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Articles by D. Mota-Rojas
Total Records ( 21 ) for D. Mota-Rojas
  M. Sciences-Hernandez , M. Soriano-Lopez , D. Mota-Rojas , A. Vergara Iglesias , R. Ramirez-Necoechea , A. Olmos-Hernandez , J. Toca-Ramirez and M. Alonso-Spilsbury
  Ambystoma mexicanum is an amphibian endemic to Xochimilco Lake in Mexico City. It has been declared in danger of extinction and is under special protection. Some chemical contaminants in the water are extremely high and could be the cause of its high mortality rate in certain areas of Xochimilco. In order to preserve this species it will not only be necessary and fundamental to prohibit fishing axolotls in their natural state, a market study and nutritional chemical analysis will also be necessary in order to establish the organoleptic properties and level of acceptance before a taste panel; that is to say, get to know more about the specie in order to give the product added value offering its meat as an unconventional delicacy. This way the creation of farms that will help its conservation will be justified. On the other hand it is important to mention that the axolotls are very important in scientific research. Since it serves as an amphibious model for many physiological and morphological processes that explain the regenerative process that this species possess. The objective of this study is to emphasize the advantages that the Ambystoma mexicanum has with the intention to rationally exploit these attributes in order to achieve its conservation.
  M. A. Cisneros-Puebla , D. Mota-Rojas , L. P. Moles-Cervantes , R.Ram?rez-Necoechea and M. Alonso-Spilsbury
  A herd of Mexican Hairless Swine, maintained in an agro-silvi-culture pasture in the village of Chapa de Mota, Mexico, underwent a serological study after one of the sows aborted a litter showing fever. Blood samples were drawn from thirty-four animals in reproductive stage, which then underwent a treatment, based on a streptomycin dose of 25 mg/kg live weight during five days. Twenty-eight samples were taken 15 days after the herd either farrowed or aborted. Seroconversion was found in five animals with a serovar of hardjo H 89 origin. One of the animals aborted after seventy-eight days of gestation; in all the cases there was a negative increase of between 1:200 to 1:800 titres, while the serovar bratislava presented titres in six animals. In two cases the seroconversion went from a negative to a 1:200, while one of the pigs miscarried on the 77th day of pregnancy, and two other animals went from a titre 1:100 to 1:200. Another sow lost a litter on day 84, and in the last two animals the titre was maintained at 1:100, though one of the pigs aborted on the 86th day. This paper constitutes the first report of an outbreak of abortions in the Mexican Hairless Swine caused by Leptospira interrogans serovars bratislava and hardjo.
  S?nchez-Aparicio P , M. Gonz?lez-Lozano , D. Mota-Rojas , M. Alonso-Spilsbury , M.E. Trujillo-Ortega , R. Ram?rez-Necoechea and 2R.E. P?rez-Galv?n
  Artisan pig family farms are an important mean of income, in spite of their poor performance they represent a small capital fund that can be used when faced with urgent cash flow situations, or to face immediate family feeding needs. Boar service rental in urban and rural areas is still common, this consists of renting boars for breeding in exchange of cash or in species. The objective of the present study was to carry out a retrospective analysis of the records of 63 boars, in order to characterize the frequency of use, age, preferred breed by the public of the region, and distances walked and traveled by the boars in service in the Chinampa region of Xochimilco, Mexico City. An average of 0.19 to 0.27 mountings per day was observed which corresponds to 1.36 and 1.92 mountings per week. Boars had short intervals between mountings, one or two days, or else carried out one mounting per year, registering an average of 15.94 days between breedings. Boars older than twelve months had the highest number of mountings, more than 50, and were used only for one year. Surprisingly, males staying for 3 to 4 years, were not the ones that registered more mating activity since these pigs could not overcome an average of 40 mountings during their 4 years staying at the farm. Distances walked by boars during service, varied from 0.5 km in the Chinampa region, to 25 km in urban areas. The results obtained in this study indicate that the reproductive efficiency in backyard swine breeding can not be established due to the lack of an appropriate reproductive program. It is necessary to consider hygiene and health measures in all the boars, since the increase in annual number of mountings could also rise the risk of venereal diseases during contact with females from different origin and unknown hygiene habits.
  M. Alonso-Spilsbury , R. Ramirez-Necoechea , M. Gonzlez-Lozano , D. Mota-Rojas and M.E. Trujillo-Ortega
  Piglet death during the perinatal and lactation period is one of the more easily identified causes of reduced production efficiency in swine herds. Pre-weaning mortality rates vary between 12 and 25%. The present review analyses factors related with non-infectious pre-weaning mortality. Among the maternal factors, farrowing and intra-uterine asphyxia, behaviour and maternal ability are discussed. Piglet factors include newborn vigour, teat seeking ability, acidosis, hypothermia and hypoglucemia. Even though there had been technological changes and improvements in husbandry, housing designs and preventive measures, piglet mortality in lactation remains a major economical and welfare problem. The major causes of pre-weaning mortality are those associated with basic husbandry skills, starvation and crushing by the sow. One potential alternative to reduce neonatal mortality in pigs is the monitoring of foetal stress during birth, it is also important to consider the physiological, behavioural and biochemical changes that take place during early lactation which subsequently affect the vitality, maturity and development of neonatal pigs. A mortality rate of say 8% of piglets born alive is possible and should be the target, getting more knowledge of factors influencing piglet non-infectious mortality within the first three days may help improve piglet welfare.
  P. Sanchez-Aparicio , D. Mota-rojas , R. Ramirez Necoechea , A. Olmos-Hernandez , M. Alonso-Spilsbury , D. Villanueva-Garcia , M.E. Trujillo-Ortega and R. Hernandez-Gonzalez
  Sildenafil citrate is an orally administered effective treatment for erectile dysfunction; nevertheless administrated in high concentrations produces relaxation of myometrium in pregnant women, thus sildenafil or related molecules may have future potential tocolytic application. In the present review sildenafil mechanism of action, pharmakocinetics and therapeutic use are discussed. Sildenafil is also considered a potent pulmonary vasodilator in pharmacology representing an alternative to neonates during the last month of in utero development. We conclude that studies in animals including metabolic and physiological traits in the fetus and neonates from treated dams with sildenafil in their last third of pregnancy may help to characterize neonate tolerance to asphyxia with posterior application in human perinatology.
  M. Becerril , C. Lemus , J.G. Herrera , M. Huerta , M. Alonso-Spilsbury , R. Ramirez-Necoechea , D. Mota-Rojas and J. Ly
  A 2x2 factorial arrangement was used for evaluating carcass traits and meat quality of 22 Yorkshire x Landrace (YL) and 13 Pelón Mexicano (PM) castrate male and female pigs 63 days old which were allotted at random during 16 weeks into 2 rearing systems consisting of total (15 and 7 pigs) or partial confinement (7 and 6 pigs). Partial confinement included rearing animals outdoors in a grass prairie (Brachiaria brizantha) from 9-16 h. There were no significant differences (p<0.05) for the interaction rearing system x genotype in any measurement conducted throughout this experiment. Highly significant (p<0.001) differences between genotypes was encountered for carcass yield and primary cuts adjusted to slaughter weight as covariable. However, carcass yield expressed as percentage of slaughter weight only tended (p<0.103) to favour YL pigs. Differences between rearing systems were less marked, with better carcass traits in either totally confined YL animals or partially confined PM pigs. The genotype effect was at least significantly (p<0.01) different in all measurements indicating a higher fat content in carcasses of PM pigs, when compared to YL animals. Length of some reservoir digestive organs were significantly (p<0.001) higher in PM than in YL pigs. There were no significant differences (p>0.05) in meat quality indices, including meat pH, water holding capacity, color and marbling. It is considered that a total or partial confinement, consisting on daily grazing outdoors, rearing system, has less influence on carcass traits in pigs when Pelón Mexicano and Yorkshire x Landrace pigs are compared.
  M. Becerril , C. Lemus , J.G. Herrera , M. Huerta , M. Alonso-Spilsbury , R. Ramirez-Necoechea , D. Mota-Rojas and J. Ly
  A 2x2 factorial arrangement was used for evaluating performance traits during 16 weeks in 2 groups of 22 Yorkshire x Landrace (YL) and 13 Pelón Mexicano (PM) castrate male and female pigs 63 days old which were allotted at random into 2 rearing systems consisting of total (15 and 7 pigs) or partial confinement (7 and 6 pigs). Partial confinement included rearing animals outdoors in a grass prairie (Brachiaria brizantha) from 9:00-16:00 h. No significant differences (p<0.05) for the interaction rearing system x genotype were found in any measured performance trait. It was observed that treatments involving Yorkshire x Landrace animals had a high significant (p<0.001) live weight at any age, as compared to the PM pigs. It was evident that YL pigs had a higher daily feed intake than PM animals and on the other hand, results from animals in confinement clearly indicated that feed intake in those pigs was higher than in the others, permitted to graze during 8 h every day. Calculated daily gain was 820 and 757 g in YL pigs when reared in total confinement or partially outdoors, whereas this same trait was 414 and 335 g in PM pigs. When a comparison was made between improved and local pigs reared in total confinement, feed conversion was on average, 3.07 kg kg-1 in the YL animals and 5.03 kg kg-1 in the PM pigs.
  D. Mota-Rojas , M. Becerril Herrera , M.E. Trujillo-Ortega , M. Alonso-Spilsbury , S.C. Flores-Peinado and I. Guerrero-Legarreta
  The aim of this research was to study the effects of pre-slaughter transport and lairage on the chemical serologic profile of swine, as well as its relationship with qualitative aspects of meat: pH, color and temperature. Forty eight Pietrain x Landrace pigs were monitored (24 females and 24 barrows). They were transported on straw bedding trucks without stops during 2 h and deprived of feed and water. Blood samples were taken before loading, at arrival to the slaughterhouse, after lairage and during bleeding (20 sec after they were electrically stunned). At arrival to the slaughterhouse pigs were randomly distributed in 4 groups: Rested (n = 24) non-rested (n = 24) these groups were also divided by sex. Blood samples were taken form groups 1 and 2 and the animals sent directly to the slaughter pens, whereas groups 3 and 4, after blood sampling, were taken to lairage pens. Glucose and Creatine Kinase (CK) showed a high increase in blood concentration, associated to an increase in muscular activity and a decrease in globulins concentration as a consequence of stress and immunosuppression. Hyperglycemia and lactic acidosis detected in animals without rest were statistically different (p<0.05) compared to the group that rested. Bicarbonate level significantly decreased (p<0.05) in non-rested animals as compared to rested animals. Results indicated that animals without rest before slaughter can show hemodynamic and metabolic alterations that lead to hyperglycemia, lactic acidosis and an abrupt descent of pH, altering the carcass color.
  M.Y. Guerrero , S.C. Flores-Peinado , M. Becerril-Herrera , A. Cardona-Leija , M. Alonso-Spilsbury , M.M. Zamora-Fonseca , J. Toca , R. Ramirez , J.A. Toca and D. Mota-Rojas
  The aim of this research was to study the effect of cervical dislocation and electric stunning of the California breed rabbit with a rest period before sacrifice (at 70 days of age) as well as the effect of same on sanguineous pH, temperature, glucose levels, creatine kinase, and slaughter performance. Forty male and female rabbits of the California breed were used. The sacrificed animals had either cervical dislocation or electrical stunning performed on them, then sacrificed according to normal regulatory practices. Our study is based on two insensibilization methods, cervical dislocation and electric stunning. The results show that plasmatic glucose and temperature before sacrifice and after insensibilization were not affected significantly (p>0.05) in the rest period or by sacrificial method. The pH of the animals that were given a rest period previous to sacrifice was significantly different from the animals that were not given rest; no significant difference between the insensibilization methods was found. We found a significant difference for bleeding times (p< 0.05) between cervical dislocation with rest compared to electrical stunning without rest. The rest period (p>0.05) did not significantly affect the volume of blood recovered during bleeding. However when comparing bleeding volume by insensibilization method significant statistical differences (p< 0.05) were observed. There were no significant difference in the variables of carcass evaluation; however, the lack of a rest before sacrifice affected pH values and temperature of the rabbit meat significantly.
  M. Alonso-Spilsbury , L. Mayagoitia , M.E. Trujillo , R. Ram?rez- Necoechea and D. Mota-Rojas
  During lactation the sow generally remains anestrus. However, lactational estrus and ovulation sometimes occurs under unusual circumstances. Practical outcomes of lactational estrus are reducing the interval between weaning and estrusand therefore the non-productive days in the herd. Although various techniques to induce lactational estrus have been performed through natural management of the animals or the use of exogenous hormones during lactation, induction of estrus during lactation has not been recommended for commercial use. The objective of this study was to review and analyze the basic lactating sow physiology and the different methodologies to induce lactational ovulation, in order to improve her reproductive and productive performance, as a possible alternative to the early weaning system, especially in those cases where lactation length is determined by welfare constraints.
  K. Mejia-Martinez , C. Lemus-Flores , J.F. Zambrano-Zaragoza , R. Ramirez-Necoechea , D. Mota-Rojas and M. Alonso-Spilsbury
  The aim of the study was to measure the cytokine immune response in 2 Mexican creole biotypes and compare it to commercial pigs (COM) as disease resistance indicators. Twenty six commercial (COM), 25 Cuino (CP) and 25 Mexican hairless (MHP) pigs were vaccinated with a commercial bacterin containing Salmonella, E. coli and Pasteurella at 45 days of age; a sample was taken a week later to test serum levels of interleukin 1 (IL-1 ), interleukin 4 (IL-4), interferon-gamma (INF- ) and alfa tumor necrosis factor (TNF- ). Cytokine quantification serum tests were carried out with commercial kits using the ELISA sandwich method. The Kruskal-Wallis test was used to compare cytokine concentrations and the Wilcoxon test was run to look for differences among breeds. IL-1 and IL-4 production was higher in HMS as compared to the other breeds. No significant differences between INF- and TNF- production were seen. Results suggest that MHP have a higher response capacity before an infection, compared to the other breeds.
  C. Lemus-Flores , R. Alonso Morales , J.G. Herrera Haro , M. Alonso-Spilsbury , R. Ram?rez-Necoechea and D. Mota-Rojas
  Several biotypes of the Mexicanc creole pig are in danger of extinction. This study was carried out in order to characterize the Mexican cuino pig. Growth, morphometry and reproductive traits are statistically described analysing the reproductive performance of 12 Cuino sows kept under confinement conditions. Average live weight was monitored at birth and 6 months later (0.86 and 43.84 kg, respectively). Results show that Cuino pigs tend to deposit more backfat than commercial breeds, their growth rhythm was adjusted to a polynomial equation (Y = 1.1138x2 - 4.0804x + 5.1355 R2 = 0.9955); it is slow at the beginning and after 91 days animals showed an accelerated growth. Average daily feed intake increased until pigs were five months old, from 0.403 to 1.930 kg., with an improved polynomial adjustment (Y = 0.2363x2 - 1.3129x + 5.7951 R2 = 0.82). Feed conversion was 4.596 in the first post-weaning month and 5.174 in the last month of fattening at 6 months. Cuino pigs are small, with short snout and a small number of teats. The variation in all the measured morphological variables was low (7.5 to 16.7%), this suggests that their morphology does not vary much. Prolificity of these pigs was low; the average number of pigs born alive was 4.95 with a litter birth weight of 4.35 kg and 4.12 weaned pigs with 16.09 kg at weaning. Present results indicate that the cuino pig has not been genetically improved since the time it has been in Mexico.
  M. Carrillo del Valle , D.T. Velez-Trujillo , I. Guerrero-Legarreta , M. Becerril-Herrera , R. Ramirez-Necoechea , M. Alonso-Spilsbury , S. Flores-Peinado and D. Mota-Rojas
  The research for post-mortem tenderizing methods comes about from the need to provide good tasting and uniform quality in meat products, considering tenderness as the most important quality characteristic. A number of researchers studied various methods in order to improve meat tenderness cause by the physico-chemical condition of muscle contractile proteins, connective tissue or both. During post mortem storage, the muscle undergoes a series of biochemical, histological and physical events which collectively are called rigor mortis. Variation of rigor mortis events largely influences meat acceptability. Electric Stimulation (ES) directly affects meat sensory characteristics (color, odor and flavor and tenderness). Other factor determining meat quality of stimulated meat are time elapsed from slaughtering to stimulation, ripening and storage temperature after stimulation.
  M.J. Maldonado , D. Mota-Rojas , M. Becerril-Herrera , S. Flores-Peinado , D. Camacho-Morfin , A. Cardona-Leija , R. Ramirez-Necoechea , L. Morfin-Loyden , M. Gonzalez-Lozano , M.E. Pereda-Solis and M. Alonso-Spilsbury
  The objective of this study, was to evaluate the effect of two stunning methods on blood gasometry, metabolic profile, acid-base balance and carcass quality on broilers. Sixty broilers were monitored. Before sacrifice, the birds were weighed and randomly divided by sacrifice method into 2 groups: decapitation (30) and electric stunning (30). Bleeding was timed and a blood samples were taken in order to evaluate critical blood parameters. The chickens remained 7 sec in the scalding bucket at a 33 C, carcass meat pH and temperature were measured warm, post thermal shock and cold. The pCO2 was the highest value measured on the desensitized chickens using the electric stunning method and the pO2 was higher on the decapitated birds. Even though no differences were noted, it is worth mentioning that glucose levels were higher than 200 mg dL-1 and lactate was extremely low (5 mg dL-1) regardless of sacrificial method. Highly significant differences were observed in pre-shock pH and post shock values of the decapitated bird (from acid to neutral). We conclude that regardless of the sacrificial method, the physiological variables were not modified between groups, and therefore had no negative effects on the broiler carcass.
  M. Becerril-Herrera , O. Guzman-Pina , M. Alonso-Spilsbury , E.V. Dorsey-San Vicente , C. Lemus-Flores , S. Flores-Peinado , R. Ramirez-Necoechea and D. Mota-Rojas
  The objective of the present study was to evaluate the morphometry and carcass traits of Creole goats sacrificed and packed in a Federal Inspection Plant (FIP). The study was carried out in a FIP abattoir during May and June 2004. Fifty Creole male goats, 40 to 50 days old were used, brought form nearby family farms. Goats were transported without stops and they were not fed, nor provided with water. Carcasses were graded and 11 indicators were measured: both hot and cold carcass yields, cold carcass temperature, viscera weight, morphometry and pH, among others. When comparing the hot carcass weight with and without viscera (5.03 vs. 4.55), the values measured indicated that viscera represented 20.22% of the animals weight. The difference observed between hot carcass and cold carcass weight was 4.55 vs. 4.28 kg, respectively. Positive correlations were determined (R = 0.96) between hind-limbs (R = 0.65) and forelimbs (R = 0.69), as well as the one registered of both limbs with the hind and fore canes` perimeters. On the other hand, the abdominal and thoracic regions were highly correlated (R = 0.9). This is an indicator of the animal biotype, which shows that these animals are long linear with highly developed limbs. The pH mean of the hot carcass and the cold carcass was 6.06 and 5.97, respectively.
  M. Becerril-Herrera , M. Zermeno , D. Mota-Rojas , G.H. Gonzalez , C. Casas-Garcia , J. Toca-Ramirez , R. Ramirez-Necoechea , J.A. Toca-Ramirez , C. Lemus-Flores and M. Alonso-Spilsbury
  Ten equine carcasses from creole horses were used, distributed by sex: 5 females and 5 males. Animals were identified with a mark in their posterior limbs using indelible ink in order to follow the carcass up to the butchery. Each cut was weighed in order to characterize the shrinkage percentage and carcass yield. Samples of the Longissimus dorsi muscle at the level of the tenth rib were taken at the butchery in order to carry out a proximal chemical analysis. The average percentage of protein was 18.6, which turned out to be 7.5% lower than the one reported by others authors. In adult animals gaskins, shoulder blades, ribs and flanks (spare meat for fillets) corresponded to 30.0, 21.3, 31.2 and 16.5%, respectively, of the total carcass. In young animals gaskins represented 29.5%, shoulder blades 19.6%, ribs 31.3% and flanks, 12.5% of the total carcass. We conclude that horse meat can be an excellent alternative for consumption for its high content in proteins and low levels of fat. It is also worth mentioning the higher losses for shrinkage due to the high content of humidity as well as the characterization of the yield at cutting.
  D. Mota-Rojas , M. R. Becerril-Herrera , H. J. Herrera , C. Noriega and M. Alonso-Spilsbury
  The use of kitchen leftovers as a feeding source in pigs has quality limitations as well as health and sanitary restrictions; nevertheless, it is still the only affordable food for some artisan pig farms. Production performance in hybrid pigs at an artisan farm in the State of Mexico, was studied. Four treatments (T1-T4) were administered to 50 hybrid pigs distributed at random as follows: T1 had 15 sows and T2, 15 castrated male pigs, both groups were fed with kitchen leftovers; T3 had 10 sows and T4, 10 castrated male pigs; these latter groups were fed with a commercial balanced feed. In order to analyse the differences between the means of the treatments a Tukey test was used. Proximal analysis showed the low nutritional quality of the leftovers. Animals fed with kitchen waste showed a higher percentage of respiratory and enteric signs that affected the muscular tissue development. Furthermore, leftovers increased feed conversion compared to the balanced diet. Treating the kitchen waste is recommended in order to diminish the pathogen incidence, and adding protein to the diet which will guarantee the fulfillment of animal nutritional needs. It is true that feeding with leftovers is cheap but it is convenient to take into account the cost involved which includes growth delay and both respiratory and digestive problems in animals.
  D. Mota-Rojas , ADL.Reyes , M. Becerril-Herrera , S. Flores-Pintado , M. Alonso-Spilsbury , L.A.Cardona and C. Lemus-Flores
  The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of sex and breed, on the slaughtering performance, carcass yield and cutting process in rabbits. Eighteen female and male rabbits of the Chinchilla and California breeds were used, animals were sacrificed according to the Official Mexican Norm. No significant differences between breeds and gender for all the variables were observed, except for ham roundness; California does showed the highest value, being significantly different from the males for both breeds. At 70 days, California rabbits showed a greater body development compared with the Chinchilla breed. Also, no significant differences were found between breeds for the primary cuts; although there was a numeric difference between Chinchilla and California rabbits regarding loin cut (291 vs. 273 g, respectively). The carcass yield obtained in this study was 58.51%, the greatest yield was observed in California does. Positive correlations were found between average daily gain and live weight (r= .89); skin weight and hot carcass weight (r=0.90), and live weight with both, skin weight (r= 90) and hot carcass weight (r=0.91).
  Gonzalez H.G. , D. Mota-Rojas , M. Becerril-Herrera , C.Casas-Garcia , M. Zermeno , R. Ramrez-Necoechea , J.A.Toca-Ramirez , C. Lemus , J. Toca-Ramirez and M. Alonso-Spilsbury
  In Mexico, equine use for meat production is not commonly found; the highest percentage of equine meat that can be possibly consumed comes mostly from culled animals. The objective of the present study was to characterize the slaughter performance and test the effect of gender in the incidence of injuries during transportation, in offals and hot carcass yields in twelve creole horses. Results indicate an average live weight of 296 Kg and carcass weight of 175 Kg, equivalent to 60% yield. It is possible that the husbandry method commonly used on pasturing the animals, decreased the thoracic development and increased the corporal length and diameter of the leg. With regard to slaughtering yield, red viscera represented 4.3%, green viscera 30%, skin 6%, limbs 2.8%, head 4.4% and loss at slaughter 1.5% of the total live weight. Average body condition in the horses was poor. No significant differences were observed between genders in the presence of injuries, although there was an influence of the arrival position on the severity of injuries; animals that were facing the direction of travel (rear-facing) showed injury 2 affecting subcutaneous and muscular tissues, whereas animals facing backward did not show injuries or these were not too severe.
  M.G. Nunez-Gutierrez , J.M. Tapia-Gonzalez , M. Becerril-Herrera , R. Ramirez-Necoechea , M. Alonso-Spilsbury and D. Mota-Rojas
  The objective of this study was to diagnose the risks of microbiological contamination in 3 meet products: Frankfurt type sausage, Virginia ham and dried salted pork, made in the meat processing plant at the University of Guadalajara. The influence from the physical infrastructure of the plant was evaluated such as the type and number of handlers, number of people present when the handling was carried out, as well as the time of manipulation and storage in refrigeration, the environmental conditions in processing areas and refrigeration and water from the municipal source (used to wash hands), equipment and utensils. Meat products with various preparation processes were chosen, individual microbiological tests for Salmonella, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus were made. The 90 point sanitary questionnaire was used to verify sanitation for physical risks in the processing plant. The results were analyzed using the EpiInfo® 2002 data base. There was a significant effect (p< 0.05) between independent variables, number of people coming in per day, and time of refrigeration with S. aureus present in the sampled food. Using standard comparison we observed that 100% of the products had some kind of microorganism. The installations complied entirely with the 90 point questionnaire by 23.08%, partially by 42.31% and was incompliant by 34.62%.
  M. Becerril-Herrera , C. Lemus-Flores , H.J.G. Herrera , M.Alonso-Spilsbury , R. Ramirez-Necoechea and D. Mota-Rojas
  The study was carried out with 13 Mexican Hairless (MHP) and 21 York-Landrace (Y-L) fattened pigs, randomly distributed in 4 treatments: 1) MHP under total confinement, 2) MHP in pasturing conditions, 3) Y-L in total confinement and 4) Y-L in pasturing conditions, all four groups were fed ad libitum. Morph metric growth in 63 days old pigs showed significant differences (p<0.0001) between breeds; however, at the end of the study (175 days old) significant differences were observed (p<0.05), both between breeds and between productive systems for the following variables: height at withers, hind- and fore- cane perimeters and snout length; indicating that the feeding system caused some hypertrophies in the organs mostly exercised. Results on the percentage of ileal apparent digestibility showed significant differences (p<0.001) between breeds and between productive systems too, whereas in the total apparent digestibility, differences between feeding-productive systems were only significant in the MHP. Results indicate that the MHP is a small size animal with thin limbs, these pigs show a great instinct for forage consumption but are unable to take advantage of this since they can not digest fiber, which ends with the myth that swine autochthonous breeds are able to digest fiber.
 
 
 
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