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Articles by J Kang
Total Records ( 4 ) for J Kang
  K. J Schneider , C. A Emery , J Kang , G. M Schneider and W. H. Meeuwisse
  Background

Concussion is one of the most commonly occurring injuries in sport today. The Sport Concussion Assessment Tool (SCAT) is a commonly used paper neurocognitive tool. To date, little is known about SCAT baseline normative values in youth athletes.

Objective

The purpose of this study was to determine normative values on the SCAT for male and female youth hockey players.

Methods

This is a secondary data analysis of pooled data from three prospective cohort studies examining the risk of injury in paediatric ice hockey players aged 9–17 years. A preseason baseline demographic and injury history questionnaire was completed by each player.

Results

A total of 4193 players completed SCATs at baseline and were included in the analysis. 781 players (18.6%) reported a previous history of concussion. Fatigue and low energy followed by headache were the most commonly reported symptoms in all players. The majority of youth players could recite all five words immediately but only three words when delayed. A smaller proportion of the males were able to report the months of the year in reverse order compared with females of a similar age. The median number of digits recited in reverse order was 4.

Conclusions

Youth ratings varied between age groups, gender and from previously reported ratings of varsity athletes, possibly reflecting developmental and gender differences. An understanding of these differences in youth athletes is important to ensure appropriate performance expectations on the SCAT and when making clinical decisions following a concussion.

  L Li , J Kang and W. Lei
 

The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential role of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced preterm delivery. Intraperitoneal injection of LPS in the presence or absence of previous TLR4 blockade was performed to establish a murine model of preterm delivery. The incidences of preterm delivery and fetal death were calculated. Flow cytometry was performed to examine the percentages of blood CD45+CD86+, CD3+CD69+, CD19+CD69+ and CD49b+CD69+ cell subsets, and the percentages of placenta CD45+CD86+, CD45+CD49b+ and CD49b+CD69+ cell subpopulations. In our study, an inflammation-induced preterm delivery model was established by intraperitoneal injection of LPS. Blocking TLR4 significantly decreased LPS-induced preterm delivery and fetal death. LPS treatment markedly up-regulated the percentages of blood CD45+CD86+, CD3+CD69+ and CD49b+CD69+ cells, and of placenta CD45+CD86+, CD45+CD49b+ and CD49b+CD69+ cells. TLR4 blockade almost completely abrogated LPS-induced elevated cell proportions. These data demonstrate that TLR4 plays a critical role in inflammation-induced preterm delivery.

  S. J Wu , J Luo , K. T O'Neil , J Kang , E. R Lacy , G Canziani , A Baker , M Huang , Q. M Tang , T. S Raju , S. A Jacobs , A Teplyakov , G. L Gilliland and Y. Feng
 

Protein aggregation is of great concern to pharmaceutical formulations and has been implicated in several diseases. We engineered an anti-IL-13 monoclonal antibody CNTO607 for improved solubility. Three structure-based engineering approaches were employed in this study: (i) modifying the isoelectric point (pI), (ii) decreasing the overall surface hydrophobicity and (iii) re-introducing an N-linked carbohydrate moiety within a complementarity-determining region (CDR) sequence. A mutant was identified with a modified pI that had a 2-fold improvement in solubility while retaining the binding affinity to IL-13. Several mutants with decreased overall surface hydrophobicity also showed moderately improved solubility while maintaining a similar antigen affinity. Structural studies combined with mutagenesis data identified an aggregation ‘hot spot’ in heavy-chain CDR3 (H-CDR3) that contains three residues (99FHW100a). The same residues, however, were found to be essential for high affinity binding to IL-13. On the basis of the spatial proximity and germline sequence, we reintroduced the consensus N-glycosylation site in H-CDR2 which was found in the original antibody, anticipating that the carbohydrate moiety would shield the aggregation ‘hot spot’ in H-CDR3 while not interfering with antigen binding. Peptide mapping and mass spectrometric analysis revealed that the N-glycosylation site was generally occupied. This variant showed greatly improved solubility and bound to IL-13 with affinity similar to CNTO607 without the N-linked carbohydrate. All three engineering approaches led to improved solubility and adding an N-linked carbohydrate to the CDR was the most effective route for enhancing the solubility of CNTO607.

  J Kang and H. Yu
 

The spindle checkpoint is a cell cycle surveillance system that ensures the fidelity of chromosome segregation. In mitosis, it elicits the "wait anaphase" signal to inhibit the anaphase-promoting complex or cyclosome until all chromosomes achieve bipolar microtubule attachment and align at the metaphase plate. Because a single kinetochore unattached to microtubules activates the checkpoint, the wait anaphase signal is thought to be generated by this kinetochore and is then amplified and distributed throughout the cell to inhibit the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome. Several spindle checkpoint kinases participate in the generation and amplification of this signal. Recent studies have begun to reveal the activation mechanisms of these checkpoint kinases. Increasing evidence also indicates that the checkpoint kinases not only help to generate the wait anaphase signal but also actively correct kinetochore-microtubule attachment defects.

 
 
 
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