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Articles by Chinedu Imo
Total Records ( 8 ) for Chinedu Imo
  Chinedu Imo , Silas Verwiyeh Tatah , Nkeiruka Glory Imo , Michael Sunday Abu , Emochone Roy Yohanna , Ozioma Prince Emmanuel and John Kanu
  Background and Objectives: This study evaluated the haematological effects of palm kernel oil, olive oil, crude oil and honey in male albino rats. The chemical substances are commonly used as antidote for poisons. Materials and Methods: Thirty healthy male albino rats were used in this study. They were randomly placed into five groups of six animals each and were administered the corresponding chemical substances for 21 days. They were sacrificed and blood sample collected for haematological analysis. The haematological analysis was carried out using Abacus 380. Results: The WBC increased significantly (p<0.05) in all the test groups compared to the control. The RBC, Hb, HCT and MCHC increased non-significantly (p>0.05) in all the test groups compared to the control. The MCV and MCH reduced non-significantly (p>0.05) in groups 2 and 3 and significantly (p<0.05) in group 4, but increased non-significantly (p>0.05) in group 5 compared to the control. The RDWc reduced non-significantly (p>0.05) in groups 2 and 3, but increased non-significantly (p>0.05) in groups 4 and 5 compared to the control. The PLT, MPV and PDWc increased non-significantly (p>0.05) in all the test groups compared to the control. PCT increased non-significantly (p>0.05) in groups 2, 3 and 4, but increased significantly (p<0.05) in group 5 compared to the control. Conclusion: This study showed that administration of palm kernel oil, olive oil, crude oil and honey supports the synthesis of haemoglobin, PCV, platelets and RBC, but also showed evidence of toxicity as indicated by increased WBC count.
  Friday O. Uhegbu , Chinedu Imo and Chibuzo H. Onwuegbuchulam
  Background: This study investigated the effect of unripe Musa paradisiaca (plantain) supplemented diet on serum blood glucose, lipid peroxidation, cholesterol and some antioxidant enzymes on alloxan induced-diabetic albino rats. Materials and Methods: Fifty healthy male albino rats weighing between 86-110 g and aged 6 weeks were used for the study. The rats were placed randomly into five groups of 10 animals each. Group 1 served as control and was not diabetic induced and fed on normal diet. Group 2 served as negative control, they were diabetic induced and fed on normal rat chow. Groups 3-5 were diabetic induced and fed Musa paradisiaca supplemented diet 10, 20 and 30%, respectively for 21 days. Induction of diabetes was by administering intraperitoneally 150 mg kg–1 b.wt., alloxan hydrate to the animals. After 21 days of feeding, animals were starved overnight, anaesthetized with chloroform, killed and blood collected by cardiac puncture. Serum blood glucose, lipid peroxidation, cholesterol and antioxidant enzymes: Superoxide dismutase, catalase, gluthathione-s-transferase and reduced gluthathione were assayed. Data obtained were subjected to one way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and group means were compared using Duncan’s new multiple range tests. Differences were considered to be significant at (p≤0.05). Results: The study reveals that 30% Musa paradisiaca supplemented diet reduced significantly (p≤0.05) serum blood glucose, 223.42±3.65 to 98.54±2.36 mg dL–1, total serum cholesterol and lipid peroxidation levels 149.97±1.35 to 133.23±0.61 mg dL–1 and from 8.96±0.65 to 6.87±0.86 mg dL–1, respectively. Antioxidant enzymes increased significantly (p≤0.05), superoxide dismutase 25.30±3.28 to 32.72±3.68 U L–1, catalase 2.76±0.05 to 3.45±0.11 U L–1, reduced glutathione 2.86±0.41 to 3.86±0.62 U L–1 and gluthatione-s-transferase 6.86±0.86 to 9.76±1.32 U L–1 in the test animals. Conclusion: The plantain supplemented diet elicited hypoglycemic, antilipidemic and antioxidant effects on rats that were fed the diet. The plantain is rich in phytochemicals which may have caused these observed effects and could be of nutritional and clinical importance in the management of diabetes and cardiovascular disease and justices the claim of alternative medicine practitioners that plantain could be used in the management of diabetes.
  Chinedu Imo , Chukwuma Stephen Ezeonu , Nkeiruka Glory Imo and Chigozie Joshua Anigbo
  Background and Objective: Cocos nucifera nut is widely consumed in different forms by indigenes of many countries. It is used in preparation of some drinks and oil. Cocos nucifera nut is believed to have many potential nutritional, medicinal and pharmaceutical uses. This study evaluated the proximate, mineral and phytochemical composition of Cocos nucifera nut. Materials and Methods: The Cocos nucifera nut was bought in Wukari, Nigeria. It was sun-dried and pulverized. The proximate, mineral and phytochemical composition were analyzed using AOAC method, AAS and GC-MS, respectively. Results: The results showed the abundance (%) of the proximate parameters evaluated to be in dry matter>Carbohydrates>crude fiber>lipids>protein>moisture> ash order. The results of mineral analysis showed the amount of potassium, magnesium and sodium to be higher than other minerals evaluated in Cocos nucifera nut. The abundance (ppm) of the minerals evaluated were recorded in potassium>magnesium>sodium>calcium>iron>phosphorus>zinc>chromium >manganese>copper order. There were wide range of phytochemicals detected in ethanolic extract of coconut which possess important industrial, medicinal, physiological and antibiotic properties. Conclusion: The results established that coconut is a good source of energy and could play immunological, physiological, nutritional and pharmacological roles.
  Chinedu Imo , Chukwumaobim Daniel Uzochukwuwulu Nwokwu , Emmanuel Mamma , Mida Habila Mayel , Ayobami Jahdahunsi Kukoyi and Akunatu David Apaji
  Background and Objectives: Phoenix dactylifera fruit, Cyperus esculentus nut and Cocos nucifera nut are widely consumed as food in many parts of the world and are also the major ingredients in the preparation of certain drinks. This study examined the effects of ethanolic extracts of Phoenix dactylifera fruit, Cyperus esculentus nut and Cocos nucifera nut on selected indices of kidney function in male albino rats. Materials and Methods: Twenty male albino rats used in this study were distributed randomly into four groups with five rats in each group. Group 1 served as normal control, while groups 2, 3 and 4 served as test animals. The corresponding plant extracts were administered to the animals in the test groups through oral route for three weeks. Thereafter, they were starved overnight, anaesthetized with chloroform and sacrificed. Blood samples and kidneys were collected from the animals for biochemical and histological analysis respectively. Results: The results showed that urea decreased in all the groups compared to the control. Urea decreased significantly (p<0.05) in group 3 and 4, but decreased less-significantly (p>0.05) in group 2 compare to the control. Creatinine decreased less-significantly in group 2 and increased less-significantly in group 3 (p>0.05), but increased significantly in group 4 (p<0.05). Sodium, potassium and chlorides increased less-significantly (p>0.05) in all the test groups compared to the control. Sodium increased highest in group 2, potassium increased highest in group 3, while chlorides increased highest in group 4. The histoarchitectural states of the kidney sections showed that the extracts have no apparent toxic effects. However, there were some evidence of mildly altered parts of some kidney tissues. Conclusion: The results of this study showed the extracts have no apparent toxic effect on kidney function of the experimental rats. The results also showed the plant extracts may help to reduce the retention of urea, thereby supporting kidney functions. The three plant materials are therefore encouraged for use in general nutrition.
  Chinedu Imo , Ojochenemi E. Yakubu , Nkeiruka G. Imo , Ifeoma S. Udegbunam , Silas V. Tatah and Ogochukwu J. Onukwugha
  Background and Objective: Piper guineense seeds and leaves are among the plant parts commonly used as spices and also in herbal medicine for the treatment and management of different conditions. The proximate, mineral and phytochemical composition of Piper guineense seeds and leaves were evaluated in this study. Materials and Methods: Piper guineense seeds and leaves were purchased at the new market in Wukari, Taraba State, Nigeria. The healthy parts were selected, air-dried and pulverized. The proximate parameters were evaluated, while AAS and GC-MS were used for the mineral and phytochemical analysis, respectively. Results: Results of the study show that Piper guineense seeds was high in percentage dry matter (94.03±0.21), crude lipid (4.06±0.12) and carbohydrates (65.46±0.85) compare to Piper guineense leaves, while Piper guineense leaves was high in percentage moisture content (6.11±0.01), crude protein (15.17±0.39), crude fibre (20.99±0.16) and ash (11.98±0.03) compared to Piper guineense seeds. The differences in the moisture content and dry matter were statistically non-significant, while the differences in the percentage crude protein, crude fiber, crude lipid, ash and carbohydrates were statistically significant. Piper guineense leaves has a high amount of magnesium, calcium, manganese and copper than Piper guineense seeds, while Piper guineense seeds has a high amount of chromium, zinc, iron, potassium, sodium and phosphorus than Piper guineense leaves. A wide range of phytochemicals which possess different biochemical and physiological functions were detected in Piper guineense seeds and leaves. Conclusion: The results showed that Piper guineense seeds and leaves possess nutritional and pharmacological properties. However, some of the phytochemicals detected could possess abortive properties.
  Kayode A. Arowora , Folasade B. Oluwabamiwo , Chinedu Imo , Ayobami J. Kukoyi , Kenneth C. Ugwuoke and Victor O. Eneji
  Background and Objective: Crops sold in Nigeria has a great impact on health, different types of crops have varying nutritional values. Therefore, this study evaluated the proximate composition and total aflatoxins levels in some selected grain crops in Taraba and Benue states of Nigeria. The crops evaluated were maize, rice, groundnut and acha. Materials and Methods: Rice sample was procured from Vandeikya Local Government Area of Benue state, while other samples were purchased from Wukari market in Taraba state, Nigeria. Proximate compositions of the samples were determined by standard methods of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists, while total aflatoxins levels were carried out using the method of Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay. Gross energy composition was determined using atwater factor. Means and the standard deviation of the results obtained were determined. Results: The mean moisture content determined for the samples were within safe level for storage with the range (9.00-10.25%), while the following ranges were determined for the following parameters: crude protein (7.58-25.83%), crude fibre (0.26-5.41%), ether extract (0.18-49.205%), ash (0.49-2.84%) and nitrogen free extract (17.66-88.36%). Aflatoxins were not detected in the samples except acha that had the value of 0.5 ppb. Gross energy compositions of the crops were between 395.40 and 614.01 kcal/100 g. Conclusion: This study has revealed the variation in nutritional composition of grain crops analysed. Aflatoxins were not detected in the grain crops analysed with the exception of acha that had 0.50 ppb which is less than the EU recommended levels for ready to eat products.
  Ojochenemi Ejeh Yakubu , Chinedu Imo , Christopher Shaibu , John Akighir and Daniel Simon Ameh
  Background and Objectives: Diabetes mellitus has been a great worry to humanity and the scientific community and researchers have made it a point of challenge and responsibility to bring an end to the quantum of havocs posed by this monster. This study was carried out to evaluate the effects of ethanolic leaf extract and stem-back extract of Adansonia digitata (AD) on liver function, haematology and blood glucose level in alloxan-induced diabetic Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: Twenty-five Wistar rats were distributed into 5 groups of 5 animals each. The test animals were administered alloxan (150 mg kg1) intraperitoneally and were monitored for 72 h for the development of hyperglycemia. Group 1 served as normal control, group 2 served as diabetic control, while groups 3and 4 were diabetic rats treated orally with ethanolic leaf and stem-bark extracts of Adansonia digitata (100 mg kg1), respectively for 21days. Group 5 animals were diabetic rats treated with anti-diabetic drug (glibenclamide). Results: The result of this study indicated a reduced blood glucose level and a significantly (p<0.05) reduced liver function parameters evaluated in the alloxan-induced diabetic treated rats compared with the diabetic control rats. However, there was no specific pattern of increase/decrease in the haematological parameters. Conclusion: This study showed that alloxan-induced diabetes mellitus caused a possible liver disease condition and alteration of the haematological indices. However, administration of the AD leaves extract and AD stem-bark extract exhibited the ability of treating the inflammation and alterations caused by alloxan-induced diabetes.
  Chukwuma Stephen Ezeonu , Verwiyeh Silas Tatah , Chinedu Imo , Emmanuel Mamma , Mida Habila Mayel , Ayobami Jahdahunsi Kukoyi and Ibrahim Adams Jeji
  Background and Objective: The processing and preservation of Irish potato tubers like many other crops has been affected by various pathogens like fungi (particularly storage rot) which causes a major constraint to Irish potato production in Nigeria resulting to enormous post-harvest spoilage. The inhibitory effect of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of neem leaves, stem bark and seeds on fungal rot disease of Solanum tuberosum (Irish potato) as an alternative treatment for fungal storage disease on Irish potato tubers cultivated in Nigeria has been determined in this study. Materials and Methods: Neem parts were harvested from Wukari, Nigeria and were processed for the experiment. Isolation of fungi and sub-culturing of the isolates was carried out to obtain pure culture. Pathogenicity study was carried out and effect of the plant extracts on mycelia growth of the test fungi was studied using the food poisoning techniques. The qualitative and quantitative phytochemical studies of the neem parts were carried out using standard methods. Results: Qualitative phytochemical screening of the selected parts of neem plant showed the presence of alkaloids, glycoside, flavonoids, carbohydrates, reducing sugar, steroids, tannins and saponins. The quantitative test revealed that the percentage quantity of phytochemicals in these plant parts ranged from 10.17-23.88%. Effect of the extracts on the test organisms was significant (p<0.05). Ethanolic extract of the seed (ESE) exhibited the highest inhibitory effect on Aspergillus niger (88.37%) followed by aqueous extract of stem bark (ABE) (87.21%), while aqueous seed extract (ASE), ethanolic leaves extract (ELE), aqueous leaves extract (ALE) and ethanolic stem bark extract (EBE) exhibited inhibition of 81.78, 77.52, 72.87 and 39.53%, respectively. The inhibitory effect of EBE was significantly (p<0.05) lower than that of other extracts, while there was no significant difference in the inhibitory effects of ESE, ASE and ABE compared to ketoconazole on Aspergillus niger. The ethanolic extracts of the seed and leaves had 100% inhibitory effect on Fusarium oxyporium with 87.60% inhibition by aqueous extract of the leaves. The seed and the leaves ethanolic extracts exhibited the highest inhibitory effects on Pythium spp. and Fusarium oxyporium, while the aqueous leaves extract showed the least inhibition on Fusarium oxyporium. Conclusion: The plant extracts in this study were found to be very effective in inhibiting fungal mycelia growth and hence can be potentially effective for preservation during storage of Irish potatoes to minimize post-harvest lost.
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