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Articles by M.O. Aremu
Total Records ( 8 ) for M.O. Aremu
  M.O. Aremu and O.E. Ekunode
  Evaluation of nutritional composition was carried out on Clarias lazera fish while functional properties were also investigated. The proximate composition were total ash (8.6%), moisture (7.5%), crude protein (73%), crude fat (8.3%) and carbohydrate (2.5%); crude fibre was not in the detectable range. The available energy was high (1.59 MJ/100 g). The proportion of energy due to protein and fat were 78.0 and 2.7%, respectively. The fish sample was low in sodium Na, potassium (K), magnesium (Mg), iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), manganese (Mn), copper (Cu), chromium (Cr) and lead (Pb). Calcium (Ca) was the most highly concentrated mineral (63.7 mg/100 g sample). The total amino acid was 925.2 mg g-1 crude protein while lysine (Lys) was the most highly concentrated essential amino acid (79.0 mg g-1). The fish sample had a balanced content of essential amino acid in isoleucine (Ile), leucine (Leu), lysine (Lys), methionine (Met) + cystine (Cys), phenylanine (Phe) + tyrosine (Tyr) and threonine (Thr), with respect to the FAO pattern while supplementation may be required only in valine (Val). The calculated isoelectric point (pI) was 5.6, Predicted Protein Efficiency Ratio (P-PER) was 26.1 and first limiting amino acid was Val. Results of functional properties were: foaming capacity (4.9%), foaming stability (3.7%, 8 h), water absorption capacity (280.5%), oil absorption capacity (280.6%), oil emulsion capacity (20.0%), oil emulsion stability (19.5, 12 h), lowest gelation concentration (10.0%) and bulk density (470 g L-1). The results showed that Clarias lazera could be a good source of most of the parameters determined in this study.
  M.O. Aremu , B.G. Osinfade , S.K. Basu and B.E. Ablaku
  Ogi is a maize product and a popular starchy porridge in the west coasts of Africa. Although consumed by adults as a breakfast cereal, its main use is as weaning food for infants. In this study, the nutritional quality of ogi from a composite mixture of maize (Zea mays L.) and kersting’s groundnut (Kerstingiella geocarpa L.) flours was evaluated using standard processing techniques. Maize flour was substituted with kersting’s groundnut seed flour at ratios of 90:10, 80:20, 70:30 and 60:40 maize: kersting’s groundnut; with 100% maize ogi flour as control. The results showed that protein and fat contents increased with increased kersting’s groundnut seed flour substitution, reaching 61.14 and 14.63% dry weight, respectively at 60:40 ratios. All the macro-minerals (Ca, P, Mg, K and Na) analyzed for also recorded increased concentrations in the ogi flours with increased kersting’s groundnut seed substitutions. Harmful heavy metals such as lead and cadmium were not detected. The Total Essential Amino Acids (TEAA) ranged from 26.4-32.6 g/100 g crude protein or from 47.9-48.4% of The Total Amino Acid (TAA) while the Limiting Amino Acid (LAA) for all the samples was Met+Cys based on the provisional FAO/WHO standards. Generally, the present study indicates that at = 30% Kerstingiella geocarpa seed substitution ogi can be maintained, with higher nutrient content.
  M.O. Aremu , O. Olaofe and E.T. Akintayo
  Proximate, mineral composition and physicochemical characteristics of two varieties of bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranean) flours were determined using standard techniques. The two varieties (cream coat and dark red coat) of bambara groundnut have comparable mean values of total ash, crude protein and carbohydrate. (by difference) of 4.28 and 3.89%; 11.56 and 11.05% and 73.30 and 73.87%, respectively. But there are little variations in the values of moisture, crude fat and crude fibre. The two varieties were found to be good sources of essential minerals such as Fe, Na, K, Mg and Ca but Cu, Mn and Zn contents were low. Pb, Cd and Cr were not detectable. The results of physicochemical characteristics of bambara groundnut oils showed that they have similar mean values of the following parameters: Free fatty acid.85 and 4.80 mg g-1; Acid value, 0.92 and 0.98; Saponification value24.9 and 140.5 mg KOH g-1; Iodine value21 and 120 mg iodine g-1; peroxide value86 and 290 and specific gravity 0.88 and 0.85 for cream coat and dark red coat, respectively indicating that they are drying oils and edible.
  M.O. Aremu , O. Olaofe , E.T. Akintayo and E.I. Adeyeye
  Foaming capacity and stability, water absorption capacity; emulsion capacity and stability; and least gelation concentration of kersting`s and bambara groundnut flours as influenced by types of salt (NaCl, NaNO3, NaNO2, CH3COONa and Na2SO4) and their concentrations were investigated using standard techniques. The results showed that the highest foaming capacity was recorded for CH3COONa at 15.0% (w/v) salt concentration in kesting`s groundnut while lowest was NaNO2 at 0.5% (w/v) in bambara groundnut flour. Foaming stability values after 8h were types of salt and salt concentrations dependent. The water absorption capacity decreased at various salt concentrations compared with value in distilled deionized water. The best salts for water absorption capacity were NaNO2, CH3COONa and Na2SO4 particularly at 0.5% (w/v) salt concentration. The oil emulsion capacity depended mostly on salt concentration and the type of salt under consideration while oil emulsion stability is better at higher salt concentrations between 5.0-15% (w/v) than lower salt concentrations for the two studied samples. Likewise the least gelation concentration of 12.0% (kersting`s groundnut flour) and 14.0% (bambara groundnut flour) in free salt solutions were improved to between 6.0-10% and 8.0-12.0%, respectively in the presence of the salts used.
  M.O. Aremu , I. Ogunlade and A. Olonisakin
  Fatty acids; proximate and amino acid composition of Anarcadium occidentale protein concentrate were investigated. The three most abundant fatty acids were C18:1ω 9 > C16:0 > C18:3 ω 3. Unsaturated fatty aids predominated in the sample with adequate amounts of essential fatty acids. Proximate analysis of protein concentrate revealed high percentage crude protein of 69.6g/100g protein. Ash and crude fibre were low while ether extract was not detected. The protein concentrate had a balanced content of some of the essential amino acids, with respect to the FAO/WHO provisional pattern however supplementation may be required in valine and threonine. The calculated isoelectric point (pI) was 4.25 while the first limiting amino acid was valine.
  M.O. Aremu , C.C. Nweze and P. Alade
  A study was conducted to determine the suitability of six different spices (pepper, garlic, ginger, onion, curry leaf and tomatoes) with a view to appraising their nutritive values. For this purpose, crude protein and amino acid composition were determined using standard analytical techniques. The result gave crude protein content in percentage as; pepper (20.11), garlic (19.94), ginger (11.43), onion (10.36), curry leaf (25.67) and tomatoes (19.83). The Total Amino Acid (TAA) of pepper, garlic, ginger, onion, curry leaf and tomatoes were: 48.40, 66.25, 39.21, 40.21, 78.08 and 40.30 g/100g crude protein, respectively. The order of calculated isoelectric point (pI) was curry leaf > garlic > pepper > onion = tomatoes > ginger while that of Predicted Protein Efficiency Ratio (P-PER) was garlic > curry leaf > ginger > pepper > onion > tomatoes. The contents of Essential Amino Acid (EAA) in all the spice samples are generally lower than FAO/WHO recommended values except curry leaf which had a balance content of all the EAAs and garlic that was adequate only in Leu and Phe + Tyr based on FAO/WHO provisional pattern. So curry leaf is considered to be a valuable protein source for the human diet.
  S.S. Audu and M.O. Aremu
  Proximate, mineral and amino acid compositions of raw and processed red kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) flour were investigated on dry weight bases with a view to finding alternative and cheaper sources of protein to solve the problem of malnutrition due to inadequate protein in nutrition which is a prevalent problem in developing world, especially in Nigeria. Processing methods (cooking, boiling, roasting, sprouting and fermenting) were adopted using the standard analytical techniques. The processing methods showed deviations in nutrient content from the raw seeds. Crude fat was reduced by some processing methods particularly cooking and boiling while crude protein was enhanced in this order: Roasting > fermenting > boiling > sprouting > cooking. Processing significantly affected the mineral content of the red kidney bean flour (p<0.05). Boiling and roasting reduced the content of magnesium by 4.7 and 10.3%, respectively. All the processing methods reduced calcium content. Processed red kidney bean seed flour was found to be a good source of essential minerals, while harmful heavy metals such as lead and cadmium were not detected. The amino acid profile revealed cooking, roasting, sprouting and fermenting to have enhanced Total Amino Acid (TAA), while Total Essential Amino Acid (TEAA) and Total Sulphur Amino Acid (TSAA) were reduced by all the processing methods. After processing of the red kidney bean seed sufficient amount of essential amino acids were retained to meet FAO dietary requirement, but supplementation may be done for raw in Ile, Met + Cys, Thr and Val; boiled (Ile, Met + Cys and Thr); cooked (Met Cys and Val); roasted (Ile, Met + Cys and Val); sprouted and fermented (Met + Cys, Thr and Val).
  M.O. Aremu , T.O. Bamidele and J.A. Amokaha
  The rattle box (Crotalaria retusa L.) is a lesser known plant grown wild in Nigerian soil. Studies were conducted on its seed flour and oils to determine their suitability, using standard analytical techniques. The result of mineral composition revealed that magnesium was the most abundant mineral (50.82 mg/100 g) while the least was arsenic (0.03 mg/100 g). Lead, cadmium and chromium were not at detecting limit of AAS. The most concentrated fatty acids were stearic acid (11.02%) < oleic acid (15.50%) < linoleic acid (57.54%). Caprylic, margaric, capric, lauric, myristic, arachidonic, erucic and lignoceric acids were all determined but not detected. Unsaturated fatty acids predominated in all the samples with only linoleic (57.54%) available as essential fatty acid. The results of physicochemical parameters of the seed oils determined were: Colour (yellow), acid value (1.10 mg KOH/g), iodine value (46.34 g/100 g), saponification (161.28 mg KOH/g), peroxide value (5.26 meq/kg), specific gravity at 25°C (0.88), kinetic viscosity at 40°C (4.91), unsaponifiable matter (1.92%) and flash point (231.00). The results showed that Crotalaria retusa seed oils may not be used as edible oils due to their instability as frying oils but may be useful industrially for the manufacture of products such as paints and shampoos.
 
 
 
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