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Articles by H Shimizu
Total Records ( 7 ) for H Shimizu
  A Honda , R Abe , Y Yoshihisa , T Makino , K Matsunaga , J Nishihira , H Shimizu and T. Shimizu

Chronic ultraviolet (UV) exposure can increase the occurrence of p53 mutations, thus leading to a dysregulation of apoptosis and the initiation of skin cancer. Therefore, it is extremely important that apoptosis is induced quickly after UV irradiation, without any dysregulation. Recent studies have suggested a potentially broader role for macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) in growth regulation via its ability to antagonize p53-mediated gene activation and apoptosis. To further elucidate the possible role of MIF in photocarcinogenesis, the acute and chronic UVB effect in the skin was examined using macrophage migration inhibitory factor transgenic (MIF Tg) and wild-type (WT) mice. The MIF Tg mice exposed to chronic UVB irradiation began to develop skin tumors after ~14 weeks, whereas the WT mice began to develop tumors after 18 weeks. A higher incidence of tumors was observed in the MIF Tg in comparison with the WT mice after chronic UVB irradiation. Next, we clarified whether the acceleration of photo-induced carcinogenesis in the MIF Tg mice was mediated by the inhibition of apoptosis There were fewer sunburned cells in the epidermis of the MIF Tg mice than the WT mice after acute UVB exposure. The epidermis derived from the MIF Tg mice exhibited substantially decreased levels of p53, bax and p21 after UVB exposure in comparison with the WT mice. Collectively, these findings suggest that chronic UVB exposure enhances MIF production, which may inhibit the p53-dependent apoptotic processes and thereby induce photocarcinogenesis in the skin.

  T Kubo , Y Kuroda , H Shimizu , A Kokubu , N Okada , F Hosoda , Y Arai , Y Nakamura , H Taniguchi , K Yanagihara , I Imoto , J Inazawa , S Hirohashi and T. Shibata

The tyrosine kinase (TK) family is an important regulator of signaling pathways that control a variety of physiological and pathological conditions, and a substantial proportion of TK genes are genetically altered in cancer. To clarify the somatic mutation profile of TK genes and discover potential targets for gastric cancer (GC) therapy, we undertook a systematic screening of mutations in the kinase domains of all human TK genes (636 exons of 90 genes) in 17 GC cell lines and 52 microdissected primary GCs with poorly differentiated histology. We identified 26 non-synonymous alterations (22 genes in total) that included 11 sequence alterations in cell lines and 15 somatic mutations in primary tumors. Recurrent mutations were found in four genes including a known oncogene (NTRK3), the Src kinase family (LTK and CSK) and a potential Wnt signal activator (ROR2). In addition, we analyzed copy number alterations of all the TK gene loci in the same cohort samples by array-based comparative genomic hybridization analysis and identified 24 high-level amplifications and two homozygous deletions. Both sequence alteration and frequent copy number aberration were detected in two TK genes (HCK and ERBB2), strongly suggesting that they encode potential oncogenes in GC. Our focused and integrated analyses of systemic resequencing and gene copy number have revealed the novel onco-kinome profile of GC and pave the way to a comprehensive understanding of the GC genome.

  J Xu , M Futakuchi , M Iigo , K Fukamachi , D. B Alexander , H Shimizu , Y Sakai , S Tamano , F Furukawa , T Uchino , H Tokunaga , T Nishimura , A Hirose , J Kanno and H. Tsuda

Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is evaluated by World Health Organization/International Agency for Research on Cancer as a Group 2B carcinogen. The present study was conducted to detect carcinogenic activity of nanoscale TiO2 administered by a novel intrapulmonary spraying (IPS)-initiation–promotion protocol in the rat lung. Female human c-Ha-ras proto-oncogene transgenic rat (Hras128) transgenic rats were treated first with N-nitrosobis(2-hydroxypropyl)amine (DHPN) in the drinking water and then with TiO2 (rutile type, mean diameter 20 nm, without coating) by IPS. TiO2 treatment significantly increased the multiplicity of DHPN-induced alveolar cell hyperplasias and adenomas in the lung, and the multiplicity of mammary adenocarcinomas, confirming the effectiveness of the IPS-initiation–promotion protocol. TiO2 aggregates were localized exclusively in alveolar macrophages and had a mean diameter of 107.4 nm. To investigate the underlying mechanism of its carcinogenic effects, TiO2 was administered to wild-type rats by IPS five times over 9 days. TiO2 treatment significantly increased 8-hydroxydeoxy guanosine level, superoxide dismutase activity and macrophage inflammatory protein 1 (MIP1) expression in the lung. MIP1, detected in the cytoplasm of TiO2-laden alveolar macrophages in vivo and in the media of rat primary alveolar macrophages treated with TiO2 in vitro, enhanced proliferation of human lung cancer cells. Furthermore, MIP1, also detected in the sera and mammary adenocarcinomas of TiO2-treated Hras128 rats, enhanced proliferation of rat mammary carcinoma cells. These data indicate that secreted MIP1 from TiO2-laden alveolar macrophages can cause cell proliferation in the alveoli and mammary gland and suggest that TiO2 tumor promotion is mediated by MIP1 acting locally in the alveoli and distantly in the mammary gland after transport via the circulation.

  M. K Osako , H Nakagami , N Koibuchi , H Shimizu , F Nakagami , H Koriyama , M Shimamura , T Miyake , H Rakugi and R. Morishita

Arterial calcification and osteoporosis are associated in postmenopausal women. RANK (the receptor activator of nuclear factor B), RANKL (RANK ligand), and osteoprotegerin are key proteins in bone metabolism and have been found at the site of aortic calcification. The role of these proteins in vasculature, as well as the contribution of estrogen to vascular calcification, is poorly understood.


To clarify the mechanism of RANKL system to vascular calcification in the context of estrogen deficiency.

Methods and Results:

RANKL induced the calcification inducer bone morphogenetic protein-2 by human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs) and decreased the calcification inhibitor matrix Gla protein (MGP) in human aortic smooth muscle cells (HASMCs), as quantified by real-time PCR and Western blot analysis. RANKL also induced bone-related gene mRNA expression and calcium deposition (Alizarin red staining) followed by the osteogenic differentiation of HASMCs. Estrogen inhibited RANKL signaling in HAECs and HASMCs mainly through estrogen receptor . Apolipoprotein E–deficient mice fed with Western high-fat diet for 3 months presented atherosclerotic calcification (Oil red and Alizarin red staining) and osteoporosis (microcomputed tomographic analysis) after ovariectomy and increased expression of RANKL, RANK, and osteopontin in atherosclerotic lesion, as detected by in situ hybridization. Estrogen replacement inhibited osteoporosis and the bone morphogenetic protein osteogenic pathway in aorta by decreasing phosphorylation of smad-1/5/8 and increasing MGP mRNA expression.


RANKL contributes to vascular calcification by regulating bone morphogenetic protein-2 and MGP expression, as well as bone-related proteins, and is counteracted by estrogen in a receptor-dependent manner.

  H Shimizu , Y Hirose , F Nishijima , Y Tsubakihara and H. Miyazaki

Patients with chronic renal failure are at greater risk of developing atherosclerosis than healthy individuals, and recent data suggest that the putative uremic toxin indoxyl sulfate (IS) promotes the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. The present study examined the effects of IS on vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) with respect to reactive oxygen species (ROS), platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) receptors, and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). IS induced the migration and proliferation of VSMCs and synergistically enhanced their PDGF-induced migration as well as proliferation. The effects of PDGF were promoted after a 24-h incubation with IS despite the absence of IS during PDGF stimulation. Intracellular ROS levels were increased in the presence of IS, and PDGF-dependent ROS production was augmented by a prior 24-h incubation with IS even in the absence of IS during PDGF stimulation. These data suggest that IS increases the sensitivity of VSMCs to PDGF. IS also phosphorylated PDGF-β-receptors and upregulated PDGF-β receptor but not -receptor protein expression in the absence of exogenous PDGF. The NADPH oxidase inhibitor diphenylene iodonium blocked IS-dependent increase in receptor expression. Administration of IS to nephrectomized rats also elevated receptor protein expression in arterial VSMCs. Inhibitors of NADPH oxidase, PDGF-β receptors, extracellular-regulated protein kinase (ERK), and p38 MAPK all inhibited IS-induced VSMCs migration and proliferation. Taken together, these findings indicate that IS induces the migration as well as proliferation of VSMCs through PDGF-β receptors and that ROS generation is critically involved in this process, which promotes the development of atherosclerosis.

  H Shimizu , D Bolati , A Adijiang , A Enomoto , F Nishijima , M Dateki and T. Niwa

Various uremic toxins accumulate in patients with chronic renal failure (CRF) and one of them is indoxyl sulfate, which accelerates the progression of CRF through unknown mechanisms. The present study investigates how indoxyl sulfate promotes CRF using the proximal tubular cell line HK-2 and CRF rats. Indoxyl sulfate inhibited serum-induced cell proliferation and promoted the activation of senescence-associated β-galactosidase, a marker of cellular senescence, and the expression of -smooth muscle actin (-SMA), a marker of fibrosis, through inducing p53 expression and phosphorylation. Pifithrin-, p-nitro, a p53 inhibitor, blocked these effects. Indoxyl sulfate evoked reactive oxygen species (ROS), and the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine inhibited indoxyl sulfate-induced p53 expression and phosphorylation, as well as indoxyl sulfate-induced -SMA expression. We previously demonstrated that although cellular senescence and fibrosis are detectable in the kidneys of CRF rats, the oral adsorbent AST-120 repressed these effects. Here, we found that β-galactosidase, p53 and -SMA were expressed and colocalized in the renal tubules of CRF rats, whereas AST-120 decreased the expression of these genes. Taken together, these findings indicate that indoxyl sulfate induces the expression and phosphorylation of p53 though ROS production, thus inhibiting cell proliferation and promoting cellular senescence and renal fibrosis.

  H Shimizu , Y Nakagawa , C Murakami , N Aoki , S Kim Mitsuyama and H. Miyazaki

Vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation and migration and vascular endothelial cell (VEC) dysfunction are closely associated with the development of atherosclerosis. We previously demonstrated that protein tyrosine phosphatase M (PTPM) promotes VEC survival and migration. The present study investigates the biological functions of PTPM in VSMCs and determines whether PTPM is implicated in diabetes-accelerated atherosclerosis. We overexpressed wild-type and inactive PTPM and an small interfering RNA (siRNA) of PTPM by using an adenovirus vector to investigate the effects of PTPM upon platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)- and high glucose (HG)-induced responses of rat VSMCs in vitro. We found that PTPM decreased PDGF-induced DNA synthesis and migration by reducing the phosphorylation level of the PDGF β-receptor (PDGFRβ) with subsequently suppressed H2O2 generation. The HG content in the medium generated H2O2, upregulated PDGFRβ expression and its tyrosine-phosphorylation, and elevated NADPH oxidase 1 (Nox1) expression even without exogenous PDGF, all of which were downregulated by PTPM. The PDGFR inhibitor AG1296 also blocked HG-induced Nox1 expression and H2O2 production. Moreover, HG suppressed PTPM expression itself, which was blocked by the antioxidant N-acetyl-l-cysteine. The effects of PTPM siRNA were the opposite of those of wild-type PTPM. Therefore, PTPM negatively regulates PDGFRβ-mediated signaling pathways that are crucial for the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, and PTPM may be involved in diabetes-accelerated atherosclerosis.

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