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Articles by Lei Wang
Total Records ( 21 ) for Lei Wang
  Li Bai , Stephanie Schüller , Andrew Whale , Aurelie Mousnier , Olivier Marches , Lei Wang , Tadasuke Ooka , Robert Heuschkel , Franco Torrente , James B. Kaper , Tania A. T. Gomes , Jianguo Xu , Alan D. Phillips and Gad Frankel
  Typical enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) and enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) employ either Nck, TccP/TccP2, or Nck and TccP/TccP2 pathways to activate the neuronal Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (N-WASP) and to trigger actin polymerization in cultured cells. This phenotype is used as a marker for the pathogenic potential of EPEC and EHEC strains. In this paper we report that EPEC O125:H6, which represents a large category of strains, lacks the ability to utilize either Nck or TccP/TccP2 and hence triggers actin polymerization in vitro only inefficiently. However, we show that infection of human intestinal biopsies with EPEC O125:H6 results in formation of typical attaching and effacing lesions. Expression of TccP in EPEC O125:H6, which harbors an EHEC O157-like Tir, resulted in efficient actin polymerization in vitro and enhanced colonization of human intestinal in vitro organ cultures with detectable N-WASP and electron-dense material at the site of bacterial adhesion. These results show the existence of a natural category of EPEC that colonizes the gut mucosa using Nck- and TccP-independent mechanisms. Importantly, the results highlight yet again the fact that conclusions made on the basis of in vitro cell culture models cannot be extrapolated wholesale to infection of mucosal surfaces and that the ability to induce actin polymerization on cultured cells should not be used as a definitive marker for EPEC and EHEC virulence.
  Cunxiao Yi and Lei Wang
  In this study, we developed a non-monotone trust region algorithm for unconstrained optimization. Different from the tradition non-monotone trust region algorithm, this algorithm includes memory model which make the algorithm more farsighted in the sense that its behavior is not completely dominated by the local nature of the objective function. We presented a non-monotone trust region algorithm that has this feature and prove its global convergence under suitable conditions.
  Ronghui Zhang , Haiwei Wang , Xi Zhou , Lei Wang and Tonghai Jiang
  This study introduces a novel detection algorithm to recognize the lane markers on a structured road at night. The proposed algorithm utilizes neighborhood average filtering, Sobel operator and threshold segmentation of maximum entropy to preprocess the original image. Combining gray level image and edge image obtained by Sobel operator, we analyze the distribution feature of lane boundary dots at night and sort the boundary dots into 4 sets. Then, multiple-direction searching method is carried out to eliminate the false lane boundary dots. Final, we use adapted Hough transformation algorithm to obtain the feature parameter of the lane edge. The proposed method is proved to be reliable and robust in outside environment through experiments for the various kinds of images.
  Feng-Zhe Cui , Lei Wang , Zhi-Zheng Xu , Xiu-Kun Wang and Hong-Fei Teng
  In recent years, researches on high-dimensional nonseparable function optimization have made progress. Approaches based on Potter’s Cooperative Coevolutionary (CC) framework have achieved better results and aroused a great attention. However, the computational results are still unsatisfying for most Benchmark functions. Therefore, this study develops a dual-system (population) cooperative coevolutionary differential evolution (DCCDE) algorithm based on dual-system Evolutionary Algorithm (EA). This algorithm adopts a variable static grouping pattern and a improved Differential Evolution (DE) algorithm combined with simple crossover (SPX) local search strategy and modifies the migration pattern of the sub-individuals (not subpopulations) among the subsystems (subgroups of variables) in the dual-system. The test results of 20 Benchmark functions (including 17 nonseparable functions, dimension D = 1000) show that the proposed algorithm is better than other algorithms in computational accuracy.
  Lei Wang and Yan Guo
  The research introduced enterprise technological absorptive capacity into joint R and D game analysis. By constructing a two-stage of three enterprises joint R and D game model, we got the equilibrium solution of cooperative R and D behavior under enterprises different technological absorptive capacity. In three situations, we discussed the relationships between enterprise technological absorption capacity with the external corporate profit and its enthusiasm to participate in joint R and D.
  Lei Wang and Ruishan Sun
  Measuring fatigue is a key step of managing human fatigue risk because it provides objective data for fatigue prevention. This paper aims to develop a remote and real-time fatigue measurement solution based on eye tracking and computer vision technique. Firstly the framework and process of this solution was given. Then experiments of selecting fatigue measurement index was carried on and the results indicated that PERCLOS (Percentage of Eyelid Closure Over the Pupil Time) value is a reliable index for measuring fatigue and the threshold is suggested to be set as 0.5 when eye close threshold is set as 70%. Meanwhile a functional Fatigue Measurement Prototype System for air traffic controller was developed as an application case. Finally it concluded that this fatigue measurement solution is feasible and reliable, a more applicable Fatigue Measurement System basing on this solution is expected to be developed and applied in next step.
  Xiang-Bo Wei , Xiao-Rui Li , Lei Wang , Xiao-Rong Wang and Guo-Yan Ma
  Aimed at the characters of poor fracture conductivity and low natural output of Changqing Oilfield An-83 area, a type of Polyhydric Alcohols (PHA) fracturing fluid with low molecular was researched. Then laboratory evaluation was implemented according to SY/T 5107-2005: Water-based fracturing fluid performance evaluation method. It showed that PHA fracturing fluid had better performances on rheological resistance, proppant-carrying capacity and gel-breaking resistance on the condition of PHA-1 concentration was 3%, crosslinking ratio was 100:3. Average output of the test wells was 18.5 m3 day-1, about twice as much as the average output of An-83 area. Viscosity of gel-breaking fluid of PHA fracturing fluid was below 5 mPa•s, the average backflow ratio was 66.5%. It proved that PHA fracturing fluid had good adaptability for low permeability reservoirs.
  Wei Wei , Xiang Li , Bin Zhou , Hongfang Zhou , Peiyi Shen , Lei Wang and Jing Zhang
  Wireless Radio Frequency (RF) technology, which can take the place of cable, has been widely used in many current fields as one of information technologies with widest horizon of development. The problems caused by the environment restrictions and the unfavorable conditions for cable wiring have been solved because of the emergence of the wireless. Its three important characteristics and advantages are low costing, low power consumption and peer-to-peer communication. During the design procedure, the system is divided into three major modules according to the functional structure, namely central control module, wireless transceiver module and computer dealing software, The central control module uses Sygnal company's low power enhanced 51 MCU C8051F310 as CPU, mainly to complete the data acquisition and processing. The wireless transceiver module is made up of TI CC1101 wireless transceiver chip, which mainly realizes wireless data transmission and The computer dealing software real-timely displays and deals with the data through visual, friendly programming interface, based on C#.NET. Final achievement of the system design is two compact communication devices, one of them connects with PC through RS-232 interface, System is operated through the graphical user interface based on windows, which is very convenient to operate. Debugging result indicated that data acquisition, processing and transmission could be achieved in wireless or wired way under the control of PC and it visually displays the results to the user, satisfies request of the wireless power monitoring data communication system, reaches the technical index.
  Hai-Bo Yu , De-Yu Li , Hui-Feng Zhang , Huan-Zhou Xue , Cheng-En Pan , Si-Hai Zhao and Lei Wang
  Resveratrol (trans-3, 4', 5-trihydroxystilbene) is a natural phytoalexin found in grapes and other plants that has anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory effects. To observe its effects of on proliferation of human hepatocellular carcinoma cells and the underlying molecular mechanisms, we performed the current study. MTT assay was used to assess the effects of resveratrol on proliferation of human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line HepG2. Flow cytometry and invasion assays were performed to detect apoptosis and tumor cell invasion capacity was detected in vitro and in vivo. After that Real-time quantitative PCR and western blotting assays were used to detect the expression of MMP-9 mRNA and protein, respectively. MMP-9 activity was also analyzed by gelatin zymography assay. NF-kappa B was measured by electrophoretic mobility shift assay. Resveratrol inhibited growth of HepG2 cells with a dose and time-dependent manner. The reduced cell viability is due to apoptosis or proliferation inhibited by resveratrol. Invasion assay found that resveratrol induce a decrease in the potential for invasion. Molecularly, resveratrol was able to reduce both MMP-9 mRNA expression and protein levels as wellas MMP-9 enzymatic activity which may be via the inhibition of NF-kappaB activity. The data showed that resveratrol was able to reduce viability of hepatocellular carcinoma cells which is due to induction of apoptosis by resveratrol. Resveratrol also inhibited tumor cell invasion capacity which is through down regulation of MMP-9 levels and its enzymatic activity. Future study will investigate the effects of resveratrol in vivo in control of hepatocellular carcinoma cell in clinics.
  Ping Kang , Meng Wang , Yongqing Hou , Yulong Yin , Binying Ding , Huiling Zhu , Yulan Liu , Yinsheng Qiu , Dan Yi , Lei Wang and Joshua Gong
  The effects of spermine on the development of small intestine and growth performance of newly weaned pigs were investigated. Thirty pigs were used and the treatment of spermine was through oral administration for the 1st 3 days after weaning with the dose of 0, 300, 600, 900 or 1200 μmol per pig daily. The administration of spermine improved Average Daily Feed Intake (ADFI) and Average Daily Gain (ADG) in the periods 0-14 (p<0.05) but had no significant effects on the ratio of Feed to Gain (F/G) and protein/DNA contents of the duodenal or ileal mucosa. The protein/DNA content of the jejunum was significantly increased at the doses of 300 and 600 μmol day-1 spermine but was declined at the higher doses. The villus height in the duodenum (p<0.01) and ileum (p<0.05) increased with an increase in spermine doses. The crypt depth was reduced by spermine in the jejunum and the ratio of villus height/crypt depth was increased by spermine in the duodenum, jejunum and ileum (p<0.05). Additionally, the treatment of spermine at tested doses showed no effect on D-xylose absorption by the small intestine. These results indicate that oral administration of spermine for 3 days after weaning increased ADG and ADFI, enhanced the development of the small intestinal mucosa and improved intestinal morphology.
  Dan Yi , Cong Wang , Danfeng Sun , Yongqing Hou , Binying Ding , Lei Wang and Joshua Gong
  This study was conducted to investigate the efficacy of Silymarin (SIL) as antioxidant against Cumene Hhydroperoxide (CH) induced oxidative damage in liver and intestinal mucosa of ducks. One hundred and sixty male Cherry Valley ducks (28 days old) were randomly allotted to control, CH, CH + 100 SIL (100 mg kg-1 diet) and CH + 200 SIL (200 mg kg-1 diet) groups. At the age of 42 days, ducks in CH, CH + 100 SIL and CH + 200 SIL groups received intraperitoneal administration of CH (30 mg kg-1 BW) whereas ducks in the control group received the same volume of sterile saline for 5 consecutive days. At the age of 50 days, the blood samples were collected and ducks were killed to obtain liver and intestine for analysis. Compared with the control group, CH challenge increased the levels of plasma Glutamic-Pyruvic Transaminase (GPT), Alkaline Phosphatase (AKP), hepatic and Mucosal Malondialdehyde (MDA) (p<0.05) but reduced the levels of Superoxide Dismutase (SOD), Catalase (CAT) and Glutathione S-Transferase (GST) in liver (p<0.05). CH-treated ducks exhibited a higher crypt depth (p<0.05) and a lower concentration of protein, RNA, DNA and the activities of sucrase and maltase in intestine mucosa (p<0.05). These adverse effects of CH were attenuated (p<0.05) by supplementation of SIL, particularly at the dosage of 200 mg kg-1 diet. These data suggest that dietary supplement with 200 mg kg-1 SIL alleviates hepatic oxidative injury and improves intestinal absorptive capacity in CH-challenged ducks.
  Dan Yi , Lingfang Gu , Binying Ding , Ming Li , Yongqing Hou , Lei Wang and Joshua Gong
  This study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary silymarin supplementation on growth performance and oxidative status in Carassius auratus gibelio. About 270 fishes (C. auratus gibelio) were randomly assigned to the following groups: the control group was fed a basal diet; flavomycin group and silymarin group were fed a basal diet supplemented with 4 mg kg-1 flavomycin and 100 mg kg-1 silymarin, respectively. After 8 weeks feeding, body weight and feed intake were recorded. Blood, liver and muscle sample were also collected for determining the biochemical parameters, oxidative status, protein, RNA and DNA levels. No significant differences in growth performance and body composition of fishes were observed among three groups. However, dietary supplementation with silymarin increased the levels of blood total protein and globulin as compared to flavomycin group. Fishes receiving silymarin exhibited a lower level of malondialdehyde in serum and liver compared to control and flavomycin groups whereas levels of liver and serum superoxide dismutase were not affected. In addition, dietary silymarin increased the ratio of protein to RNA of liver whereas did not affect the ratio of RNA to DNA in muscle and liver. Collectively, these data suggested that dietary supplementation of 100 mg kg-1 silymarin increased the protein synthesis and potentially improved the antioxidative capacity in C. auratus gibelio.
  Xiaolin Meng , Mei Liu , Baojie Wang , Keyong Jiang , Xue Tian and Lei Wang
  This research aimed to investigate the accumulation of Cadmium (Cd) and the antioxidant defense system (Superoxide Dismutase (SOD), Catalase (CAT) and Glutathione Peroxidase (GPx)) in gill and digestive gland of Mizuhopecten yessoensis exposed to Cd (final Cd doses of 0, 0.05, 0.1 and 0.2 mg L-1) for 14 days. The uptake of Cd in both tissues via seawater displayed a simple linear relationship with the exposure of Cd concentration and a curvilinear change with time of extending. The maximal accumulation was observed at day 10 in gill in the 0.2 mg L-1 group (134.20 μg g-1) and day 14 in digestive gland in the 0.1 mg L-1 group (109.20 μg g-1). The activities of SOD, CAT and GPx attained peak values after short exposure time at day 1 or 3 (except for CAT values in digestive gland and GPx value in gill in low Cd concentration). The main antioxidant enzyme in M. yessoensis is GPx in gill but CAT in digestive gland and the main detoxification tissue dealing with oxyradicals is digestive gland. These results provide valuable information of Cd accumulation and antioxidant defense mechanism in cadmium-stressed M. yessoensis and SOD, CAT, GPx could be useful as biomarkers in predicting heavy metal pollution in scallop aquaculture.
  Zuoyong Luo , Baojie Wang , Mei Liu , Keyong Jiang and Lei Wang
  Different amounts of vitamin E supplementation were added to feed sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus Selenka) juveniles (2.5±0.15 g) testing to reduce nitrite stress. Commercial feed was used as the control diet, 3 experimental diets containing vitamin E supplementation (150, 250 and 350 mg kg-1 diet), respectively was designed to experiment for 45 days. The specimens were exposed to three different concentrations (0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 mg L-1) of nitrite for 4, 8 and 12 h at four different time points (0, 15, 30 and 45 days). Hydroxyl free radical (-OH), Malondialdehyde (MDA), Total Antioxidant Capacity (T-AOC), Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) and Catalase (CAT) were measured. The control group’ level of -OH and MDA turned higher whereas T-AOC turned lower and SOD and CAT activity elevated after exposed to nitrite solution. The experimental group’ level of -OH and MDA turned lower whereas T-AOC turned higher. The results suggested vitamin E supplementation diets could reduce nitrite stress response and increase the antioxidant capacity. The optimal amount of vitamin E supplementation ranged from 180-260 mg kg-1 and number of feeding days ranged from 33-35 days were obtained according regress equations.
  Lei Wang , Yan Guo and Guoping Zhu
  The research introduced enterprises technological absorption capacity into cooperation R and D game analysis. By constructing a two-stage cooperative R and D game model of three enterprises, we got the equilibrium solution of coovvperative R and D behavior under enterprises different technological absorption capacity. In three situations, we discussed the relationships between enterprise different technological absorption capacity and the R and D income. The results show that Cooperative R and D income is affected by the technological absorptive capacity and external enterprises.
  Lu Feng , Bin Liu , Yanqun Liu , Yuli A. Ratiner , Bo Hu , Dan Li , Xiaolin Zong , Wei Xiong and Lei Wang
  The occurrence of unilateral flagellar phase variation was previously demonstrated in Escherichia coli strains carrying the non-fliC flagellin-specifying locus flk. In this study, we investigated the mechanism involved in this process. By using sequencing and sequence analysis, the flk region between the chromosomal genes yhaC and rnpB was characterized in all described flk-positive E. coli strains, including the H35 strain identified in this study (the other strains used are H3, H36, H47, and H53 strains), and this region was found to contain a putative integrase gene and flanking direct repeats in addition to the flk flagellin-specifying gene flkA and a fliC repressor gene, flkB, indicating that there is a typical genomic islet (GI), which was designated the flk GI. The horizontal transfer potential of the flk GI was indicated by detection of the excised extrachromosomal circular form of the flk GI. By generating fliC-expressing variants of H3 and H47 strains, unilateral flagellar phase variation in flk-positive strains was shown to be mediated by excision of the flk GI. The function of the proposed integrase gene was confirmed by deletion and a complementation test. The potential integration sites of the flk GI were identified. A general model for flagellar phase variation in flk-positive E. coli strains can be expressed as fliCoff + flkAonfliCon + flkAnone. This is the first time that a molecular mechanism for flagellar phase variation has been reported for E. coli.
  Inka Brockhausen , Bo Hu , Bin Liu , Kenneth Lau , Walter A. Szarek , Lei Wang and Lu Feng
  The O antigens of outer membrane-bound lipopolysaccharides (LPS) in gram-negative bacteria are oligosaccharides consisting of repeating units with various structures and antigenicities. The O56 and O152 antigens of Escherichia coli both contain a Glc-β1-3-GlcNAc linkage within the repeating unit. We have cloned and identified the genes (wfaP in O56 and wfgD in O152) within the two O-antigen gene clusters that encode glucosyltransferases involved in the synthesis of this linkage. A synthetic substrate analog of the natural acceptor substrate undecaprenol-pyrophosphate-lipid [GlcNAc-α-PO3-PO3-(CH2)11-O-phenyl] was used as an acceptor and UDP-Glc as a donor substrate to demonstrate that both wfgD and wfaP encode glucosyltransferases. Enzyme products from both glucosyltransferases were isolated by high-pressure liquid chromatography and analyzed by nuclear magnetic resonance. The spectra showed the expected Glc-β1-3-GlcNAc linkage in the products, confirming that both WfaP and WfgD are forms of UDP-Glc: GlcNAc-pyrophosphate-lipid β-1,3-glucosyltransferases. Both WfaP and WfgD have a DxD sequence, which is proposed to interact with phosphate groups of the nucleotide donor through the coordination of a metal cation, and a short hydrophobic sequence at the C terminus that may help to associate the enzymes with the inner membrane. We showed that the enzymes have similar properties and substrate recognition. They both require a divalent cation (Mn2+ or Mg2+) for activity, are deactivated by detergents, have a broad pH optimum, and require the pyrophosphate-sugar linkage in the acceptor substrate for full activity. Substrates lacking phosphate or pyrophosphate linked to GlcNAc were inactive. The length of the aliphatic chain of acceptor substrates also contributes to the activity.
  Min Wang , Boyang Cao , Qunfang Yu , Lei Liu , Qili Gao , Lei Wang and Lu Feng
  The 16S-23S rRNA gene internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions of Klebsiella spp., including Klebsiella pneumoniae subsp. pneumoniae, Klebsiella pneumoniae subsp. ozaenae, Klebsiella pneumoniae subsp. rhinoscleromatis, Klebsiella oxytoca, Klebsiella planticola, Klebsiella terrigena, and Klebsiella ornithinolytica, were characterized, and the feasibility of using ITS sequences to discriminate Klebsiella species and subspecies was explored. A total of 336 ITS sequences from 21 representative strains and 11 clinical isolates of Klebsiella were sequenced and analyzed. Three distinct ITS types—ITSnone (without tRNA genes), ITSglu [with a tRNAGlu (UUC) gene], and ITSile+ala [with tRNAIle (GAU) and tRNAAla (UGC) genes]—were detected in all species except for K. pneumoniae subsp. rhinoscleromatis, which has only ITSglu and ITSile+ala. The presence of ITSnone in Enterobacteriaceae had never been reported before. Both the length and the sequence of each ITS type are highly conserved within the species, with identity levels from 0.961 to 1.000 for ITSnone, from 0.967 to 1.000 for ITSglu, and from 0.968 to 1.000 for ITSile+ala. Interspecies sequence identities range from 0.775 to 0.989 for ITSnone, from 0.798 to 0.997 for ITSglu, and from 0.712 to 0.985 for ITSile+ala. Regions with significant interspecies variations but low intraspecies polymorphisms were identified; these may be targeted in the design of probes for the identification of Klebsiella to the species level. Phylogenetic analysis based on ITS regions reveals the relationships among Klebsiella species similarly to that based on 16S rRNA genes.
  Jian Wang , Lei Wang , Yu Zeng , Yu-Qing Fang , Qin Zhang and Yinghan Wang
  The alignment of nematic liquid crystals by rubbed polyimide surfaces has been well-studied and developed. A novel polyimide film which induced a homeotropic alignment of the nematic liquid crystal without rubbing or with weak rubbing strength was presented. However, there was a transition from homeotropic to planar alignment of the nematic liquid crystal after strong rubbing. In order to study the transition, the polyimide surface was investigated by atomic force microscopy, surface free energy measurement and angle-resolved analysis X-ray photo-electron spectroscopy before and after rubbing with a velvet fabric. It was found that both the change of surface polarity and surface morphology were not the reasons for the transition. The droop of the side chain on the polyimide surface after the rubbing treatment was detected by angle-resolved analysis X-ray photo-electron spectroscopy. Owing to the special structure of the novel polyimide, the X-ray photo-electron spectroscopy was successfully used for the first time to analyse the conformational change of the side chain of a polymer. In conclusion, the transition of nematic liquid crystal alignment from homeotropic to planar after rubbing was influenced by the side chain conformation of the polyimide.
  Sumire Fujiwara , Lei Wang , Linqu Han , Sung-Suk Suh , Patrice A. Salome , C. Robertson McClung and David E. Somers
  The circadian clock controls the period, phasing, and amplitude of processes that oscillate with a near 24-h rhythm. One core group of clock components in Arabidopsis that controls the pace of the central oscillator is comprised of five PRR (pseudo-response regulator) proteins whose biochemical function in the clock remains unclear. Peak expression of TOC1 (timing of cab expression 1)/PRR1, PRR3, PRR5, PRR7, and PRR9 are each phased differently over the course of the day and loss of any PRR protein alters period. Here we show that, together with TOC1, PRR5 is the only other likely proteolytic substrate of the E3 ubiquitin ligase SCFZTL within this PRR family. We further demonstrate a functional significance for the phosphorylated forms of PRR5, TOC1, and PRR3. Each PRR protein examined is nuclear-localized and is differentially phosphorylated over the circadian cycle. The more highly phosphorylated forms of PRR5 and TOC1 interact best with the F-box protein ZTL (ZEITLUPE), suggesting a mechanism to modulate their proteolysis. In vivo degradation of both PRR5 and ZTL is inhibited by blue light, likely the result of blue light photoperception by ZTL. TOC1 and PRR3 interact in vivo and phosphorylation of both is necessary for their optimal binding in vitro. Additionally, because PRR3 and ZTL both interact with TOC1 in vivo via the TOC1 N terminus, taken together these data suggest that the TOC1/PRR3 phosphorylation-dependent interaction may protect TOC1 from ZTL-mediated degradation, resulting in an enhanced amplitude of TOC1 cycling.
  Xuhui ZHANG , Baowei WANG , Fangyu LONG , Lei WANG and Zhigang YANG
  The objective of this study was to determine the influence of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on fatty acid composition and key enzymes of fatty acid oxidation in liver and muscle of geese. A total of 192 1-day-old geese were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 dietary groups, and were fed for 56 days on diets containing 2.5% soybean oil (group A, control group) or 2.0% soybean oil with 0.5% CLA (group B), 1.0% soybean oil with 1.5% CLA (group C), and 2.5 % CLA (group D). Geese fed CLA had a decreased abdominal fat percentage (AFP) (P < 0.01) compared with the control. It was observed that dietary CLA levels had a significant effect on the body weight, weight gain, feed conversion rate (FCR) (P < 0.05), and feed intake (P < 0.01). Fatty acid composition showed a significant increase of the biologically active cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10, and cis-12 CLA isomers in both liver and muscle of geese fed CLA (P < 0.01). Dietary CLA led to an increase (P < 0.01) in saturated fatty acid (SFA) and a reduction in monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) (P < 0.05) concentrations in both liver and muscle. In liver, dietary CLA increased (P < 0.05) acyl CoA oxidase (ACO) activity, but did not affect carnitine palmitoyltransferase-I (CPT-I) activity compared with the control. CPT-I activity was significantly increased by 2.5% dietary CLA in muscle, where ACO activity was decreased at 1.5% CLA level. The results obtained suggested that geese can successfully incorporate CLA in both liver and muscle, which could be beneficial in the human diet, through provision of bioactive fatty acids with no detrimental effects on n-3 PUFA levels.
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