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Articles by H Fu
Total Records ( 8 ) for H Fu
  H Fu , Z Hu , J Wen , K Wang and Y. Liu
 

Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) is involved in actin cytoskeleton reorganization and tumor progression. Fascin1, an actin-binding protein, increases cell invasiveness and motility in various transformed cells. To determine whether fascin1 is an important mediator of the tumor response to TGF-β, we applied the small interfering RNA (siRNA) technique to silence fascin1 in gastric cancer (GC) cells MKN45. Results showed that the effects of TGF-β1 on GC cells invasion and metastasis were mediated by tumor production of fascin1; furthermore, it was found that TGF-β1-induced fascin1 expression was suppressed by the specific inhibitors of JNK and ERK pathways, SP6001125 and PD98059, respectively, but not by transient transfection of Smad2 and Smad4 siRNA. Our data for the first time demonstrated that fascin1 is an important mediator of TGF-β1-induced invasion and metastasis of GC cells, which involves JNK and ERK signaling pathways.

  H Fu , M Lin , Y Katsumura , A Yokoya , K Hata , Y Muroya , K Fujii and N. Shikazono
 

Silybin (SLB) and similar analogues, namely, hesperetin (HESP), naringenin (NAN) and naringin (NAR), are believed to be active constituents of natural flavonoids that have been reported as chemopreventive agents for certain cancers. Moreover, SLB and analogues have been determined to fast repair DNA bases from oxidative damage by pulse radiolysis techniques. The present study was designed to evaluate the protective effects of SLB and analogues on soft X-ray-induced damage to plasmid DNA in vitro. The DNA damage was determined by agarose gel electrophoresis. SLB and analogues were found to protect DNA from radiation damage at micromolar concentrations. Among the compounds tested, HESP and SLB were the most effective in preventing X-ray-induced formation of DNA single-strand breaks (SSB). A comparison of these results with other experiments showed that the ability of SLB and analogues to inhibit DNA damage in vitro correlated with the ability of the compounds to scavenge free radicals. Our work revealed that natural flavonoids, SLB and analogues may be used as potent radioprotectors against radiation damage.

  M. J Yang , F Wang , J. H Wang , W. N Wu , Z. L Hu , J Cheng , D. F Yu , L. H Long , H Fu , N Xie and J. G. Chen
 

The adipocyte-derived hormone leptin and the pancreatic β-cell-derived hormone insulin function as afferent signals to the hypothalamus in an endocrine feedback loop that regulates body adiposity. They act in hypothalamic centers to modulate the function of specific neuronal subtypes, such as neuropeptide Y (NPY) neurons, by modifying neuronal electrical activity. To investigate the intrinsic activity of these neurons and their responses to insulin and leptin, we used a combination of morphological features and immunocytochemical technique to identify the NPY neurons of hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC) and record whole cell large-conductance Ca2+-activated potassium (BK) currents on them. We found that both of the hormones increase the peak amplitude of BK currents, shifting the steady-state activation curve to the left. The effect of both insulin and leptin can be prevented by pretreatment with inhibitors of tyrosine kinase and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) but not MAPK. These data indicate that PI3K-mediated signals are the common regulators of BK channels by insulin and leptin and mediated the two hormones' identical activatory effects on ARC NPY neurons. The effect of insulin and leptin together was similar to that of insulin or leptin alone, and leptin or insulin pretreatment did not lead to insulin- or leptin-sensitizing effects, respectively. These intracellular signaling mechanisms may play key roles in regulating ARC NPY neuron activity and physiological processes such as the control of food intake and body weight, which are under the combined control of insulin and leptin.

  H Fu , J He , F Mei , Q Zhang , Y Hara , S Ryota , R. A Lubet , R Chen , D. R Chen and M. You
 

Green tea has been shown to exhibit cancer-preventive activities in preclinical studies. However, (–)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) alone was shown to be ineffective in preventing lung tumorigenesis in mice by aerosol administration. In this study, Polyphenon E and Polyphenon E without EGCG were administered by aerosol delivery to A/J mice 2 weeks after carcinogen treatment and continuing daily throughout the remainder of the study (20 weeks). An improved aerosol delivery system with a custom-built atomizer, an efficient solvent remove system, and a nose-only exposure chamber was used to provide aerosols with stable size distribution. There were no significant differences in the size distributions of Polyphenon E and Polyphenon E without EGCG. With a relatively low dose level (4.19 mg/kg), Polyphenon E decreased tumor multiplicity by 53%, whereas Polyphenon E without EGCG at the same dose failed to inhibit lung carcinogenesis. These results indicate that aerosol administration can be an effective approach in chemoprevention study, and aerosolized Polyphenon E can significantly inhibit pulmonary adenoma formation and growth in A/J mice. Furthermore, in aerosolized form, EGCG, which is thought to be the most active component of Polyphenon E, has to be present with other tea catechins to show chemopreventive activity on lung tumorigenesis.

  K. J McKernan , H. E Peckham , G. L Costa , S. F McLaughlin , Y Fu , E. F Tsung , C. R Clouser , C Duncan , J. K Ichikawa , C. C Lee , Z Zhang , S. S Ranade , E. T Dimalanta , F. C Hyland , T. D Sokolsky , L Zhang , A Sheridan , H Fu , C. L Hendrickson , B Li , L Kotler , J. R Stuart , J. A Malek , J. M Manning , A. A Antipova , D. S Perez , M. P Moore , K. C Hayashibara , M. R Lyons , R. E Beaudoin , B. E Coleman , M. W Laptewicz , A. E Sannicandro , M. D Rhodes , R. K Gottimukkala , S Yang , V Bafna , A Bashir , A MacBride , C Alkan , J. M Kidd , E. E Eichler , M. G Reese , F. M De La Vega and A. P. Blanchard
 

We describe the genome sequencing of an anonymous individual of African origin using a novel ligation-based sequencing assay that enables a unique form of error correction that improves the raw accuracy of the aligned reads to >99.9%, allowing us to accurately call SNPs with as few as two reads per allele. We collected several billion mate-paired reads yielding ~18x haploid coverage of aligned sequence and close to 300x clone coverage. Over 98% of the reference genome is covered with at least one uniquely placed read, and 99.65% is spanned by at least one uniquely placed mate-paired clone. We identify over 3.8 million SNPs, 19% of which are novel. Mate-paired data are used to physically resolve haplotype phases of nearly two-thirds of the genotypes obtained and produce phased segments of up to 215 kb. We detect 226,529 intra-read indels, 5590 indels between mate-paired reads, 91 inversions, and four gene fusions. We use a novel approach for detecting indels between mate-paired reads that are smaller than the standard deviation of the insert size of the library and discover deletions in common with those detected with our intra-read approach. Dozens of mutations previously described in OMIM and hundreds of nonsynonymous single-nucleotide and structural variants in genes previously implicated in disease are identified in this individual. There is more genetic variation in the human genome still to be uncovered, and we provide guidance for future surveys in populations and cancer biopsies.

  R. J Luallen , H Fu and D. F Smith
 

Design of an envelope glycoprotein (Env)-based vaccine against human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) is complicated by the large number of N-linked glycans that coat the protein and serve as a barrier to antibody-mediated neutralization. Compared to normal mammalian glycoproteins, high-mannose-type glycans are disproportionately represented on the gp120 subunit of Env. These N-glycans serve as a target for a number of anti-HIV molecules that bind terminal 1,2-linked mannose residues, including lectins and the monoclonal antibody 2G12. We created a Saccharomyces cerevisiae glycosylation mutant, mnn1mnn4, to expose numerous terminal Man1,2-Man residues on endogenous hypermannosylated glycoproteins in the yeast cell wall. Immunization of rabbits with whole cells from this mutant induced antibodies that bound to a broad range of Env proteins, including clade A, B, and C of HIV and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV). The gp120 binding activity of these immune sera was due to mannose-specific immunoglobulin, as removal of high-mannose glycans and 1,2-linked mannoses from gp120 abrogated serum binding. Glycan array analysis with purified IgG demonstrated binding mainly to glycans with Man1,2-Man1,2-Man trisaccharides. Altogether, these data demonstrate the immunogenicity of exposed polyvalent Man1,2-Man1,2-Man structures on the yeast cell wall mannan and their ability to induce antibodies that bind to the HIV Env protein. The yeast strain and sera from this study will be useful tools for determining the type of mannose-specific response that is needed to develop neutralizing antibodies to the glycan shield of HIV.

  D Ding , M. F Hovell , M Ji , C. R Hofstetter , P Zheng , H Fu and S. C. Hughes
  Introduction:

This study explored social determinants of smoking among a sample of male Chinese adults in Changqiao, a community representing the transition from traditional to a "mobile" urban culture in China. New commercial systems have introduced high profits but also layoffs in the absence of government security systems.

Methods:

In-person interviews were conducted by trained interviewers with 123 male participants selected at random. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were computed based on the Behavioral Ecological Model (BEM). About 61% of male participants were ever-smokers and 48% were current smokers.

Results:

Current smoking was associated with involuntary unemployment (odds ratio [OR] = 6.52), the absence of home smoking restrictions (OR = 0.34), and social reinforcement such as friends’ smoking (OR = 4.02) and receiving smoking-related gifts (OR = 6.39).

Discussion:

Findings support the BEM. It is especially important to verify the relationship between unemployment and smoking, given the recent rise in involuntary job loss due to the transitional economy in China.

  Z. L Hu , C Huang , H Fu , Y Jin , W. N Wu , Q. J Xiong , N Xie , L. H Long , J. G Chen and F. Wang
 

Acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) extensively exist in both central and peripheral neuronal systems and contribute to many physiological and pathological processes. The protein that interacts with C kinase 1 (PICK1) was cloned as one of the proteins interacting with protein kinase C (PKC) and colocalized with ASIC1 and ASIC2. Here, we used PICK1 knockout (PICK1-KO) C57/BL6 mice together with the whole cell patch clamp, calcium imaging, RT-PCR, Western blot, and immunocytochemistry techniques to explore the possible change in ASICs and the regulatory effects of PKC on ASICs. The results showed that PICK1 played a key role in regulation of ASIC functions. In PICK1-KO mouse cortical neurons, both the amplitude of ASIC currents and elevation of [Ca2+]i mediated by acid were decreased, which were attributable to the decreased expression of ASIC1a and ASIC2a proteins in the plasma membrane. PKC, a partner protein of PICK1, regulated ASIC functions via PICK1. The agonist and antagonist of PKC only altered ASIC currents and acid-induced increase in [Ca2+]i in wild-type, but not in KO mice. In conclusion, our data provided the direct evidence from PICK1-KO mice that a novel target protein, PICK1, would regulate ASIC function and membrane expression in the brain. In addition, PICK1 played the bridge role between PKC and ASICs.

 
 
 
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