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Articles by E.Y. Sukandar
Total Records ( 10 ) for E.Y. Sukandar
  L. Amalia , E.Y. Sukandar , R.M.A. Roesli and J.I. Sigit
  The aim of this study was to determine the effect of ethanol extract of kucai bulbs on serum nitric oxide (NO) levels in rats, in an attempt to study the mechanism of antihypertensive action. The measurement of NO level was conducted by Griess colorimetric assay. The male Wistar rats were divided randomly into three groups; the first group was treated with kucai extract of 100 mg kg-1 body weight (kucai-treated group); the second group with isosorbide dinitrate (ISDN) of 0.18 mg kg-1 body weight (ISDN-treated group) and the third group with vehicle only (control group). The results showed that at 30 min (T30) the mean NO level in kucai-treated group increased significantly (138.69 ± 169.38%) compared to baseline (T0); similarly, in ISDN-treated group, the mean NO level increased (212.08 ± 140.01%) significantly. At T90, average NO levels in kucai-treated group was significantly higher than those in control group (p = 0.018), while those in ISDN-treated group were not significantly higher than those in control group (p = 0.436). Compared to kucai-treated group, NO levels in ISDN-treated group at T90 was significantly different (p = 0.028). From this study it can be concluded that ethanol extract of kucai bulbs increased significantly serum NO level in experimental rats. Therefore, it is preassumed that antihypertensive effect shown by kucai is, one of which, due to mechanism of vasodilator action. The present results showed that kucai increased NO levels and this might be one mechanism of blood pressure lowering action of kucai.
  K. Anam , A.G. Suganda , E.Y. Sukandar and L. Broto S. Kardono
  A component of ethylacetate extract of Terminalia muelleri Benth. leaves, was found to inhibit Staphyloccoccus aureus and Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus growth therefore, the aims of this study were to investigate the effect of the active components on morphology of bacteria cell which was observed by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM). Tetracycline HCl, penicillin G and vancomycin HCl were used as reference antibiotic. The active component at twice of the MIC caused shrinkage and thinning of the cell wall. The cell damage pattern which is caused by the active compound was similar to the damage caused by vancomycin HCl. It was explained that the antibacterial target of action of the active compound was inhibit the synthesis of the cell wall.
  E.Y. Sukandar , H. Permana , I.K. Adnyana , J.I. Sigit , R.A. Ilyas , P. Hasimun and D. Mardiyah
  Turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) and garlic (Allium sativum Lin.) are known as traditional drugs that can cure several diseases such as dyslipidemia and diabetes. Many studies on individual usages of garlic and turmeric have been done previously. Present preclinical study showed that combination of both substances gave a better result compared to their individual usage. This research was aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of turmeric and garlic extracts combination as antihyperglycemic and antihyperlipidemic agents for type-2 diabetes-dyslipidemia. Three doses were evaluated: 1.2, 1.6 and 2.4 g, daily. It was found that the garlic-curcuma combination could reduce plasma glucose level and HbA1C as well as improve the lipid profile. Among those 3 dosages, the dose of 2.4 g decreased fasting glucose level, 2 h postprandial glucose level, HbA1C, total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein, triglyceride and body mass index more than the two other dosages. This dose level also increased high density lipoprotein higher than the other two dosages. There was no significant adverse event observed during the study. The treatment also showed no side effect on kidney and liver functions as well as the blood composition of all subjects.
  P. Hasimun , E.Y. Sukandar , I.K. Adnyana and D.H. Tjahjono
  Screening of antihyperlipidemic agents generally takes 1-2 month using hyperlipidemia-animal model induced by high cholesterol diet. The aim of this research was to develop a method for screening of antihyperlipidemic agents in relatively short time. This method takes only 8 days, yet it gives similar result compared to conventional method. Animals were orally induced with propylthiouracil of 10 mg kg-1 b.wt. dosage and 0.01% PTU in drinking water for 7 days. On day 8 test drugs were given to animals orally. One hour after test drugs administration, animals were given a solution of high dosage cholesterol in vegetable oil of 400 mg kg-1 b.wt. Serum total cholesterol level was measured in every 1 h after administration of cholesterol for 6 h. After 6 h, a level of total cholesterol in the liver and feces were measured. Result showed that administration of cholesterol in hypothyroid animals significantly raised the serum total cholesterol level in 6 h compared to normal animals induced by cholesterol without previous PTU administration. Administration of low dose of propylthiouracil and 0.01% PTU in drinking water for 7 days before the cholesterol played importance role in increasing the serum total cholesterol level in blood. This method is simpler and requires less time to get hyperlipidemia animal model. Serial measurement of serum total cholesterol level in every hour for 6 h gave a cholesterol profile that can explain different drug mechanisms in cholesterol homeostasis.
  P. Hasimun , E.Y. Sukandar , I.K. Adnyana and D.H. Tjahjono
  Turmeric and garlic have been known to lower cholesterol levels in hyperlipidemic state. Thus, both can be used as an alternative hyperlipidemia therapy to prevent complications of cardiovascular diseases. However, the mechanism of actions of both in lowering cholesterol are still unclear. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of curcuminoid, S-methyl cysteine and its combination in regulation of cholesterol levels in serum, liver and feces. This study used an animal model of rats with cholesterol metabolism abnormality induced by propylthiouracyl for 7 days. Curcuminoid, S-methyl cysteine and its combination were given on day 8, 1 h before the induction of cholesterol solution. Total cholesterol level in serum, liver and feces were measured during 6 h of observation. The results showed that the curcuminoid, S-methyl cysteine and its combination maintained the serum cholesterol within the normal level by inhibiting cholesterol absorption and lowering cholesterol level in liver. Curcuminoid and its combination with S-methyl cysteine increased the conversion of cholesterol into the feces as much as 3 times higher than the control group. While the S-methyl cysteine alone did not increase the conversion of cholesterol into the feces. We concluded that curcuminoid and S-methyl cysteine have multiple site of actions in lowering cholesterol level in the body. Both also work synergistically to overcome hyperlipidemia.
  E. Sovia , E.Y. Sukandar , J.I. Sigit and L.D.N. Sasongko
  Turmeric and garlic have been known to have antibiabetes effect. Therefore, both can be used as an alternative therapy in the treatment of diabetes. However, their mechanism of action in lowering blood glucose is still unknown. In this study, we investigated the effect of curcuminoid, S-methyl cysteine and its combination on blood glucose level and improvement of pancreatic damage in alloxan induced diabetes mice. Curcuminoid, S-methyl cysteine and their combination were given for 21 days. Then, blood glucose levels were measured and mice were sacrificed and pancreas were isolated for immunohistochemical analysis. The results showed a significant difference of blood glucose levels between control group with treatment group. Adminstration of curcuminoid, S-methyl cysteine and its combination can lower blood glucose levels significantly. Immunohistochemical analysis of pancreas showed a darker color intensity in the group given by curcuminoid and S-methyl cysteine compared with the control group. While the group given by its combination showed minor change compared with the control group. In conclusion curcuminoid, S-methyl cysteine and its combination can lower blood glucose levels. Curcuminoid and S-methyl cysteine could repair damage of pancreas caused by the induction of alloxan while its combination showed only a minor improvement.
  E.Y. Sukandar , I. Fidrianny and L.F. Adiwibowo
  The kidneys are important organs in the process of filtering blood. Damage of the renal function often leads to Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD). Anredera cordifolia leaves, traditionally, are used to treat various diseases, including kidney failure. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the effect of three different doses Anredera cordifolia leaves extract against renal function improvement in renal failure conditions. The research includes quality analysis and testing of the effects of Anredera cordifolia leaves extract to kidney failure. Rat model of renal failure were developed using gentamicin (100 mg kg-1 b.wt.) intraperitoneally and piroxicam (3.6 mg kg-1 b.wt.) orally for 8 days. Anredera cordifolia extract (50, 100 and 150 mg kg-1 b.wt.) was given from day 8 for four weeks. Evaluation of renal function included serum creatinine levels, serum urea levels, organ index and kidney’s histology. After four week of therapy, Anredera cordifolia extract at doses of 50, 100 and 150 mg kg-1 b.wt. decreased creatinine levels (0.02±0.17, 0.07±0.13 and 0.05±0.12) mg dL-1 which were significantly different to the positive control group. Urea level decrease also occurred significantly in the test dose of 150 mg kg-1 b.wt. of 20.35±2.89 mg dL-1. Anredera cordifolia extract dose of 150 mg kg-1 b.wt. significantly influenced on renal index. Histological results in the three test group also showed improvement in renal cells after administration of the extract. Extracts on all three types of test dose provided improvements to the kidney function.
  E.Y. Sukandar , Nurdewi and Elfahmi
  Guazuma ulmifolia Lamk. (mutamba) and Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb. (java turmeric) has been used traditionally as slimming agent and for treating various diseases including hypercholesterolemia. In this study, the effect of aqueous extract of mutamba leaves in combination with ethanol extract of java turmeric has been determined on lipid blood level of Wistar rats compared to each extract alone in hyperlipidemic induced rats. Thirty male rats weighing 180-200 g were divided into six groups receiving mutamba extract, java turmeric extract, simvastatin as a reference of antihyperlipidemic drug, combination of mutamba and java turmeric at two different doses and one control group. The extract was given daily for 14 days at the same time as the administration of propylthiouracil and food high in cholesterol content to induce hyperlipidemia. The serum levels of total cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL and LDL were measured after 3, 7 and 14 days of treatment. The result were analyzed statistically using ANOVA. The results indicated that combination of aqueous extract of mutamba leaves at a dose of 25 mg kg-1 b.wt. and ethanol extract of Java turmeric rhizome at a dose of 12.5 mg kg-1 b.wt. decreased total cholesterol and LDL level significantly compared to control group (p = 0.004) after 7 days of treatments. Aqueous extract of mutamba leaves at a dose of 50 mg kg-1 b.wt. did not show any significant effect while ethanol extract of java turmeric rhizome at a dose of 25 mg kg-1 b.wt. decreased only LDL level significantly.
  I.K. Adnyana , E.Y. Sukandar , F. Setiawan and Y. Christanti
  Quinine is an alkaloid which isolated from the bark of Cinchona sp., native plant from South America, especially in Andes Mountains. Beside the function as an anti-malaria, quinine is used as anti-pyretic, analgesic, treatment for myotonia and nocturnal leg cramps. Nocturnal leg cramps is common clinical problem seen most frequently in the elderly. Quinine therapy was reported to be effective in relieving nocturnal leg cramps. However, due to side effects that appear limited this used. O-desmethyl quinine (C19H22N2O2) is one of quinine active metabolites that lost its methyl group. Therefore, this study was aimed to determine the efficacy and safety O-desmethyl quinine compared to quinine in treatment nocturnal leg cramps. Mice model were established by triction and rota rod method. Rats model were established through spinal cord injury and be evaluated by swimming test for 6 weeks. Test animals of spinal cord injury method were divided into three group consisted of control group, group treated with quinine orally at a dose of 26 mg kg-1 b.wt. and group treated with O-desmethyl quinine orally at a dose 26 mg kg-1 b.wt. On the last day, blood was taken to evaluate hematological profile. O-desmethyl quinine showed reduction frequency of cramps in rats with spinal cord injury. Improvement of quinine group was seen at week 6 and on O-desmethyl quinine group began from week 3 O-desmethyl quinine group showed lower blood toxicity compared to quinine group.
  K. Anam , A.G. Suganda , E.Y. Sukandar and L.B.S. Kardono
  The objective of this study was to know the antibacterial compound from T.muelleri. Extraction of leaf of T. muelleri using solvents of increasing polarity, namely, n-hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol, respectively, yielded dry extracts. The extracts were tested for antibacterial activity. Ethyl acetate extract exhibited the strongest activity against standard strains of Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 and Escherichia coli ATCC 25922. The ethyl acetate extracts had been fractionated, yielded 9 fractions.The fraction EH exhibited the strongest activity against S. aureus. The separation of chemical contents of fraction EH was carried out by Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography, yielded a pure substance. The substances was identified as 3,4,5-trihidroxybenzoic acid by chromatographic and spectroscopic analysis. This substance is a well-known antibacterial activities. The activity of 1 mg 3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid was equal to 0.1396 μg tetracycline HCl against S. aureus and 0.6455 μg against Methicilin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus, also equals to 40.6035 μg penicillin G against S. aureus and equals to 2.9823 and 2.1213 μg vancomycin HCl against S. aureus and Methicilin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus, respectively.
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