (%) and virus infestation (%). The highest genotypic variability was recorded for virus infestation (94.61%) followed by bolls per plant (29.84%). The highest estimates of heritability associated with highest genetic advance for bolls per plant (97.8 and 60.78), virus infestation % (95.0 and 189.9) and boll weight (97.39 and 10.99) suggested selection for improvement of these traits due to presence of sufficient genotypic variability. However, low estimates of these parameters for staple length showed slow progress through selection.
  Muhammad Iqbal , Muhammad Ali Chang , Abdul Jabbar , Muhammad Zafar Iqbal , Muhammad-ul-Hassan and Noor-ul-Islam
  Certain features of gross morphology of the cotton plant furnish clues to earliness of crop production. Node of first fruiting branch (NFB), number of monopodial branch per plant (NMB), days taken to first flower, days taken to open first boll were used a morphological measures of earliness in the studies reported here. The estimation of component of variation for these characters suggested that the additive component was significant in all the traits and were greater than dominant components of variation except for seed cotton yield per plant, where the dominant components were higher in magnitude than additive. The ratio of H2/4H1 indicated asymmetry of positive and negative genes in parents for seed cotton yield and percent first pick, whereas symmetrical distribution of positive and negative genes in the parents was observed for node of first fruiting branch, number of monopodial branches per plant, days taken to first flower and days taken to open first boll. All of these traits were significantly correlated but because of its higher heritability and lower variability, node of first fruiting branch is considered the most reliable and the most practical one of these. NFB and NMB were significantly correlated phenotypically with percent first pick (earliness). From the estimates of heritability value (broad and narrow) sense it was concluded that cross Reshmi x NIAB-78, NIAB-78 x MNH-93 and S-14 x NIAB-78 are valuable crosses for improvement of early maturing traits (node of first fruiting branch, days taken to first flower, days taken to open first boll and percent first pick) with seed cotton yield.
  Saghir Ahmad , Noor-ul-Islam Khan , Muhammad Iqbal , Muhammad Attique Sadiq and Altaf Hussain
  Three salt tolerant cultivars/lines (B-557, Culture-728-4 and MNH-156) and three salt sensitive cultivars/lines (B-1580 (ne), Culture-604-4 and MNH-147) were grown in salinized soil under greenhouse conditions. Four treatments of NaCl, i.e., 16 (control), 70, 140, 210 mol m-3 were applied after 10 days of initial growth, and experiment continued till maturity. Determination of ions at seedling stage showed that the salt tolerant and the salt sensitive cultivars did not differ significantly in accumulation of leaf. The salt sensitive cultivars had more concentration of Cl- in leaves than those of the salt tolerant lines at the highest salt level. The salt tolerant cultivars had generally higher concentrations of K+, Ca2+ and K/Na ratios in the leaves than those of salt sensitive lines at the highest NaCl concentration (210 mol m-3). Ginning out-turn and fibre fineness increased with the increasing concentrations of salt, whereas staple length, fibre maturity and fibre strength showed decreasing trend at higher salt concentrations (140 and 210 mol m-3). The salt tolerant cultivars/lines had lower ginning out-turn, but better fibre fineness, higher staple length, fibre maturity and fibre strength compared with those of the salt sensitive cultivars. The salt tolerance in cotton is thus associated with higher uptake of K+, Ca2+, low accumulation of Cl-in the leaves and low ginning out-turn but higher staple length, fibre maturity and fibre strength.
  Abdul Qadder Khan , Muhammad Iqbal , Muhammad Salim Jilani , Abdul Ghaffoor and Kashif Waseem
  An experiment on Tinda Gourd cv. local was conducted at the experimental area of Faculty of Agriculture, Gomal University, D.I. Khan during 1995 to determine the best date of sowing for obtaining high yield. Experiment comprises six dates of sowing viz. 28th Feb., 10th March, 20th March, 30th March, 9th April and 19th April, 1995. The parameters in this regard were days taken to germinate, flowering, fruit setting, maturity of first fruit, vine length (cm), fruit weight (g), number of fruits per vine and yield (tones/ha). The results obtained were significantly differed at 5% level of probability. The studies pertaining effect of different sowing dates showed that early seed sowing of Tinda speed up the germination days, flowering, fruit setting, maturity of first fruit and vine length. The yield results indicated that March is the best date of the sowing Tinda gourd under the agro-climatic conditions of D.I. Khan. This study also revealed early sowing to give better yield performance than late sowing.
  Kiramat Khan , Muhammad Iqbal , Zubair Shah , Bashir Ahmad , Abdul Azim and Hassan Sher
  Establishment of optimum plant population is an important factor for increasing grain and stover yield in corn (Zea mays L.). The effect of varying times of thinning on the stover and grain yield of maize was investigated in a replicated field experiment, using an open pollinated maize variety Azam, at farmer=s field at Swat, during summer, 2001. Significant differences were observed among the four thinning treatments for grain and stover yield. The grain and stover yield were found to have decreased as thinning was delayed. Yield components such as number of ears, ear length, number of grains per ear row, ear diameter and 100 kernel weight were significantly affected by late thinning. In vegetative phase, LAI (leaf area index) was the only character, which exhibited significant differences among thinning treatments. The results suggested that thinning of maize crop as early as seedling emergence is important for increasing yield.
  S. Salim Shah , Hidayat-Ur-Rahman , Iftikhar Hussain Khalil and Muhammad Iqbal
  Leaf blight of maize (Zea mays L.), caused by Bipolaris maydis (Nisik. and Miyake), is one of the major factors limiting maize production in the plain areas of Pakistan, particularly in the North West Frontier Province (NWFP). The objectives of this study were to estimate selection differential, expected and observed response to selection and heritability for maydis leaf blight resistance and grain yield and to determine progress from selection in a maize population. Two cycles of S1 recurrent selection were conducted in broad based maize population, Sarhad White (SW). One hundred S1 lines were compared with their respective original population (C0) as a check. The experimental material was evaluated under artificial epiphytotics during 2003 and 2004, at NWFP Agricultural University, Peshawar. Selection differentials, expected responses and heritability estimates were determined from the replicated S1 lines performance of the first cycle. The observed progress was estimated from the replicated S1 lines of the second cycle that were generated after recombination of selected S1 lines of the first cycle. Highly significant variations between the cycles were observed for MLB and grain yield. Moderate and high heritability estimates, desirable selection differentials and close correspondence of expected and observed response were manifested for MLB and grain yield. The positive percent deviation of inoculated from uninoculated trials in both cycles (C1 = 71% and C2 = 41%) for leaf blight indicated successful development of blight disease after artificial inoculation, while the negative percent deviation of inoculated form uninoculated trials (C1 = -21 and C2 = -6%) for grain yield indicated the impact of blight disease on grain yield. Blight disease was significantly reduced from 2.9 to 2.3, whereas, grain yield was significantly increased from 2041 kg ha-1 cycle-1 to 2527 kg ha-1 cycle-1 or 19% cycle-1. This yield improvement in SW was probably the result of concomitant reduction in the blight disease severity by -26%. These findings suggested that S1 recurrent selection was quite effective in improving disease resistance and grain yield. Nevertheless, some additional cycles of selection may be required to further improving grain yield and resistance level to maydis leaf blight in SW maize population.
  Mujeeb- ur-Rahman , Muhammad Iqbal , Muhammad Saleem Jilani and Kashif Waseem
  A research project to evaluate the effect of different plant spacing on the production of cauliflower was conducted at Horticulture Research Area, Faculty of Agriculture, Gomal University, Dera Ismail Khan, NWFP, Pakistan. Six different plant spacing viz., 30, 35, 40, 45, 50 and 55 cm were used. The results revealed significant variations in all the parameters and amongst various plant spacing, 45 cm spacing showed the best response for all the parameters. Maximum plant height (49.33 cm), curd diameter (19.13 cm), maximum curd weight (1.23 kg plant-1) and yield (30.77 t ha-1) were recorded in the plots where the plants were spaced 45 cm apart.
  Kiramat Khan , Muhammad Iqbal , Abdul Azim , Bashir Ahmad , Fazli Karim and Hassan Sher
  Effect of gamma radiation doses; 10, 20 and 30 Krads on yield and yield components of barley was studied in a replicated experiment during the year 2001-2002 at Cereal Crops Research Institute (CCRI) Pirsabak Nowshera NWFP. Except for 1000-grain weight, significant decrease in grain yield and yield components was observed with radiation doses. However, 1000-grain weight showed an increase as the radiation dose was increased. The findings of the study suggested that low doses up to 30 Krads of gamma radiation have direct inhibitory effect on some yield related traits in vegetative growth stage of barley. However, inhibitory effects on yield components related to reproductive stages in barley could not be fully understood which suggests further investigation.
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