Serum Lipid Profile of Rats (Rattus norvegicus) Fed With Palm Oil and Palm Kernel Oil-containing Diets
The serum lipid profiles of rats (Rattus norvegicus) fed with Palm Oil (PO) and Palm Kernel Oil (PKO)-containing diets were studied. Phytochemicals detected in the PO included tannins, flavonoids, saponins, cyanogenic glycosides and β-carotene while the PKO contained only tannins, flavonoids, cardiac glycosides and cyanogenic glycosides. The PO and PKO were acidic; with pH values of 5.54±0.01 and 5.85±0.01, respectively. The PO used was more (p<0.05) rancid and contained longer mono and polyunsaturated fatty acids than the PKO. Proximate compositions of the oils showed that they contained high sources of energy. Incorporating the oils at 10 mL per 100 g feed increased the lipid and energy contents of the feeds. Feeds were administered to the rats ad libitum for 35 days. The PO group (POG), PKO group (PKOG) and Control Group (CG) all drank distilled water as the only source of fluid. Consumption of the treated feeds reduced (p<0.05) daily feed intake and improved body weight gained and conversion of feed mass to body mass. The serum lipid profile of the rats showed that the POG had the highest (p<0.05) levels of triacylglycerol (TG) and Very Low Density Lipoprotein-cholesterol (VLDL-C). The PKOG had the lowest (p<0.05) high density Lipoprotein-chloesterol (HDL-C) compared to the CG and POG. It also had the highest (p<0.05) Total Cholesterol (TC): HDL-C ratio, low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) concentration and LDL-C: HDL-C ratio. While PO encouraged the formation of phospholipids as seen in the HDL-C, the PKO promoted the biosythensis of cholesterol as seen in the LDL-C. The study showed that PKO was more atherogenic because it was more saturated and contained fewer types of antioxidant phytochemicals.
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