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Articles by C.O. Ibegbulem
Total Records ( 5 ) for C.O. Ibegbulem
  C.O. Ibegbulem and P.C. Chikezie
  Kunu-zaki beverage is a popular cereal-grain based non-alcoholic drink traditionally produced from sprouted cereal grains like sorghum, millet, maize or their mixtures. Unsprouted grains can also be used, thereby saving time spent during sprouting without compromising sensory property. The present study sought to investigate, in comparative terms, the biochemical indices and sensory scores of Kunu-zaki beverages produced from Sprouted Guinea Corn (SGC) and Unsprouted Guinea Corn (USGC) as well as establishing correlation between these parameters. Production of Kunu-zaki beverages from USGC and SGC was carried out using standard procedures. Samples of the beverages were analyzed for glucose, protein and hydrogen ion concentrations in concurrence with sensory evaluation scores. The results indicated that the Kunu-zaki beverages produced were of comparable (p>0.05) acidity values. Protein and glucose concentrations of Kunu-zaki beverage produced from SGC were significantly higher (p<0.05) than beverage produced from USGC. Specifically, Kunu-zaki beverage produced from SGC gave: [protein] = 10.6±2.62 g L-1 and [glucose] = 500.0±4.90 mg dL-1, whereas beverage produced from USGC gave [protein] = 3.0 g L-1 and [glucose] = 335.3±2.8 mg dL-1. Sensory attributes of the beverages were not significantly different (p>0.05). The pH, mouthfeel, protein and glucose contents of the beverages had strong positive effects on their tastes. The protein content of Kunu-Zaki beverage produced from SGC had marginal effect on its taste. Although the levels of some biochemical parameters were reduced when Kunu-zaki beverage was produced from USGC, it did not affect its sensory property.
  C.O. Ibegbulem , P.C. Chikezie , C.O. Nweke , C.E. Nwanyanwu and D.C. Belonwu
  Effects of processing pineapple-based must into wines by Anaerobic Fermentation (AnF) only instead of Aerobic and Anaerobic Fermentations (AAnFs) were investigated. Control musts were subjected to aerobic fermentation, AnF and clarification for 7, 83 and 30 days, respectively. Test musts clarified in the course of 90 days AnF. Wines produced by AAnFs were more acidic (pHtest = 3.17±0.01, pHcontrol = 3.28±0.01, p<0.05), had more total acids (test = 0.70±0.01 g tartaric acid/100 mL, control = 0.66±0.00 g tartaric acid/100 mL, p<0.05), fixed acids (test = 0.49±0.02 g malic acid/100 mL, control = 0.39±0.01 g malic acid/100 mL, p<0.05), alcohol (test = 12.72±0.01%, control = 11.36±0.00%, p<0.05). Furthermore, wines produced by AnF had more volatile acids (test = 0.39±0.00 g acetic acid/100 mL, control = 0.33±0.01 g acetic acid/100 mL, p<0.05) and glucose (test = 1.50±0.01 g/100 mL, control = 1.40±0.00 g/100 mL, p<0.05). Pineapple-based must processed into wines by anaerobic fermentation produced organoleptically preferred good quality white dry table pineapple wines with lower derivable energy content.
  P.C. Chikezie , A.R. Akuwudike , C.M. Chikezie and C.O. Ibegbulem
  Largely, kinetic properties of Polyphenol Oxidase (PPO) involved the study of enzyme extracts obtained from whole fruits and vegetables. In the present study, PPO was extracted from three segments of Solanum melongenas and Musa sapientum fruits and partially purified. The specific activity of PPO was measured at each purification step to ascertain level of enzyme purity. In all cases, PPO conformed to Michaelis-Menten kinetics, showing different values of kinetics parameters. Michaelis-Menten constant for PPO (PPOKm) of S. melongenas mid-section and anterior segments showed no significant difference (p<0.05), whereas the posterior gave PPOKm = 4.6±0.49 mM (p>0.05). Maximum PPO activity (PPOVmax) was highest in the posterior segment: PPOVmax = 0.602±0.09 U. Mid-section of M. sapientum exhibited the highest Km value (PPOKm = 5.8±0.69 mM) compared with the anterior (PPOKm = 3.9±0.69 mM) (p>0.05) and posterior PPOKm = 4.9±0.11 mM segments (p<0.05). Overall, M. sapientum PPOKm values were relatively higher than those of S. melongenas. Posterior S. melongenas exhibited the highest PPOVmax = 0.602±0.09 U, whereas the lowest value was registered in the anterior segment of M. sapientum PPOVmax = 0.234±0.09 U. Substrate specificity for PPO (PPOVmax/Km) extracted from various segments of S. melongenas was in the increasing order of Mid-section > Posterior > Anterior, whereas that of M. sapientum was Mid-section > Anterior > Posterior. PPOVmax/Km between the two fruits showed strong positive correlation (r = 0.862339). Catechol was a better substrate for PPOS. melongenas than PPOM. sapientum. The experimentally observed kinetic parameters of S. melongenas and M. sapientum signified the presence of PPO isoenzymes and non-uniform distribution of PPO in the two fruits.
  C.O. Ibegbulem and P.C. Chikezie
  The serum lipid profiles of rats (Rattus norvegicus) fed with Palm Oil (PO) and Palm Kernel Oil (PKO)-containing diets were studied. Phytochemicals detected in the PO included tannins, flavonoids, saponins, cyanogenic glycosides and β-carotene while the PKO contained only tannins, flavonoids, cardiac glycosides and cyanogenic glycosides. The PO and PKO were acidic; with pH values of 5.54±0.01 and 5.85±0.01, respectively. The PO used was more (p<0.05) rancid and contained longer mono and polyunsaturated fatty acids than the PKO. Proximate compositions of the oils showed that they contained high sources of energy. Incorporating the oils at 10 mL per 100 g feed increased the lipid and energy contents of the feeds. Feeds were administered to the rats ad libitum for 35 days. The PO group (POG), PKO group (PKOG) and Control Group (CG) all drank distilled water as the only source of fluid. Consumption of the treated feeds reduced (p<0.05) daily feed intake and improved body weight gained and conversion of feed mass to body mass. The serum lipid profile of the rats showed that the POG had the highest (p<0.05) levels of triacylglycerol (TG) and Very Low Density Lipoprotein-cholesterol (VLDL-C). The PKOG had the lowest (p<0.05) high density Lipoprotein-chloesterol (HDL-C) compared to the CG and POG. It also had the highest (p<0.05) Total Cholesterol (TC): HDL-C ratio, low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) concentration and LDL-C: HDL-C ratio. While PO encouraged the formation of phospholipids as seen in the HDL-C, the PKO promoted the biosythensis of cholesterol as seen in the LDL-C. The study showed that PKO was more atherogenic because it was more saturated and contained fewer types of antioxidant phytochemicals.
  C.O. Ibegbulem , C.U. Igwe , E.U. Eyong , E.U. Essien , M.O. Wegwu and D. Akachukwu
  Traditional medicines are administered mostly as decoctions. The mechanism of the LDL-cholesterol lowering effect of Terminalia littoralis decoction used in ethno-medicine is hypothesized. The decoction prepared from fallen dry leaves of T. littoralis was screened for its relevant phytochemical contents. The pH, concentration and fibre content were of the decoction determined. A feeding study using the decoction as the only source of fluid was carried out for 35 days using albino rates of the Wistar strain. Anthropometric measurements and serological examinations were also carried out. Hypothetical deductions were based on the presence of phytochemical and biochemical constituents with reported pharmacological activities in relation to pharmacological outcome. The decoction did not significantly (p>0.05) affect the liver function indices. It however significantly (p<0.05) increased body weight and conversion of feed mass to body mass but reduced serum LDL cholesterol concentration and LDL-cholesterol/ HDL-cholesterol ratio. The hypothesized mechanisms were that decoction’s phytosterols competitively inhibited uptake of dietary cholesterol by intestinal cells and HMG-CoA reductase activity, the fibre content reduced enterohepatic bile acid cycle, the catechins increased LDL receptor activity and the tannin, flavonoid and saponin prevented the oxidation of LDL. In conclusion, the phytochemical and biochemical constituents of the Terminalia littoralis decoction lowered LDL-cholesterol through a combination of different biochemical mechanisms.
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