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Articles by F.M. Yusoff
Total Records ( 6 ) for F.M. Yusoff
  N.S. Mariana , M.A. Norfarrah , F.M. Yusoff and A. Arshad
  Resistant strain issues of Staphylococcus aureus remain a global challenge and strategic drug discovery programs have been initiated to confront the issue through drug design based on infective target site. Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains treated with a marine extract, exhibiting potential inhibitory activity through plate and tube assays were screened for activity on selected genes, namely genes encoding for important survival structure of bacteria. Bacterial cytoplasmic membrane is a vital structure and a critical barrier separating inside of cell from the environment. Disruption in membrane integrity will result in leakage of internal contents and followed by cell death. The necessity for bacteria to have membranes makes the membrane a practical target. With this premise, studies on MRSA membrane synthesis genes; msrR and mprF genes were conducted via molecular biotechnological approaches. The effect of the resistant gene mecA was also investigated. Alteration of nucleotide sequence after treatment was observed only in the mprF gene and was not evidence in nucleotide sequence of msrR gene. The selective targeting of mprF gene by the marine extract is an invaluable finding which requires further investigations on the feasibility of the target gene to be utilized in the development of anti-infective agent against MRSA. The research constitutes a scientific advancement in the field of medical treatment of drug resistant bacteria and a forefront study of drugs discovery program focusing drugs target genes.
  Z.T. Harith , F.M. Yusoff , M. Shariff and A.B. Ariff
  The aim of this study was to optimize and to propose the suitable separation method and storage conditions for specific species of microalgae. The performance of different separation methods for the recovery of cell biomass of marine microalgae, Chaetoceros calcitrans, from the culture broth was evaluated. The microalgae were cultivated using 10 L photobioreactor. The microalgae cell cultures were concentrated either by centrifugation, tangential flow filtration or flocculation and then stored at different temperatures (-20, 4 and 27°C) to investigate the optimum storage conditions for C. calcitrans prior to different downstream processing methods. High concentration of cell in slurry (4.88x107 cells mL-1) was obtained using centrifugation as compared to tangential flow filtration (4.14x107 cells mL-1), flocculation with chitosan (1.56x107 cells mL-1) and flocculation with Magnafloc®LT 25 (8.24x106 cells mL-1). Storage of C. calcitrans biomass at chilled temperature (4°C) directly after the harvesting using these four different separation methods resulted in extended shelf life (> 4 weeks). Frozen biomass (-20°C) fails to preserve the quality of C. calcitrans after they were revived in fresh medium. C. calcitrans flocculated with 0.5 mg L-1 Magnafloc®LT 25 was able to maintain the quality of the cells after storage at 27°C for more than 2 weeks. However, flocculation of cells with 20 mg L-1 chitosan, centrifugation at 8000 rpm for 10 min and tangential flow filtration process at transmembrane pressure of 20 psi failed to retain the quality of biomass after storage for 2 weeks at 27°C.
  N.S. Mariana , M.A. Norfarrah , K.A.N.I. Nik , F.M. Yusoff and A. Arshad
  This study investigated the antibacterial activity of the methanolic extract of the animal to justify its use in traditional medicine. Antimicrobial activity was assayed by disc diffusion method and broth macro dilution method. From the result it appeared that the methanolic extract of Stichopus badionotus displayed antibacterial activities against Staphylococcus aureus, three non resistant strains and three multiple resistant strains. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) of the extract against non resistant strain values were 3.75 mg mL -1 and for resistant strain values 7.50 mg mL -1. Further more, this extract tested on rats in wound infection model justified faster healing rates compared to antibiotics. These results indicate that the traditional use of these holothurians for the treatment of S. aureus infection mainly on resistant strains should be elucidate to bring out the potential antibacterial agent.
  N.Z. Zulikha , F.M. Yusoff , J. Nishikawa , A. Arshad and H.M. Matias-Peralta
  The study was undertaken to determine zooplankton composition and abundance along Perak River estuarine system during the Northeast (NE) monsoon. Monthly samplings were conducted from November 2009 until February 2010. Four sampling stations were selected along the salinity gradient covering stations from the upstream down to 1 km off the coastal sea area. The zooplankton samples were collected by vertical tows using conical plankton net (100 μm mesh size). Throughout the monsoon season, a total of 11 higher taxa of zooplankton groups were recognized, of which copepods were the dominant group comprising 96% (including nauplii and copepodites) 95 and 99% of the total zooplankton abundance in the marine, estuarine and upstream station, respectively. Seventeen species of copepods from 10 genera were identified. Total zooplankton abundances recorded during the sampling period were 45.5±18.9x103, 34.9±25.9x103 and 45.9±30.5x103 individual m-3 in the upstream, estuarine and marine station, respectively. Multidimensional Scaling (MDS) analysis based on zooplankton abundance revealed three distinct groups separating the upstream from the estuarine and marine stations. Similarly, lower diversity index was recorded in the estuarine station (H’ = 2.04±0.28) compared to marine area (H’ = 2.20±0.26), suggesting that less copepod species were tolerant to the drastic changes of the estuarine environment. Low copepod densities were recorded in the beginning of the monsoon season, but progressively increased with a peak in the middle of the monsoon season. The results demonstrated that the Perak estuary was a turbid environment with drastic changes in salinity levels due to high inflow of freshwater during the monsoon season which affect the distribution of the zooplankton populations.
  A.S. Nursuhayati , F.M. Yusoff and M. Shariff
  Phytoplankton forms the essential base of the aquatic food web and plays a major role in aquatic productivity and ecosystem health. In the estuary and coastal waters, one of the major factors that controls phytoplankton community structure is the salinity changes along the river-sea continuum. The study was conducted to determine spatial and temporal distribution of phytoplankton along the salinity gradient in Perak river estuarine system during the northeast monsoon from November 2009 to February 2010. Four stations were established along the salinity gradient, from upstream where the salinity was 0.0 ppt to the marine area with salinity values of more than 25.0 ppt. The phytoplankton comprised of six main families namely, Bacillariophyceae (diatoms), Chlorophyceae (green algae), Cyanobacteria (blue-green algae), Chrysophyceae (golden-brown algae), Euglenophyceae (euglenoids) and Pyrrophyceae (dinoflagellates). A total of 93 species of phytoplankton were recorded from all the stations throughout the season, with green algae and diatoms dominating the upstream and the marine areas, respectively. On the other hand, the estuarine stations were dominated by both green algae and diatoms. The marine station had the highest (p<0.05) species density during the monsoon season compared to the other stations with a mean total density of 190.6±27.4 cells mL-1, whereas, the lowest (p<0.05) density (73.8±11 cells mL-1) was observed in the upstream station. Multidimensional scaling analysis based on the phytoplankton densities revealed two distinct groups. The first group consisted of the phytoplankton from the marine station, whereas, the other group consisted of the phytoplankton from the estuarine and upstream stations. In general phytoplankton distribution in Perak estuary was more similar to the freshwater rather than the marine plankton community due to a large flow of freshwater into the estuary during the northeast monsoon. This study revealed that salinity was an important factor in determining the phytoplankton distribution in this tropical ecotone.
  J.I. Lai , F.M. Yusoff and M. Shariff
  Outdoor mass culture of microalgae in the tropical area is important to minimize its production cost. This study evaluates the growth of Chaetoceros calcitrans in 120 L annular photobioreactors at indoor temperature (Treatment I, 25±2°C) and outdoor tropical ambient temperature, (Treatment II, 30±6°C). Each treatment was done in duplicates. For both treatments, C. calcitrans was first grown in starter columns of 10 L capacity for a period of 7 days at 25±2°C. After 7 days, the 9 L culture was transferred to the annular photobioreactors and subsequently brought to a final volume of 100 L by adding 20 L fresh medium every 5 days. There was no significant difference (p>0.05) in the dry weight of microalgae grown in natural light and those grown indoor. The results suggest that C. calcitrans can be grown in outdoor conditions, hence, saving time and microalgae production cost for the larviculture industry.
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