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Articles by A. Arshad
Total Records ( 47 ) for A. Arshad
  M. A. Rahman , S.M. N. Amin , F. Md. Yusoff , A. Arshad , P. Kuppan and M. Nor Shamsudin
  The present study is an attempt to describe the size frequency distribution, length weight relationships and fecundity estimates of long-spined Sea Urchin, Diadema setosum from the Pulau Pangkor, Peninsular Malaysia. In total 101 specimens of D. setosum were collected from the inter-tidal reef of Pulau Pangkor of Parek during the breeding season in May–August, 2010. Individual total length (TL) was measured using digital slide calipers and individual body weight (BW) was taken using a digital balance. Mean length of D. setosum was estimated as 59.66 mm and the mean weight was 101.68 g. Among the 101 specimens, 52 were males and 49 were females, indicating a sex ratio of male to female of 1:0.94. The logarithmic form of length-weight relationship of D. setosum was Log W = -1.3977 + 1.9049*Log TL, while the exponential form of equation obtained for the length-weight relation was W = 0.04*TL1.9049. The value of regression co-efficient (r2) estimated for the species was 0.63. The mean fecundity was estimated at 7,313,600 (±567,992) with a range between 6,290,000 and 7,980,000 eggs. Analysis of the relationship between the absolute fecundity (F) and total length (TL), and also between the fecundity and drained body weight (DW), revealed a linear regression model with a positive and significant relationship. This study presents results on the total length-body weight relationships and fecundity estimates of this Sea Urchin from Pulau Pangkor, Peninsular Malaysia for the first time.
  A.G. Mazlan , Y.S. Chung , C.C. Zaidi , A. Samat , A. Arshad , Y.G. Seah , Gazi Mahabubul Alam and K.D. Simon
  The present study describes the meristic, morphometric and Length Weight Relationship (LWR) of tropical silverside, Atherinomorus duodecimalis (Atheriniformes: Atherinidae) an important fishery in the Sea grass and mangrove habitat of Tinggi Island, Johor, Malaysia. A series of sampling survey was conducted in seagrass and mangrove habitats of Tinggi Island, using beach seine net. A total of 94 specimens (3.7-10.3 cm TL) used in this study. The results showed that meristic and morphometric features of the fish studied agreed well with a description of the holotype specimen MNHN A. 4382 and other silverside specimens. The only exception was observed in the upper jaw length and eye diameter as a percentage of head length. The allometric coefficient ‘b’ of the length weight relationship indicated negative allometric growth (b<3.0) in seagrass habitat and positive allometric growth (b>3.0) in mangrove habitat. To the best knowledge of the authors, this study presented the first reference on LWR for this species from Johor waters, Malaysia.
  S.M. Al-Barwani , D. Aziz , S.M.N. Amin and A. Arshad
  Thirteen highly polymorphic microsatellite primer pairs developed for Perna viridis from the gene bank were tested on 3 populations of Perna perna samples with the aim to adapt a fast, reliable method for preliminary screening and to genetically characterize the wild populations of P. perna in the Oman waters. The samples were collected from three different locations viz Ras Al-Had, Ras Madrakah and Mirbat. All primers showed high level of polymorphism for all populations. The mean observed heterozygosity was lower than the expected heterozygosity across the three populations which means there was a probability of inbreeding occurred in the populations. Both the chi-square (χ2) and likelihood (G2) ratio tests detected significant differences (p<0.05), which showed deviations from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Cluster analysis revealed a close genetic relationship of P. perna between all populations and they were clustered according to their geographical origins into two major groups which include one cluster that grouped the Mirbat and the Ras Madrakah populations together while the other cluster showed the Ras Al Had domain. The highest genetic distance (1.2666) was observed between the Mirbat and the Ras Al Had populations while the lowest genetic distance (0.4746) was recorded between the Mirbat and Ras Madrakah populations. This study demonstrated that microsatellite markers with thirteen P. viridis primer pairs tested can be applied to genetically characterize the brown mussel populations in Oman waters.
  M. Aminur Rahman , Fatimah Md. Yusoff , A. Arshad , S.M.N. Amin and Mariana Nor Shamsudin
  An attempt was undertaken to describe the size frequency distribution, length weight relationships and fecundity estimates of short-spined sea urchin, Salmacis sphaeroides from Peninsular Malaysia. In total 355 specimens of S. sphaeroides were collected from the inter-tidal shoal of Tanjung Kupang, Johor during the breeding season in March-August 2011. For each individual, the Total Length (TL) was measured using digital slide calipers and individual Body Weight (BW) was also taken through a digital balance. Mean length of S. sphaeroides was estimated as 72.85 mm and the mean weight was 143.01 g. Among the 355 specimens measured, 158 were males and 197 were females, indicating a sex ratio of 1 male to 1 female (1:1.25). The logarithmic form of length-weight relationship of S. sphaeroides was LogW = 2.4396xLogTL-2.3958. The exponential form of equation obtained for the length-weight relation was W = 0.004xTL2.4396. The value of regression co-efficient (R2) estimated for the species was 0.77. The mean fecundity was estimated at 7,676,000 (±247773) eggs. The regression coefficient between the absolute Fecundity (F) and Total Length (TL) was 0.76 and between the fecundity and drained body weight (DW) was 0.89; revealed linear regression model with a positive and significant relationship. This study represents the first time results on the total length-body weight relationships and fecundity estimates of this sea urchin from Peninsular Malaysia. The findings would immensely be helpful towards the understanding of growth patterns and fecundity, which will ultimately facilitate to develop the breeding, larval rearing and aquaculture of sea urchins.
  M. Hazmadi Zakaria , S.M.N. Amin , M. Aminur Rahman , M. Hatta Mahmud , A. Christianus , S.S. Siraj and A. Arshad
  The present study was carried out to investigate the embryonic and larval development of the endangered Temoleh, Probarbus jullieni in lab-rearing condition. The matured egg and sperm were collected by stripping the bloodstock of Temoleh fish after injecting with ovaprim hormone extract. The samples were collected from hatching tank at every 10 min interval for the first hour, 20 min for the second hour, 30 min for the third hour and then hourly interval up to hatching. After hatching, larvae were observed daily until the complete disappearance of the yolk sacs. The fertilized eggs were spherical, demersal, adhesive and brownish-yellow in colour with a mean diameter of 2316 μm. First cleavage occurred within 10 min post-fertilization at temperature ranged from 26.0 to 28.0°C. Hatching started 22 h post-fertilization and completed within 25 h at the same temperature. The yolk sac was completely absorbed 61 h after hatching. At the same time, the larvae started to swim actively and feed exogenously. This marks the first description on the early life history of P. jullieni. The present study will provide some valuable information on the ontogeny, breeding biology and early larval rearing protocol of P. jullieni which will ultimately be helpful towards the establishment of large scale seed production technique for conservation and aquaculture production.
  M. Aminur Rahman , A. Arshad , S.M.N. Amin and Mariana Nor Shamsudin
  Nursery rearing of a high-valued threatened snakehead fish, Channa striatus was studied in relation to varying stocking densities in earthen ponds. The experiment was conducted for eight weeks in nine earthen nursery ponds having an area of 0.012 ha with an average depth of 0.8 m. Fry produced from natural propagation was first reared in indoor cemented cisterns with hatched Artemia cyst as live food for 10 days and then stocked at 150,000, 200,000 and 250,000 ha-1 in treatment-1 (T1), treatment-2 (T2) and treatment-3 (T3), respectively. At stocking, mean length and weight of fry was 1.17±0.18 cm and 0.15±0.03 g, respectively. Fry in all the experimental ponds were fed with a supplementary feed comprising of fish meal (50%) and mustard oil cake (50%) at the rate of 5-8% of the estimated body weight. In addition, chopped trash fishes were supplied at the rate of 5% of the estimated biomass daily, till harvest. The physicochemical parameters of water and plankton were monitored simultaneously and were within the acceptable range for fish culture. Growth parameters (final weight, final length, weight gain, length gain and specific growth rate) and survival of fingerlings were significantly higher in T1 than those in T2 and T3, respectively. Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR) was significantly lower in T1 followed by T2 and T3 in that order. Significantly higher survival of fingerlings was obtained in T1 than those in T2 and T3. Overall, highest growth and survival were obtained from T1 where stocking density of fry was 150,000 ha-1. Hence, of the treatments evaluated, stocking density of 150,000 fry ha-1 appears to be the most efficient stocking density for rearing of C. striatus fingerlings in earthen nursery ponds. This study represents the first successful attempt to produce fingerlings of the threatened C. striatus in nursery ponds, the findings of which might immensely be helpful towards the protection of snakehead from extinction as well as for its conservation, stock enhancement and rehabilitation.
  A. Arshad , R. Ara , S.M.N. Amin and A.G. Mazlan
  Stomach content of fish larvae of family Terapontidae were studied in samples acquired from Merambong Shoal, south western part of Johor, Malaysia from December 2007 to September 2008. Larvae were collected by subsurface towing of a Bongo net. Stomachs were removed from a total of 117 Terapontidae specimens during the study period and the stomach contents were fully examined. Analyses of prey in the stomach showed 24 important food items belonging to six major groups viz., phytoplankton, zooplankton, algae, plant-like matter, debris and unidentified matters. The predominant food items found in the stomach were phytoplankton (74.25%). This was followed by plant matters (8.02%), algae (6.69%), zooplankton (4.95%), debris (3/65%) and unidentified matters (2.45%). Among the food items, phytoplankton was the first rank by simple resultant index (74.25%). Therefore, it could be concluded that the fish larvae of family Terapontidae are mainly herbivorous.
  B.I. Usman , S.M.N. Amin , A. Arshad and M. Aminur Rahman
  Plotosus canius, the grey-eel catfish belonging to the family Plotosidae is endemic to the south-east Asia and Australia. Primarily the fish is found in marine environment but at times may be found in brackish or fresh water environments. Despite the vast research that have been conducted on various catfish species, both marine and freshwater; little attention has been paid to P. canius. This study reviewed published information on the distribution, biology and fisheries of this economically important fish species.
  B.I. Usman , S.M.N. Amin , A. Arshad and M. Aminur Rahman
  Despite the vast researches on catfish species in Malaysia, Plotosus canius, the grey- eel catfish which is primarily found throughout the coastal seas of Malaysia has been neglected. No single published work on aspects of biology, especially its reproductive biology is available. In this study, fecundity and egg size of P. canius from coastal waters of Kampong Telok, Malaysia were studied. A total of 32 gravid females were used in the study. The mean fecundity of the female having a length of 50.28 cm and a wet body weight of 680 g was estimated to be 865 eggs. Fecundity was found to show positive relationship with total length (r = 0.379), body weight (r = 0.494) and gonad weight(r = 0.336) but the values were not statistically significant (p>0.05). Egg diameter (mm) among the various length groups showed a polymodal distribution but the differences were statistically significant (p>0.05). This study being the first attempt to gather information of P. canius in Malaysia would form a basis for future works of this catfish.
  S.M. Al-Barwani , A. Arshad , S.M.N. Amin and J.S. Bujang
  Incidences of hermaphroditism in green mussels (Perna viridis) were determined in four different areas (Sebatu, Port Dickson, Muar and Johor Bahru) along the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia. In Sebatu, 1000 specimens of green mussels were used for the visual determination of sex ratios. The male:female visual ratio was 1:0.79. Three hundred and seventeen individuals were also sexually identified using histology technique. Male to female ratio was 1:1.01. Two hermaphrodite specimens were recorded during the months of June and September, 2004. In Port Dickson, 319 specimens were visually sex-determined, the male: female ratio was 1.00:0.86. One hundred forty one were also histologically identified. Male: female ratio was 1.00:0.96. There was no hermaphrodite specimen encountered in this population. For the population of Muar and Johor Bahru, the entire specimen’s numbers were visually sex-determined first and later confirmed by histological procedure. The male:female ratio was 0.72:1.00 and 1.00:0.95. No hermaphrodite specimen was found at either site. The pooled samples from different months showed no significant seasonal deviation in the sex ratio from a 1:1 ratio (Chi-square test, p>0.05).
  M. Aminur Rahman , A. Arshad , Fatimah Md. Yusoff and S.M.N. Amin
  Potential for interspecific hybridization between genetically diverged species of tropical sea urchins, Echinometra sp. A (Ea) and Echinometra mathaei (Em) was examined through cross fertilization and hybrid rearing experiments. Mean performance traits of fertilization, larval survival, metamorphosis and recovery of juveniles Em (ova)xEa (sperm) and Ea (ova)xEm (sperm) hybrids were not significantly different from each other but were significantly lower than either of their conspecific control, EaxEa and EmxEm. Despite these, hybrids in both directions were developed normally to sexually mature adults. The growth parameters (final weight, weight gain, gonad weight, gonad index and SGR) of 2-year-old adult hybrids were significantly higher than the superior parent (EaxEa) and inferior parent (EmxEm). The gonad production showed an increment of 45.49% in F1 hybrids over mid-parents, while it showed an increase of 33.74%, 62.60% and 46.76% in F1 hybrid of EmxEa and 31.42, 59.79 and 44.22% in F1 hybrid of EaxEm over the superior, inferior and mid-parents, respectively. Survival was highest in EmxEm followed by EaxEa, EmxEa and EaxEm in that order. Therefore, body growth, gonad production and survival indicate hybrids in either direction were viable in laboratory conditions. The superiority of these growth traits of the hybrid groups over their parental values indicates positive heterosis (hybrid vigor). This study is the first successful demonstration of hybrid vigor between two diverged species of sea urchins. Hence hybrids in both directions appear to have considerable potential for use in aquaculture.
  R. Ara , A. Arshad , S.M.N. Amin and A.G. Mazlan
  Fish larval diversity is very important for management of the fisheries resources. Fish larval density, family richness, Shannon Wiener index and evenness were determined by analyzing samples collected from the seagrass-mangrove ecosystem of Gelang Patah, Johor Strait, Peninsular Malaysia between October 2007 and September 2008. Five stations were selected namely upper estuary (S1), middle estuary (S2), lower estuary (S3), seagrass beds (S4) and outside seagrass beds (S5). In total, 24 fish larval families were identified from the investigated area. Among them, 14 occurred in upper estuary, 17 in middle estuary, 16 in lower estuary, 20 in seagrass beds and 16 in outside seagrass beds. Overall five (Clupeidae, Blenniidae, Terapontidae, Gobiidae and Sillaginidae) were the most dominant in study areas. Shannon-Wiener index varied significantly within monsoon and intermonsoon seasons peaking in the months October-January and May-August. The highest density of larval fishes was recorded at seagrass station (S4) and the spatial variations in larval density were significant (p<0.05) between seagrass and other four sampling sides. None of the diversity indices showed significant among-stations except only family richness was significantly (p<0.05) higher in seagrass beds than upper estuary.
  H.B. Fathi , M.S. Othman , A.G. Mazlan , A. Arshad , S.M.N. Amin and K.D. Simon
  Trace metals (Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb) concentrations in muscles, livers and gills of three important marine fishes, Torpedo Scad (Megalaspis cordyla), Sea Catfish (Arius thalassinus) and Belangeri Croaker (Johnius belangeri) were studied using the Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). The samples were collected from Mersing the eastern coastal waters of Peninsular Malaysia. The estimated ranges of Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb concentrations in the muscles, livers and gills of the three fish species were 1.51-3.48, 17.54-28.34, 0.02-0.12 and 0.12-0.15; 15.8-26.0, 80.58-365.1, 2.32-6.14 and 0.57-1.54; 3.04-5.51, 61.63-259.3, 0.03-0.12 and 0.14-2.03 μg g-1 dry weight, respectively. Metal concentrations in the edible parts of the fish were assessed for human consumption according to the Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake (PTWI) and Provisional Tolerable Daily Intake (PTDI). Generally, levels of metal in muscles were lower than those in livers and gills. Zinc concentration was found to be the highest among the tested metals in all three species. The estimated weekly and daily intakes for the studied metals were far below the PTWI and PTDI limits. Present study reveals that consumption of these fishes from the study area does not pose a risk to human health.
  M. Aminur Rahman , A. Arshad , K. Marimuthu , R. Ara and S.M.N. Amin
  Inter-specific hybrids have been produced to increase growth rate, improve productivity through hybrid vigor, transfer desirable traits, reduce unwanted reproduction through production of sterile fish, combine other valuable traits such as good flesh quality, disease resistance and increase environmental tolerances, better food conversion, take advantages of sexual dimorphism and increase harvesting rate in culture systems. Hybrids play a significant role for increase in aquaculture production of several species of freshwater and marine fishes; for example, hybrid catfish in Thailand, hybrid stripped bass in the USA, hybrid tilapia in Israel and hybrid characids in Venezuela. Despite its’ wide-spread use in aquaculture, there have been an impression that hybrids do not hold much attraction for aquaculturist. With the expansion of aquaculture sector and the increased number of species being bred and farmed, there are hybrids that now account for a substantial proportion of national aquaculture production and other hybrids may be emerging through further development. As the domestication of fish species increases, the possibilities to increase production through appropriate hybridization techniques is ongoing with a view to produce new hybrid fishes, especially in culture systems where sterile fish may be preferred because of the concern that fish may escape into the open freshwater, marine and coastal environment. Chromosome-set manipulation (polyploidization) has been combined with hybridization to increase the viability and to improve developmental stability of hybrid fishes. Intentional or accidental hybridization can lead to unexpected and undesirable results in hybrid progeny, such as reduced viability and growth performances, loss of color pattern and flesh quality and also raises risks to maintenance of genetic integrity of species if the hybrids escape to the natural habitat and undergo backcrosses with the parental species. The success of inter-specific hybridization can be variable and depend on the genetic structure, crossing patterns, gamete compatibility and gene flow patterns of the parental species. Appropriate knowledge on the genetic constitution of the broodstock, proper broodstock management and monitoring of the viability and fertility of the progeny of brood fishes is thus very crucial before initiating hybridization experiments. In addition, some non-generic factors such as weather conditions, culture systems, seasons and stresses associated with selecting, collecting, handling, breeding and rearing of broodstock and progeny may greatly influence hybridization success in a wide variety of freshwater and marine fin fishes.
  I. Idris and A. Arshad
  A checklist of polychaetous annelids identified within Malaysian territory is presented. The checklist is produced based on the collected specimens by the present authors and from published materials. Two species from the checklist that are currently commercially exploited were described in detail based on their original descriptions as well as current observation. In total, 64 polychaete species from 31 families have been identified in Malaysia from 1866 until present. The two described species, Halla okudai Imajima, 1967 and Diopatra claperedii Grube, 1878 are harvested as baitworms along the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia. The checklist has extended the distribution of these two species from their previous records. The number of polychaete species identified in Malaysia is lower than its neighbouring countries except the Philippines. The polychaete research in Malaysia is evaluated and research direction is commented.
  R. Ara , S.M.N. Amin , A.G. Mazlan and A. Arshad
  Morphometric data of six dominant families of fish larvae were examined to observe the degree of similarity among the six families. The experiment was conducted in the seagrass-mangrove ecosystems of Gelang Patah, Johor Strait, Peninsular Malaysia. Samples of fish larvae were collected by using bongo net through 30 min subsurface tow. The six dominant families (Terapontidae, Gobiidae, Sillaginidae, Nemipteridae, Blenniidae and Leiognathidae) were selected for the morphometric analysis using one-way ANOVA by SPSS and PRIMER 5 software for cluster analysis. All the morphometric characters, total length, standard length, body depth, snout length, head length, eye diameter and pre anal length of the six dominant families of the order Perciformes were found to be significantly different (p<0.05). The study is formed a basis for further extensive research to be carried out on larval fishes in Malaysian waters.
  N.S. Mariana , M.A. Norfarrah , F.M. Yusoff and A. Arshad
  Resistant strain issues of Staphylococcus aureus remain a global challenge and strategic drug discovery programs have been initiated to confront the issue through drug design based on infective target site. Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains treated with a marine extract, exhibiting potential inhibitory activity through plate and tube assays were screened for activity on selected genes, namely genes encoding for important survival structure of bacteria. Bacterial cytoplasmic membrane is a vital structure and a critical barrier separating inside of cell from the environment. Disruption in membrane integrity will result in leakage of internal contents and followed by cell death. The necessity for bacteria to have membranes makes the membrane a practical target. With this premise, studies on MRSA membrane synthesis genes; msrR and mprF genes were conducted via molecular biotechnological approaches. The effect of the resistant gene mecA was also investigated. Alteration of nucleotide sequence after treatment was observed only in the mprF gene and was not evidence in nucleotide sequence of msrR gene. The selective targeting of mprF gene by the marine extract is an invaluable finding which requires further investigations on the feasibility of the target gene to be utilized in the development of anti-infective agent against MRSA. The research constitutes a scientific advancement in the field of medical treatment of drug resistant bacteria and a forefront study of drugs discovery program focusing drugs target genes.
  N.S. Mariana , M.A. Norfarrah , K.A.N.I. Nik , F.M. Yusoff and A. Arshad
  This study investigated the antibacterial activity of the methanolic extract of the animal to justify its use in traditional medicine. Antimicrobial activity was assayed by disc diffusion method and broth macro dilution method. From the result it appeared that the methanolic extract of Stichopus badionotus displayed antibacterial activities against Staphylococcus aureus, three non resistant strains and three multiple resistant strains. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) of the extract against non resistant strain values were 3.75 mg mL -1 and for resistant strain values 7.50 mg mL -1. Further more, this extract tested on rats in wound infection model justified faster healing rates compared to antibiotics. These results indicate that the traditional use of these holothurians for the treatment of S. aureus infection mainly on resistant strains should be elucidate to bring out the potential antibacterial agent.
  S.M.N. Amin , A. Arshad , J.S. Bujang and S.S. Siraj
  Age structure, growth, mortality and yield-per-recruit of Acetes indicus were examined in the coastal waters of Malacca, Peninsular Malaysia between February 2005 and January 2006. Monthly length frequency data were analyzed using FiSAT software for estimating population parameters, including asymptotic length (L), growth co-efficient (K) and exploitation rate (E) to assess the status of the stock. The L and K for males were estimated at 29.40 mm and 1.70 year-1 and for the females that were 42 mm and 1.20 years-1, respectively. The growth performance index (φ’) was calculated as 3.16 and 3.33 for males and females. The growth pattern of males and females showed positive allometric nature of growth (b>3, p<0.05). The maximum life span (tmax) of males and females was 1.76 and 2.50 years, respectively. Total mortality (Z) by length converted catch curve was estimated at 4.15 year-1 for males and 3.50 year-1 for females. The rate of natural mortality (M) for males and females was calculated as 2.65 and 1.91 year-1 and the fishing mortality (F) was 1.50 and 1.59 year-1 for males and females, respectively. The recruitment pattern of A. indicus was continuous throughout the year with two major peaks. The exploitation rate (E) of males was 0.36 and that of females was 0.45. The maximum allowable limit of exploitation (Emax) of males and females was 0.71 and 0.57 for the highest yield. The exploitation rates were less than the predicted Emax values of males and females. Thus, the stock of A. indicus was found to be under exploited in the investigated area.
  Z.C. Cob , A. Arshad , J.S. Bujang , W.L.W. Muda and M.A. Ghaffar
  Strombus canarium is a commercially important gastropod that has great potential for advancement into aquaculture. In this study, the metamorphosis response of Strombus canarium larvae to various metamorphosis cues associated with conch nursery habitat and to KCl and GABA, were tested. Bioassays were run as static, no choice experiment and adopting a continuous exposure approach. Strombus canarium larvae showed strong metamorphosis responses when sediment (i.e., conch nursery habitat sediment/SD-NU) and detrital substrata (i.e., Thalassia detritus leachate/T-LC) from their nursery habitat were used (p<0.05). There was no metamorphosis in treatments using sterilized conch nursery habitat sediment (SD-ST) and sediment taken from outside conch nursery habitat (SD-OT). Experiments using fresh macrophyte blades of Enhalus acoroides (EA), Thalassia hemprichii (TH), Halophila ovalis (HA) and Ulva (UL) and adult conditioned seawater (SD-SW) also showed negative respond. Conch larvae demonstrate active habitat selection during metamorphosis and no spontaneous metamorphosis was observed. Settlement in S. canarium is associative in nature where epibionts associated with conch nursery habitat could be the cue for the metamorphosis. However, the specific epibionts/inducers and mechanisms underlining the process were not studied and therefore are subjected to more detailed investigation. The use of KCl was comparable with treatments using natural inducers (SD-NU and T-LC), thus was suggested for application in hatchery spat production of the species.
  Z.C. Cob , A. Arshad , J.S. Bujang and M.A. Ghaffar
  The age, growth, mortality and population structure of Strombus canarium Linnaeus, 1758 were examined in the Johor Straits, Malaysia from January to December 2005. A total of 2088 conchs were sampled where females were more abundant than males with monthly sex ratio of 1.72±0.17 (N = 12). The estimated growth parameter showed higher asymptotic length (L) and growth coefficient (K) in females (L = 70.20 mm, K = 1.50 year-1) compared with the males (L = 69.30 mm, K = 1.20 year-1). This resulted in better overall growth performance of females (φ’ = 3.81) compared with the males (φ’ = 3.48). The growth pattern of females and males showed positive allometric nature of growth (b>3, p<0.05), with estimated maximum life span of 2.0 and 2.5 year, respectively. The recruitment pattern was continuous, displaying only a single major peak event per year. The estimated natural mortality rate (M) was 0.95 year-1 in females and 0.86 year-1 in males, while the total mortality rate (Z) was 2.56 and 2.72 year-1, respectively. The fishing mortality rate (F) was 1.61 year-1 in females and 1.86 year-1 in males, which were higher than the natural mortality rates, thus indicating an unbalanced position of the stock. In addition, the exploitation rate (E) was higher than the maximum allowable limit of exploitation (EMSY), which was a further indication of overexploitation. For sustainable utilization of the resource, serious efforts should immediately be taken in reducing the exploitation rates of S. canarium in the study area.
  A. Arshad , S.M. Nurul Amin , S.S. Siraj and S.B. Japar
  Present research records for the first time, the occurrence of the sergestid shrimp Acetes intermedius in Peninsular Malaysia. A taxonomic account of this shrimp is provided. Notes on its habitat and population characteristics were examined based on 995 specimens collected from the Klebang Besar, coastal waters of Malacca, Peninsular Malaysia during February 2005 to January 2006. Size-frequency distribution revealed that the mean size of females consistently exceeded that of males throughout the year (TL range: 15-27.50 and 13.50-33 mm for males and females, respectively). The overall yearly and the monthly sex ratio were in favor of females. Asymptotic length (L4) and growth co-efficient (K) was estimated as 34.65 mm and 1.50 yearG1. The exponent b (2.979) of the length-weight relationship for males was found near to the isometric value (b = 3.0) and positive allometric growth was observed in females and combined sexes (b = 3.227 for females and b = 3.249 combined sexes). The asymptotic weight was calculated as 211.21 mg. The overall average growth rate of A. intermedius showed 2.10 (` 0.88) mm/month in the coastal waters of Malacca.
  K.D. Simon , A.G. Mazlan , Z.C. Cob , A. Samat and A. Arshad
  In this study the most common bony structure (scales) and method was investigated for age determination of archer fishes. A total of 85 specimens of archer fishes (Toxotes chatareus and Toxotes jaculatrix) from the estuaries of South Johore, Malaysia were examined for age. Scale length is linearly proportion (r = 0.816) to standard length (SL). Relationship between scale length (L) and scale weight (W) can be expressed by the formula W = 0.0155L2.917. Daily growth rings and annulus of scales count up demonstrated that the ages of the samples for both species were mostly 1-2 years and a handful samples of T. jaculatrix were above 2 years.
  A. Arshad , S.M. Nurul Amin , G.T. Yu , S.Y. Oh , J.S. Bujang and M.A. Ghaffar
  The population structure, length-weight and length-length relationships of Acetes vulgaris were examined based on 1141 specimens collected in the months of June and July 2006 from Pontian, Johor Bahru. The morphological characteristics of A. vulgaris were examined and the result was found to be similar when compared with the previous research. Mean length of males was 23.18 ± 2.95 mm while for females was 23.91 ± 3.53 mm. The range of total length for the males and females was 14.00-33.00 and 13.00-32.00 mm, respectively. The relationship between the total length and body weight of A. vulgaris was W = 0.0178L2.6368 (r2 = 0.829) for males and W = 0.0082L2.9144 (r2 = 0.902) for females. The carapace length and total length, relationship for males and females were CL = 4.1844TL + 2.3983 (r2 = 0.732) and CL = 4.0872TL + 1.8879 (r2 = 0.732), respectively. The sex ratio of female to male was found to be at 1: 3.27 with the number of males exceeded that of the females.
  Roushon Ara , A. Arshad , N. Amrullah , S.M. Nurul Amin , S.K. Daud , A.A. Nor Azwady and A.G. Mazlan
  Diet composition of most common fish larvae of family Sparidae was studied in the Sungai Pulai seagrass bed of Gelang Patah South Western part of Johor, Peninsular Malaysia from December 2007 to May 2008. Larvae were collected by subsurface towing of a bongo net. In situ hydrographic parameters were recorded during the sampling cruises. Stomachs were removed from a total of 80 Sparidae specimens during the study period and the stomach contents were examined. Analysis of prey in the stomach showed 24 important food items belonging to 8 major groups: phytoplankton, zooplankton, algae, insects, plant like matter, decapod appendages, debris and unidentified matters. The predominant food items found in the stomach were phytoplankton (60.85%). This was followed by algae (11.73%), zooplankton (9.35%), plant matters (7.84%), debris (4.60%), insects (2.84%), unidentified matters (1.96%) and decapod appendages (0.82%). Habitat in situ temperatures were recorded at 26.92-30.83°C (Mean± SD, 28.60± 1.38); Dissolved oxygen ranged from 4.73 to 6.24 mg L-1 (5.56± 0.53) and the salinity fluctuation was between 29.37 and 33.68 ppt (31.31± 1.68). Among the food items, phytoplankton was the first rank by Simple resultant index (60.85%) followed by algae (11.73%). Therefore, it could be concluded that the fish larvae of family sparidae are mainly herbivorous.
  S.Y. Oh , A. Arshad , S.P. Pang and S.M. Nurul Amin
  Catch composition of Estuarine Set Bag Net (ESBN) in coastal waters of Pontian, Johor, Peninsular Malaysia was investigated based on the catch data during June to November 2007. The total catches comprised of three major groups were Acetes shrimps (89%), juvenile fishes (9%) and other shrimps (2%). Among the Acetes shrimps, three species were recorded from the study area viz., Acetes indicus (74%), Acetes serrulatus (24%) and Acetes japonicus (2%). The nine juvenile fishes species were identified as Setipinna brevicep, Trichiurus lepturus (ribbon fish), Lutjanus malabaricus, Epinephelus diacanthus, Cynoglossus bilineatus, Secutor ruconius, Lactarius lactarius, Atelopus japonicus and Ilisha kampeni. Other shrimps were constituted of two families as Penaeidae (70%) and Thalassocaridae (30%). This study revealed that there is no bad impact of ESBN on juvenile fishes.
  D. Aziz , S.S. Siraj , A. Arshad , S.M. Nurul Amin and S.A. Harmin
  Genomic DNA of sergestid shrimp, Acetes japonicus was successfully extracted by using the Promega Wizard Genomic DNA Purification Kit. Population genetic characterization of A. japonicus along the western coast of Peninsular Malaysia (state of Perak, Malacca and Kedah) was examined using the Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) marker. Twenty oligonucleotides from operon A kit were used to screen the populations, of which 6 were able to be amplified (OPA03, OPA04, OPA07, OPA09, OPA10, OPA16). The percentages of polymorphic bands of the three populations investigated varied from 57.77 to 87.77%. Genetic distances between populations and cluster analysis from UPGMA grouped the populations into two major clusters. The Perak and Malacca populations were in one cluster, while the Kedah population was clustered by itself, indicating a different population. The genetic distance was highest as 0.0999 for the Kedah and the Malacca populations while lowest value was 0.0413 for the Perak and the Malacca populations, which probably have a closed ancestral relationship. The results of this study suggested that RAPD analysis, if carried out carefully and accurately would give a good indication of the separation between individuals of different populations and is suitable for identification of closely related genotypes.
  A.A. Amani , A. Arshad , S.M.N. Amin and N.A.A. Aziz
  A study was conducted for a 12-month period, from June 2008 to May 2009 based on the catch data to determine the catch composition of Set Bag Net (SBN) that is a type of fishing net laid down to catch Acetes shrimps that move along the estuary of Merbok River in the state of Kedah, Peninsular Malaysia. Bag net is a static traditional gear with a cod end mesh size measuring 0.5 cm. The results showed that total catches of the bag net over a year period were constituted of three major catch groups viz. Acetes shrimps (89%), juvenile fishes (9%) and other non-Acetes shrimps (2%). The annual mean percentage composition of sergestid shrimps comprised of A. japonicus, A. vulgaris and A. indicus were found to be 89, 7 and 4%, respectively. The gear is very selective and besides Acetes there was also a small proportion of fish juvenile being caught. Seven species of juvenile fishes were recorded throughout the catch period however; their mean total abundance was very low (9%). Penaeid shrimp was the only group of non-Acetes shrimp been recorded. Based on the analyzed catch composition data, it could be concluded that SBN is Acetes-selective and not causing significant great damage to the juvenile fish population inhabiting the study area.
  M. Jafari , M.S. Kamarudin , C.R. Saad , A. Arshad , S. Oryan and M.H.T. Guilani
  The main objective of this study was to investigate the effect of different diets on Caspian kutum larval growth, survival and body composition, thus the Caspian kutum was examined in diets, Starved (S), Egg yolk (E), Artemia nauplii (A) and Artemia nauplii plus egg yolk (A+E). Totally four dietary treatments were tested in triplicate for 30 days. A significant growth difference between fry fed was observed in Artemia plus egg yolk (p<0.05). Final mean lengths and weights for each treatment (S, A, E, A+E), respectively were 7.0±0.07, 26±0.91, 23.5±0.91, 28.6±0.18 mm (Mean±SE, n = 12) and 4.9±0.08, 57±2.14, 51±2.18, 74±3.64 mg (Mean±SE, n = 12). The larvae accumulated increasing protein in Treatment A+E and lipid in treatment E (p<0.05). Also, the highest survival rate, 70.9±2.1%was in the treatment A+E and was significantly higher compared to 59.5±1.45% and 56.6±0.98%and in the other group (p<0.05). During culture period some other factors such as DGC (Daily Growth Coefficient), DWG (Daily Weight Gain), DLG (Daily Length Gain) and SGR (Specific Growth factor Rate) were measured. The obtained result showed that diet Artemia plus egg yolk is promising for use in Caspian kutum culture for in early stages of life cycle.
  A. Arshad , S.M. Nurul Amin , Y.L.Z. Nuradiella , Z.C. Cob , R. Ara and D. Aziz
  The study was an attempt to examine the size frequency distribution, length-weight relationship and morphometric variation of the Acetes japonicus from four different sides of Kedah coastal waters between March to May 2007 by using SPSS and PRIMER software. The average total length of the females from Batu Lintang and male of Tg. Dawai were the highest with the values of 17.07 and 13.93 mm, respectively. The growth co-efficient (b) values ranged between 2.0 to 4.0, indicating varieties of the growth pattern (negative allometric, isometric and positive allometric) for A. japonicus. The highest correlation of length-length relationship in female and male were found in the population of Kuala Sala. The morphological characteristics showed variation among populations. The highest similarity of morphometric characteristics was between Batu Lintang and Tg. Dawai for all groups (female, male, combined sexes).
  Amani. A.A , S.M.N. Amin , A. Arshad and M. Aminur Rahman
  Population parameters of male and female A. japonicus were studied using the monthly length frequency data to evaluate the mortality rates and its exploitation level. The sex ratio (male: Female) was found at 1: 0.94. Asymptotic length (L∞) was 25.20 mm and 28.88 mm for male and female, respectively. Growth co-efficient (K) for males and females was estimated at 1.80 and 1.30 year-1, respectively. Total mortality (Z) was calculated at 5.98 and 4.44 year-1 for male and female of A. japonicus respectively. Natural mortality (M) was 2.82 and 2.19 year-1 for the male and female shrimps. The fishing mortality (F) was 3.16 year-1 for male and 2.25 year-1 for female. Exploitation level (E) for male and female of A. japonicus was calculated at 0.53 and 0.51. The exploitation level was slightly over (E>0.50) the optimum level of exploitation (p = 0.50). The stock of A. japonicus was found to be slightly over exploited in Tanjung Dawai estuarine waters.
  A.A. Amani , S.M.N. Amin and A. Arshad
  The study on food and feeding habits of planktonic shrimp Acetes japonicus were done by examining the stomach contents of 164 specimens between June 2008 and May 2009. Samples were obtained from the bag net that was set along the bank of Tanjung Dawai estuary. Diet compositions of A. japonicus were grouped into eight major categories: phytoplankton, zooplankton, algae, appendages of crustacean, plant matter, debris, unidentifiable items and sand and mud. Analysis on the percentage of numerical abundance (Ci) showed that plant matter (28.18%) and crustacean appendages (18.70%) as the two highest values amongst the eight categories of food items. In addition, percentage frequency of occurrence (Fpi) values of phytoplankton, zooplankton, algae, plant matter, appendages of crustacean, debris, unidentified items and sand and mud were 3.54, 7.05, 5.07, 27.44, 17.42, 15.80, 8.94 and 19.81%, respectively. On the basis of food composition found in the stomach, it can be concluded that A. japonicus is omnivorous in feeding habit.
  S.Y. Oh , A. Arshad , S.B. Japar , A.A Nor Azwady and S.M.N. Amin
  Shrimps of the genus Acetes Milne-Edwards, 1980 are ecologically and commercially important. The diet composition of A. serrulatus were examined based on 370 specimens collected in the coastal waters of Johor, Peninsular Malaysia from April 2008 to April 2009. The food items in the gut of A. serrulatus were comprised of phytoplankton, zooplankton, plant matter, appendages of decapods, debris and unidentified fragments. Majority of the stomach sacs examined (88.72%) were filled up with food while only 11.28% were found empty. Based on the Simple Resultant Index (% Rs), appendages of decapod (31.87%) was found to be the primary food items, followed by plant matter (16.48%) and zooplankton (14.18%). Thus, it could be concluded that A. serrulatus is omnivorous and feed on phytoplankton, zooplankton and microcrustacean.
  R. Ara , A. Arshad , S.M.N. Amin , S.K. Daud and A.G. Mazlan
  Temporal variation of fish larval density and composition between seagrass and outside seagrass beds of the southwestern Johor, Malaysia were investigated between October 2007 and September 2008. Fish larvae were sampled monthly by using a bongo net with 500 μm mesh size and 30 min sub-surface tow. In situ environmental variables were also recorded during the sampling works. The fish larval assemblage comprised of 20 families from the seagrass beds and 16 families recorded from the outside seagrass beds station. In total, 3738 larvae (2,801 from seagrass and 937 from non-seagrass area) were collected. Total larva density was at 79 individuals per 100 m3 and 34 individuals per 100 m3 for seagrass beds and outside seagrass station respectively. Larval abundance varied significantly within monsoon and inter-monsoon seasons, with peaks in February-March and May-July. Top five families were Blenniidae, Clupeidae, Gobiidae, Sillaginidae and Terapontidae and they occurred consistently throughout the year. Larvae belonging to family Clupeidae (47.94% in seagrass and 42.03% in outside seagrass) and Terapontidae (17% in seagrass and 24% in outside seagrass) were the most abundant family in the study areas. The highest density of total larval fishes was recorded at the seagrass ecosystem. The spatial variations in larval density were not significantly (p>0.05) different between the seagrass beds and open sea station.
  M.Z. Hazmadi , S.M.N. Amin , A. Arshad , M. Aminur Rahman and S.M. Al-Barwani
  Study on length-weight relationships of anchovy, Stolephorus tri collected from Benting Lintang (Lat. 5°44'33.62 N and Long. 102°39'22.84 E), the coastal waters of Besut, Terengganu was carried out on June and July 2010. Stolephorus tri are important component of marine ecosystems and commercially significant marine food resources in Malaysia. The mean size length of Stolephorus tri was 63.53 mm with a range of 51.0-76.0 mm. The average weight of Stolephorus tri was 1.57 g. The relationship between total length and body weight of Stolephorus tri was Log W = 3.0384 Log TL-5.2923 (W = 0.00001 TL3.0384). It is revealed that the exponent ‘b’ for Stolephorus tri was very close to the isometric value (b = 3). Therefore, the relative growth of Stolephorus tri was isometric in the coastal waters of Besut, Terengganu.
  R. Ara , A. Arshad , L. Musa , S.M.N. Amin and P. Kuppan
  Studies on feeding habits and seasonal variation of diet of fish larvae of family Clupeidae was conducted from October 2007 to September 2008 in the estuary of Sg. Pendas, Gelang Patah, Johor, Malaysia. The diet composition were grouped into seven major categories consisted of phytoplankton, zooplankton, plant-like matter, debris, fragment of copepod, algae and unidentified food items. The most predominant food items in the gut of clupeids was phytoplankton (82.53%), followed by plant-like matter (7.34%), debris (4.86%), fragment of copepods (2.69%), algae (0.92%), unidentified items (0.77%) and zooplankton (0.54%).
  N.L.W.S. Wong and A. Arshad
  Though marine science has received much attention in Malaysia in the recent years, marine mollusc studies are still overseen by many researchers. The lacks of basic information such as diversity data and species check list make it impossible to assess the rate of population lost among marine molluscs. To date, no published information on the actual number of marine shelled molluscan species exist in Malaysian waters. The single largest record and collection come from Purchon collected between 1973 and 1974. A large collection of marine molluscs was made along the coastal line of West Malaysia and Purchon found 301 species (52 families) of marine gastropods and 154 species (37 families) of marine bivalves over a 14 months period. However, little progress has been made since then. At present, only 581 species marine gastropods and bivalves are documented (384 species from class Gastropoda and 197 species from class Bivalvia) in Malaysian waters from various sources. Some data are unpublished and some remained as internal circulation document. The current researches on marine mollusc diversity are incomprehensive and focus only on small geographical area and limited habitat. Besides, central depository facilities such as a natural history museum where researchers could deposit their collections and hold records for the diversity of marine shelled mollusc in Malaysia are still unavailable. These shortcomings and the lack of trained taxonomist have contributed to the weak database of marine molluscs studies.
  I. Johan , M.K. Abu Hena , M.H. Idris and A. Arshad
  The abundance and composition of copepod was carried out in the coastal waters of Bintulu, Sarawak, Malaysia on March 2005. Samples were collected using conical plankton net with the mesh size of 153 μm. Copepod identified comprised of four orders namely, Calanoida, Cyclopoida, Harpacticoida and Poecilostomatoida. A total of 49 species belonging to 26 genera were identified. Nine most abundant species were Paracalanus crassirostris, Paracalanus elegans, Temora stylifera, Temora turbinata, Oncaea venusta, Corycaeus andrewsi, Corycaeus subtilis, Paracalanus parvus and Paracalanus denudatus. The first four species mentioned were the most abundant species and they accounted for over 50% of the total numbers of identified copepods. Copepod species which were rare and low in abundance included Delius nudus, Acrocalanus gracilis, Tortanus forcipatus, Centropages orsini, Corycaeus dahlia, Copilia mirabilis, Labidocera minuta, Microstetella rosea and Cosmocalanus darwini. Cosmocalanus darwini is new record to Malaysian waters. Species richness and diversity tends to increase towards the offshore while abundance increased towards the inshore stations.
  H. Hamli , M.H. Idris , M.K. Abu Hena , S.K. Wong and A. Arshad
  Sarawak comprises of vast areas of wetland which is the habitat of huge number of edible gastropods. Among the wetland faunal composition, the edible gastropod is one of the important sources of animal protein for the local communities. This diversity of edible gastropod was studied from seven Divisions of Sarawak namely Kuching, Sibu, Mukah, Bintulu, Miri, Limbang and Lawas. Samples were collected from the wet market and catches from local fishermen. A total of 21 species representing 11 families and 16 genera of edible gastropods were identified from Sarawak. Cerithidea spp. was represented by three species while both Nerita and Pomacea were made up of three and two species each. Others were each represented by one single species. Six edible gastropod species belonged to the freshwater habitat while seven and eight species were recorded from brackish and marine habitats, respectively. Cerithidea and Pomacea showed wide geography amongst the Division and also highly distributed. Edible gastropods have high market value in the state of Sarawak and contribute significantly to the livelihoods of the certain indigenous communities in the state.
  N.Z. Zulikha , F.M. Yusoff , J. Nishikawa , A. Arshad and H.M. Matias-Peralta
  The study was undertaken to determine zooplankton composition and abundance along Perak River estuarine system during the Northeast (NE) monsoon. Monthly samplings were conducted from November 2009 until February 2010. Four sampling stations were selected along the salinity gradient covering stations from the upstream down to 1 km off the coastal sea area. The zooplankton samples were collected by vertical tows using conical plankton net (100 μm mesh size). Throughout the monsoon season, a total of 11 higher taxa of zooplankton groups were recognized, of which copepods were the dominant group comprising 96% (including nauplii and copepodites) 95 and 99% of the total zooplankton abundance in the marine, estuarine and upstream station, respectively. Seventeen species of copepods from 10 genera were identified. Total zooplankton abundances recorded during the sampling period were 45.5±18.9x103, 34.9±25.9x103 and 45.9±30.5x103 individual m-3 in the upstream, estuarine and marine station, respectively. Multidimensional Scaling (MDS) analysis based on zooplankton abundance revealed three distinct groups separating the upstream from the estuarine and marine stations. Similarly, lower diversity index was recorded in the estuarine station (H’ = 2.04±0.28) compared to marine area (H’ = 2.20±0.26), suggesting that less copepod species were tolerant to the drastic changes of the estuarine environment. Low copepod densities were recorded in the beginning of the monsoon season, but progressively increased with a peak in the middle of the monsoon season. The results demonstrated that the Perak estuary was a turbid environment with drastic changes in salinity levels due to high inflow of freshwater during the monsoon season which affect the distribution of the zooplankton populations.
  Efrizal , A. Arshad , M.S. Kamarudin , C.R. Saad and S.M.N. Amin
  This study was carried out to observe and describe sexual dimorphism, reproductive system, macroscopic and histological gonad development and Gonado Somatic Index (GSI) of blue swimming crab (P. pelagicus) during post-spawning, spent spawner and berried female under laboratory conditions. The general sex dimorphism and reproductive system of male and female blue swimming crab were observed similar to be most other decapods crustaceans. The pubertal molt, the abdomen and gonopores of female show changes that are generally accepted as external morphological indications of sexual maturity. Unlike female, the males show prepubertal (loosing of the attachment of the abdominal flap to the cephalothorax) rather than pubertal molt. The ovaries and testes were classified into five and three development stages and the ovarian histology of each stage was characterized. The ovarian stages correlated closely with the Gonado Somatic Index (GSI), the characteristics of ovarian histology and oviposition period.
  Z.C. Cob , A. Arshad , J.S. Bujang and M.A. Ghaffar
  This study was conducted to analyze variation in Strombus canarium larvae development, growth and survivals when cultured during wet (main reproductive period) and dry seasons. Larvae were reared at 200 larvae L-1 in filtered seawater (0.22 μm) and fed with Isochrysis galbana at 1000 cells mL-1 ad libitum. The culture environment was maintained at 29 ± 1°C, salinity of 30 ± 1 PSU and photoperiod of 12:12 light dark cycle. Growth of the larvae was described on a length-at-age basis using the modified Gompertz regression. There was high correlation in shell length-at-age relationship for both wet season (R2 = 0.99) and dry season (R2 = 0.98) culture experiments. The maximal growth rate (M) and survival rate (S) were higher for larvae cultured during wet season (M = 62.44 μm day-1, S = 14.36 ± 2.31%), compared with dry season (M = 43.05 μm day-1, S = 5 ± 1.15%). The maximal attainable larval size (a) was however lower during wet season (950.19 ± 66.93 μm shell length) compared with dry season (1343.05 ± 586.51 μm shell length), which might be due to significantly low larvae density in the latter. Further studies are needed to investigate variation in bio-chemical composition of the egg mass, which was suggested as the main reason for the differences.
  M.M.R. Siddiquee , M.F. Rahman , N. Jahan , K.C.A. Jalal , S.M.N. Amin and A. Arshad
  The fingerlings of indigenous carps such as catla (Catla catla), rohu (Labeo rohita) and mrigal (Cirrhinus mrigala) with exotic carps such as silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix), bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis) and mirror carp (Cyprinus carpio) were cultured together in a fish pond at Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh, in order to determine the food electivity, dietary overlap and food competition among indigenous major carps and exotic carps. Phytoplankton (Chlorophyceae, Cyanophyceae), zooplankton (rotifers) were the dominant groups in the cultured pond. Chlorophyceae was dominant in the diet of rohu. Chlorophyceae and rotifers were the preferred food of catla. Mrigal preferred phytoplankton than zooplankton. Rohu showed positive electivity for zooplankton. Silver carp consumed large quantity of phytoplankton and also preferred rotifers. Chlorophyceae was the dominant food group in the diet of bighead. Mirror carp also preferred plant food organisms dominated by Chlorophyceae. Bighead had positive trends towards phytoplankton. Both mrigal and mirror carp had positive electivity towards phytoplankton. The higher level of dietary overlap occurred between rohu and silver carp followed by between rohu and bighead carp and between catla and silver carp. The lowest level of dietary overlaps occurred between rohu and mirror carp.
  K.C.A. Jalal , B.Y. Kamaruzzaman , A. Arshad , R. Ara and M.F. Rahman
  A study on diversity and distribution of fish communities and water qualities were carried out from January 2009 to December 2010 to cover monsoon and non-monsoon at Kuantan estuary, Pahang, Malaysia. A total of 19 species of primary marine fish belong to 12 families were recorded. Out of 311 individuals the fish fauna was dominated by Ariidae followed by Lutjanidae and Lactaridae. As such Ariidae contributes 50% of the fish caught in the study area and its diversity index (H’) was 0.97. A The Ariidae family consist of four (4) species; Arius maculatus, Arius sumatranus, Arius tenuispinis and Arius thalassinus. The Ariidae family can be found in all stations as they are euryhaline (highly tolerant to salinity) and this fish family are known to be a hardy estuarine catfish. Among all species in family Ariidae, Arius thalassinus was the most dominant (23%) among all species. As such collected species showed highest species diversity (0.34) followed by Arius tenuispinis (0.25) compared to other species. Arius tenuispinis alone contributed 11.90% among the samples caught from all stations. The fishes were caught and recorded highest in September-December. Pseudorhombus quinque ocellatus, Nibea soldado, Sardinella fimbriata, Toxotes jaculatrix, Dasyatis ushiei, Setipinna taty were the least dominant in the Kuantan estuary with 9.33% of total abundance. Physico-temperatures, such as temperature (22.03-30°C), Conductivity (10.342.43 mS cm-1), TDS (0.06-26.34 mg L-1), salinity (0.05-29.09 ppt), DO (6.37-8.38 mg L-1), pH (4.97-8.03), Chl a (0.01-1.33 μg L-1), nitrite (0.01-0.08 mg L-1), nitrate (0.60-0.88 mg L-1), phosphate (0.24-0.40 mg L-1). Nevertheless, the study envisages that the water quality and fish diversity are still conducive in the Kuantan estuary. The fish diversity of Pahang estuary was high monsoon compared to non-monsoons. The station 4 (LKIM fishing boat jetty and adjacent Hospital Kuantan) is the most polluted area due to the presence of several outskirts could be alarming for the sustainable development of fish and other aquatic organisms in Kuantan estuary in the long run.
  M.F. Rahman , K.C.A. Jalal , Nasrin Jahan , B.Y. Kamaruzzaman , R. Ara and A. Arshad
  Coordination among the different stakeholders at policy planning, implementation and target beneficiary level, particularly among the agencies responsible for development and management of water resources, agriculture and fisheries, is essential for overall sustainable development. Stocking of larger fingerlings at suitable stocking densities of endemic (rohu, catla, mrigal) and exotic (silver carp, bighead carp, common carp/mirror carp) species should be stocked at varying proportion. Floodplain fish production depends only on the natural fertility of the water bodies. Technological interventions should include the installation of low cost bamboo fencing at water inlet and outlet points and setting of ring culverts for maintaining suitable levels of water for fish culture without hampering the production of rice and other crops in the intervention areas, selective stocking with native and exotic carps, restricted fishing for certain period of time and guarding. It is expected to exert positive influences in enhancing the standing crop and biodiversity of non-stocked species of fishes in the intervention seasonal floodplain. Entry of fish larvae, hatchlings and young fry of wild non-stocked fishes into the seasonal floodplains because of large fence spacing (approximately 1.0 cm), could restrict fishing for certain period, undisturbed habitat and guarding could contribute to higher productivity and enhancement of fish biodiversity in the seasonal floodplains. Proper motivation and effective cooperation of the beneficiaries are extremely important to culture fish in the seasonal floodplains under community based management system. Institutional support and constant vigilance from the Department of Fisheries (DoF) and local administrations are indispensable to ensure the sustainability of fish culture initiatives in the seasonal floodplains. Active participation and involvement of the local community people in all stages of fish culture operation beginning from selection of floodplains, formation of floodplain management committee, planning of fish culture activities, exercise of technical intervention, selective stocking with large fingerlings, guarding, monitoring and supervision, adopting harvesting strategies, marketing and distribution of benefits are extremely essential to ensure sustainability of the program. Mutual trust, sense of respect and good working relationship among the committee members are the basic social elements required for the success of community based fish culture initiatives.
  Azimah Abdul Rahim , Mohd Hanafi Idris , Abu Hena Mustafa Kamal , S.K. Wong and A. Arshad
  The Condition Index (CI) is a method to measure overall health of fish and that has been applied to estimate the effect that different environmental factors have on clam meat quality. The CI of local mangrove clam Polymesoda expansa in Kelulit, Miri Sarawak was determined from October 2010 to November 2011. Condition index that is generally used to characterize the physiological activity of organisms, varied from 1.8% in December 2010 to 3.4% in October 2011, with low values observed during the spawning period. The clam attained their best condition in quality of flesh weight during July-October. In present study, the CI showed a clear relationship with the reproductive cycle of P. expansa. However, no significant correlation (p>0.05) was found between CI and the different physicochemical parameter of seawater. The data presented is necessary for developing sustainable management strategies and broodstock selection for the species which is crucial in aquaculture development.
  M. Hazmadi Zakaria , S.M.N. Amin , M. Aminur Rahman , A. Arshad , A. Christianus and S.S. Siraj
  The freshwater fish, Probarbus jullieni (Sauvage), locally referred to as “Temoleh”, is a high-valued freshwater fish in Malaysia and has both cultural and conservational significance. It is widely distributed in the North-east Asian countries such as Thailand, Cambodia, Vietnam and Malaysia. During the recent past, the natural stocks of P. jullieni have been decreased severely due to habitat degradation and man-induced hazards in aquatic ecosystem. Despite the vast research that has been conducted on various carp species, little attention has been given to P. jullieni. This study reviewed the published information on the status, distribution, reproduction and biodiversity of this commercially important fish species. The findings would greatly be helpful towards the species conservation and aquaculture development of the highly endangered P. jullieni.
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