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Articles by M.S. Kalil
Total Records ( 9 ) for M.S. Kalil
  P. Abdeshahian , M.G. Dashti , M.S. Kalil and W.M.W. Yusoff
  Biomass feedstock has received great interest to be used as an alternative and renewable source of energy. Lignocellulosic biomass has significant potential to contribute to the biofuel production to decrease green house gas emission and global warming. Researchers with a tremendous enthusiasm have pursued biofuel development using biomass feedstocks over the past decades. Emerging first generation and second generation of biofuels introduced promising renewable energy resources by utilization of sustainable and abundant biomass sources as raw materials. In this study, biomass-based transportation biofuels and biochemical processes for the production of first generation and second generation of biofuels are discussed.
  N.K.N. Al-Shorgani , M.S. Kalil , E. Ali , W.M.W. Yusoff and A.A. Hamid
  Butanol is an important industrial chemical and has gained attention as an important fuel because of its advantages of being less corrosive and water tolerant as compared to the ethanol. This study revealed the effects of butyric acid as an additive on growth and Acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) production using batch culture of Clostridium saccharoperbutylacetonicum N1-4. Different combinations of glucose and butyric acid were studied to finalize the best productive ratio for ABE and butanol production. The highest ABE and butanol production was obtained when 4 g L-1 of butyric acid was used in the presence of 30 g L-1 of glucose. The inhibitory effects of butyric acid on bacterial growth were also investigated using C. saccharoperbutylacetonicum N1-4 and mild inhibitory effects were found at high butyric acid concentration. On the other hand, no linear correlation between butyric acid and butanol production was observed. Production of 17.76 g L-1 butanol with a productivity of 0.15 g L-1 h-1 from 4 g L-1 of butyric acid proved the ability of C. saccharoperbutylacetonicum N1-4 to be tolerant to the certain concentration of butyric acid for the enhanced butanol production. Butyric acid was not only contributing as an additive or stimulating agent to the butanol pathway but also was being utilized as a co-substrate. Enhanced butanol production using growing cells of C. saccharoperbutylacetonicum N1-4 in the presence of specific concentration of butyric acid (4 g L-1 butyric acid) as a co-substrate with glucose can be carried out without any remarkable inhibition to bacterial growth.
  M.S. Kalil and G.M. Stephens
  H. Alshiyab , M.S. Kalil , A.A. Hamid and W.M.W. Yusoff
  The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of some environmental factors on bacterial metabolism. Fermentative hydrogen production by C. acetobutylicum, using glucose as the substrate. The effect of initial pH (4-8), inoculum size (1-20% (v/v)) and glucose concentration (1-30 g L-1) on hydrogen production were studied. The optimum cultivation temperature for hydrogen production was at 30 °C. The results show that substrate concentration and inoculum size resulted in hydrogen yield (YP/S) of 391 mL g-1 glucose utilized with maximum hydrogen productivity of 77.5 mL/L/h. Higher substrate concentration or inoculum size adversely affects hydrogen production, which decreases hydrogen yield by 15% to 334 mL g-1 glucose utilized when 30% (v/v) inoculum size was used. The use of 30 g L-1 substrate concentration resulted in a 75% decrease to 97 mL g-1 glucose supplied. Concluded that proper Xo/So enhanced the hydrogen production.
  H. Alshiyab , M.S. Kalil , A.A. Hamid and W.M. Wan Yusoff
  The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of salts addition to fermentation medium on hydrogen production, under anaerobic batch culture system. In this study, batch experiments were conducted to investigate the inhibitory effect of both NaCl and sodium acetate on hydrogen production. The optimum pH and temperature for hydrogen production were at initial pH of 7.0 and 30°C. Enhanced production of hydrogen, using glucose as substrate was achieved. In the absence of Sodium Chloride and Sodium Acetate enhanced hydrogen yield (YP/S) from 350 mL g-1 glucose utilized to 391 mL g-1 glucose utilized with maximum hydrogen productivity of 77.5 ml/L/h. Results also show that sodium chloride and sodium acetate in the medium adversely affect growth. Hydrogen yield per biomass (YP/X) of 254 ml/L/g, biomass per substrate utilized (YX/S) of 0.268 and (YH2/S) of 0.0349. The results suggested that Sodium at any concentration resulted to inhibit the bacterial productivity of hydrogen.
  H. Alshiyab , M.S. Kalil , A.A. Hamid and W.M.W. Yusoff
  The effect of removal of resultant gas resulted in enhancement of the H2 yield. The technique of CO2 scavenging resulted in H2 yield being improved from 408 mL g-1 to reach the maximum of 422 mL g-1. The highest hydrogen productivity of 87.9 ml L-1 h-1 was obtained by CO2 scavenging. Biomass concentration was enhanced to 1.47 g L-1, YP/X of 287 ml g-1 L-1, YX/S of 0.294 and YH2/s of 0.0377 by the use of CO2 scavenging. The results suggested that the presence of the gaseous products in fermentation medium and headspace adversely effect biomass growth and hydrogen production.
  S. Za`imah Syed Jaapar , M.S. Kalil and N. Anuar
  Photo fermentation is a biological process that can be applied for hydrogen production. The process is environmental friendly which is operated under mild conditions using renewable resources. In order to increase yield of H2 produced by Rhodobacter sphaeroides, some experimental factors that may enhance H2 production were studied. The effect of operating parameters including agitation, aeration and light on hydrogen production using R. sphaeroides NCIMB 8253 was investigated. Rhodobacter sphaeroides NCIMB 8253 was grown in 100 mL serum bottle containing growth medium with maliec acid as the sole organic carbon source. The cultures were incubated anaerobically at 30°C with tungsten lamp (100 W) as the light source (3.8 klux) and argon gas was purged for maintaining anaerobic condition. The results show that maximum hydrogen produced was higher (54.37 mL) in static culture with 69.98% of H2 in the total gas compared with shake culture (11.57 mL) with 57.86% of H2. By using static culture, H2 produced was five times higher compared with non-static in both aerobic and anaerobic condition. It was found that growth and H2 production with fluorescent lamp showed better results than growth and H2 production with tungsten light.
  W.M. Alalayah , M.S. Kalil , A.A.H. Kadhum , J.M. Jahim , S.Z.S. Jaapar and N.M. Alauj
  A two-stage fermentation process consisting of dark and photo-fermentation periods was carried out in a batch reactor. In the first stage, glucose was fermented in the dark stage using Clostridium saccharoperbutylacetonicum N1-4 (ATCC 13564; CSN1-4) to produce acetate, CO2 and H2. The acetate produced in the first stage is fermented to H2 and CO2 by Rhodobacter sphaeroides NCIMB 8253 for further hydrogen production in the second, illuminated stage. The yield of hydrogen in the first stage was about 3.10 mol H2 (mol glucose)-1 at a glucose concentration of 10 g L-1, pH 6±0.2 and 37°C and the second stage yield was about 1.10-1.25 mol H2 (mol acetic acid)-1 at pH 6.8±0.2 and 32°C, without removal of the Clostridium CSN1-4. The overall yield of hydrogen in the two-stage process, with glucose as the main substrate was higher than single-stage fermentation.
  W.M. Alalayah , M.S. Kalil , A.A.H. Kadhum , J. Jahim , A. Zaharim , N.M. Alauj and A. El-Shafie
  Box-Wilson Design (BWD) model was applied to determine the optimum values of influencing parameters in anaerobic fermentation to produce hydrogen using Clostridium saccharoperbutylacetonicum N1-4 (ATCC 13564). The main focus of the study was to find the optimal relationship between the hydrogen yield and three variables including initial substrate concentration, initial medium pH and reaction temperature. Microbial growth kinetic parameters for hydrogen production under anaerobic conditions were determined using the Monod model with incorporation of a substrate inhibition term. The values of μmax (maximum specific growth rate) and Ks (saturation constant) were 0.398 h-1 and 5.509 g L-1, respectively, using glucose as the substrate. The experimental substrate and biomass-concentration profiles were in good agreement with those obtained by the kinetic-model predictions. By varying the conditions of the initial substrate concentration (1-40 g L-1), reaction temperature (25-40°C) and initial medium pH (4-8), the model predicted a maximum hydrogen yield of 3.24 mol H2 (mol glucose)-1. The experimental data collected utilising this design was successfully fitted to a second-order polynomial model. An optimum operating condition of 10 g L-1 initial substrate concentration, 37°C reaction temperature and 6.0±0.2 initial medium pH gave 80% of the predicted maximum yield of hydrogen where as the experimental yield obtained in this study was 77.75% exhibiting a close accuracy between estimated and experimental values. This is the first report to predict bio-hydrogen yield by applying Box-Wilson Design in anaerobic fermentation while optimizing the effects of environmental factors prevailing there by investigating the effects of environmental factors.
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