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Articles by A. Ali
Total Records ( 11 ) for A. Ali
  A Sajid , M. M Khan , M Shakir , R Moazam Zaman and A. Ali
 

OBJECTIVE: Attitudes of medical students toward a specialty is strongly related to their future choice of specialty. In developing countries like Pakistan, where there is a shortage of psychiatrists, there is a need to assess the effect of exposure to psychiatry on medical students. METHODS: The authors conducted a survey of fourth-year medical students at Aga Khan University in Karachi, Pakistan. RESULTS: Psychiatry clerkship had an overall positive attitude toward psychiatric illness, patients, and psychiatrists, but no effect on students’ choice of psychiatry as a career. CONCLUSION: Psychiatry teaching needs to be made more relevant to the rest of the medical curricula. This may improve students’ interest and their future choice of psychiatry as an area of specialization.

  S. Faiz Ahmed , K. Mushtaq and A. Ali
  Agriculture continues to play a vital role in Pakistan’s economy, it contributes 21% toward the GDP and involves 45% of labor of Pakistan. Livestock is the largest depositor to the agriculture. Therefore, biomass can be used in Pakistan as one of the renewable energy source which can be utilized to create electrical power, provide heating and as a fuel for cooking. Fermentation process of biomass releases biogas which acts as a sustainable energy source. Generally two main types of plants are used worldwide to obtain biogas from biomass which are fixed dome type biogas plants and Floating Dome Biogas Plant (FDBP). Livestock owners in remote areas of Pakistan move themselves according to the climate conditions suitable for their livestock. The issue with these plants is that livestock owners cannot move the biogas plant at another spot easily. Hence, there is a need to develop a portable biogas plant which can be conveniently reinstalled at new place effortlessly. This study described the designing and development of portable biogas plant. The performance of the developed plant and biogas (methane gas) productivity is verified by experiment tests. The manufacturing cost of the FDBP is optimized to make it commercially viable. The developed portable FDBP is favorable for its long life, light in weight and it has ability to produce enough methane gas to suffice the domestic requirements in Pakistan.
  K. Y. Thong , T. J. McDonald , A. T. Hattersley , A. D. Blann , S. Ramtoola , C. Duncan , S. Carr , K. Adamson , A. U. Nayak , R. Khurana , S. J. Hunter , A. Ali , S. Au and R. E. J. Ryder
 

Aims

The response to glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonist treatment may be influenced by endogenous β-cell function. We investigated whether urinary C-peptide creatinine ratio assessed before or during liraglutide treatment was associated with treatment response.

Methods

A single, outpatient urine sample for urinary C-peptide creatinine ratio was collected 2 h after the largest meal of the day among two separate groups: (1) subjects initiating liraglutide (0.6 [RIGHTWARDS ARROW] 1.2 mg daily) or (2) subjects already treated with liraglutide for 20-32 weeks. The associations between pretreatment and on-treatment urinary C-peptide creatinine ratio and HbA1c change at 32 weeks were assessed using univariate and multivariate analyses (the ratio was logarithm transformed for multivariate analyses). Changes in HbA1c according to pretreatment urinary C-peptide creatinine ratio quartiles are shown.

Results

One hundred and sixteen subjects (70 pretreatment, 46 on treatment) with Type 2 diabetes from 10 diabetes centres were studied. In univariate analyses, neither pretreatment nor on-treatment urinary C-peptide creatinine ratio correlated with HbA1c change (Spearman rank correlation coefficient, = -0.17, = 0.17 and = -0.20, = 0.19, respectively). In multi-linear regression analyses, entering baseline HbA1c and log urinary C-peptide creatinine ratio, pretreatment and on-treatment log urinary C-peptide creatinine ratio became significantly associated with HbA1c change (= 0.048 and = 0.040, respectively). Mean (sd) HbA1c changes from baseline in quartiles 1 to 4 of pretreatment urinary C-peptide creatinine ratio were -3 ± 17 mmol/mol (-0.3 ± 1.6%) (= 0.52), -12 ± 15 mmol/mol (-1.1 ± 1.4%) (= 0.003), -11 ± 13 mmol/mol (-1.0 ± 1.2%) (= 0.002) and -12±17 mmol/mol (-1.1±1.6%) (P=0.016), respectively.

Conclusions

Postprandial urinary C-peptide creatinine ratios before and during liraglutide treatment were weakly associated with the glycaemic response to treatment. Low pretreatment urinary C-peptide creatinine ratio may be more useful than higher values by predicting poorer glycaemic response.

  E.M. Younis , A.A. Abdel-Warith , A. Ali , N.A. Al-Asgah and A.S. El-Shayia
  The study evaluated the dressing percentage, nutritional quality and mineral composition of six commercial fish species (Scads, Alepes djedaba, Emperors, Lethrinus lentjan, Kingfish, Scomberomorus commerson, Jobfish, Lutjanus malabaricus, Coral trout, Plectropomus maculates and Groupers, Epinephelus chlorostigma) from the Arabian gulf coast of Saudi Arabia. The Kingfish (Scomberomorus commerson) showed the highest (90.9%) dressing percentage followed by Grouper (80.6%) and Coral trout (80.3%) whereas the lowest (72.9%) was for Emperors. scad fish (Alepes djedaba) had lowest skin and bone weights. Significant (p<0.05) differences were observed in the proximate chemical composition of fish muscles in these species. The highest percentage of protein (21.51%) was found in Coral trout followed by Kingfish (20.68%) and Scads (20.64%). The lowest fat content (0.43%) was observed in Groupers (Epinephelus chlorostigma) whereas the highest fat content (1.12%) was in Kingfish. The highest energy value (4.02 MJ kg-1) in fish muscles was observed in Coral trout. Significant (p<0.05) differences were also observed in the mineral composition of fish muscles in these species. All the fish species proved to be a good source of many important minerals. In spite of the expected pollution threats of coastal waters, it was interesting to note that the amount of heavy metals such as lead and cadmium present in fish muscles were relatively low (0.1-0.26 and 0.007-0.02 mg kg-1, respectively). It is concluded that these fish species contribute towards a safe, healthy and nutritious food for human consumption.
  A. Ali , C. Tchiegang , D. Alhadji , C. Saidou and B.A. Mohamadou
  In order to valorize the rapidly deteriorating fruits of the palm tree Borassus aethiopum Mart under hot and humid climate, drying assays for preservation were carried out. Fruits morphological parameters (weight, diameter and pulp thickness) from two most producing agro ecological zones of Cameroon were measured. Pulps obtained upon pulping the fruits were cut out and dried using an electric dryer under mild conditions (40°C and 20% drying air humidity). Physico-chemical and functional characterization of fresh and dried pulps allowed evaluating the influence of drying on some pulp components. Morphological characteristics of fruits were not significantly different (p<0.05) from one origin zone to another. Fruits average diameter and pulp thickness were 14 cm and 8 mm, respectively while average weights varied between 1270.04±16.69 and 1324.55±85.99 g. Average yield in flesh was 38%. Drying kinetic obtained was classical and revealed that the fifth hour was the necessary time of drying to obtain pulps with constant characteristics and acceptable maximum residual moisture content of 15%. In addition, at this time the pulps contained 60 and 55% of their initial total carotenoids and vitamin C contents, respectively. The flour obtained after milling and sieving comprised mostly particles of 250-500 μm sizes and showed appreciable physico-chemical and functional properties: Water Absorption Capacity (WAC) of 313-407%; Solubility Index (SI) of 39-51%; Fiber content (FB) of 14-30% DM. These results demonstrate the feasibility of flour production from pulps of this Cameroonian palm tree.
  A. Ali , S. Abdu and S. Alansari
  Nowadays, people's exposure to mycotoxin such was continuously on the rise more and more. Theses compounds had induced an excessive production of free radicals which were responsible for several cell alterations in the organism. Recent investigations had proved the crucial role of nutritional antioxidants to prevent the damage caused by toxic compounds. In this study, we investigated the role of date fruit extract in protection against oxidative damage and distal tubules toxicity induced by chronic exposure to ochratoxin (A) (OTA). The animals were assigned into four groups (n = 8) including control and test groups. Control group received sodium bicarbonate and the animals in the test groups received (289 μg OTA kg-1 b.wt. day-1), (1 mg Ajwa kg-1 b.wt. day-1) and (289 μg OTA kg-1 b.wt. day-1+1 mg Ajwa kg-1 b.wt. day-1), respectively during 28 consecutive days. Oral administration of OTA caused nepherotoxicity as monitored by histological alterations marked by appearance of numerous apoptotic cells with swollen mitochondria and disintegrated membranes. Surprisingly, histopathological examinations showed that date, exerted a protective effect on OTA-induced damages, as revealed by improvement of histopathology changes whereas, in Ajwa date extract+OTA group the severity of the lesions was significantly reduced. In conclusion, this data indicated that OTA, at least partly by interfering in oxidative stress system, exerted its toxic effects on distal tubules whereas in vivo date with antioxidant properties could fairly protected rats against OTA toxic effects and be useful for the prevention of oxidative stress induced nepherotoxicity.
  Nazir Hussain , Manzoor Ahmad , M. Salim and A. Ali
  The experiment was conducted in the field on a normal soil. Brackish tube well water was used for irrigating wheat and rice crops without any amendment and with gypsum (equal to sodium contents of irrigation water and two times its sodium contents). Wheat and rice crops were grown from Rabi 1995-96 to Rabi 1998-99. Grain and paddy yield along with Electrical Conductivity (EC), Sodium Adsorption Ratio (SAR) and pH of the soils were recorded. Use of brackish water without any amendment resulted in an increase in EC and SAR of the soil and caused a decrease in crop yield. Use of the same water in combination with two times its sodium contents resulted in normal yield of both the crops without any harmful effect on the soil. Gypsum equal to sodium contents of the irrigation water proved comparatively less effective.
  A. Tanveer , M. Ayub , A. Ali , R. Ahmad and M. Ayub
  A field experiment comprising two row spacing viz. 60 and 75 cm and five durations of weed-crop competition i.e. competition for 20, 30, 40, 50 days after emergence and till harvest was conducted to observe growth and yield response of maize. There was gradual increase in dry weight of weeds with increased weed-crop competition duration. Decrease in number of grains per cob and 1000-grain was recorded with increased competition duration of weeds. Maize grain yield was increased from 1911.61 kg ha–1 in plots where weeds competed with crop till harvest to 3708.33 kg ha–1 in plots where weeds were allowed to compete for 20 days after emergence.
  A. Ali , A.R. Abid , Z.I. Chauhan , G. Ahmad , S. Muhammad and J. Muhammad
  A study was conducted to investigate the beneficiary effect of Biofeed microbial culture (EM4) in poultry for improving the production potential and nutrients digestibility in broilers. One hundred and twenty day old broiler chicks were randomly divided into 12 replicates of 10 birds each for the allotment to a control A and 3 treatment groups B, C and D. All four groups A, B, C and D were fed with starter up to four weeks and finisher ration from 5th to 7th weeks of age supplemented with 0, 1, 2, 3% EM4, respectively. The supplementation of biofeed (EM4) in broiler ration (0-7 weeks) revealed non-significant (p<0.05) difference among the treatment groups in terms of growth rate, feed consumption and feed conversion efficiency. A non significant difference was observed in experimental birds fed with ration supplemented with Biofeed (EM4) in terms of bone meat ratio while a significant (p<0.05) difference was found in gut weight with highest weight in group A (3.75 g) followed by in C (2.98 g), D (2.90 g) and B (2.84 g). Difference in dry matter was found non-significant in all groups supplemented with different level of Biofeed (EM4).
  M.M. Manzoor , M.Z. Alam , Z.I. Chauhan , S.A.H. Gilani , S.T.H. Shah , A. Ali and J. Muhammad
  The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of different levels of poultry byproducts meal (PBM) on the performance of broiler chicks. One hundred and fifty day old (male and female mixed) Hubbard broiler chicks were reared on the five experimental rations up to 42 days of age using control rations containing 8% fish meal. In the experimental rations both in starter and finisher fish meal was replaced by the poultry byproducts meal (PBM) at 2, 4, 6 and 8% levels keeping control rations without PBM. The starter rations were fed up to 28 days of age and remaining 14 days the finisher rations were fed. The crude protein (%) and metabolized energy (Kcal/Kg) content of the starter rations A, B, C, D and E were 21.52, 2937; 21.71, 2916; 21.89, 2983; 22.0, 83007 and 22.29, 3032, respectively, while for finisher rations were 18.73, 3042; 18.92, 3070; 19.10, 3097; 19.29, 3125 and 19.47, 3152.28, respectively. The result showed that the rations containing PBM at the level of 2, 4 and 6% were the best for growth as compared to 8% consumed. There was a non-significant (p<0.05) difference in feed efficiency among different rations. The varying level of PBM used in rations did not significantly (p<0.05) influence the dressing percentage of broiler chicks. It was also concluded that PBM can be used in broiler rations up to 8% of the total diet. It is concluded that PBM supplemented with amino acids may be suggested to be suitable and replace with fish meal in poultry diet.
  A. Ali , F. Khorshid , H. Abu-araki and A.M. Osman
  This study aimed to elaborate an experimental model of pulmonary carcinogenesis in healthy mice and to ascertain the preventive efficacy of PMF when administered against experimental lung carcinogenesis. Male Swiss Albino mice lineage was carried through an intra-peritoneal injection of the Benzo[a] pyrene diluted in corn oil, a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon is widely known by its power of tumoral lung induction. Four experimental groups had been used with 20 animals in each: The first is control group (without infection or treatment); the second is carcinogenic group without treatment, the third is treated carcinogenic group, the fourth is positive control group received only treatment, submitted to euthanasia 08, 16, 24 weeks after the experimental procedure. After 08 weeks, the presence of diffuse inflammatory alterations was observed in carcinogenic- non treated group with thickness of the alveolar wall after the inflammation, however, at analysis of the pulmonary tissue of the treated carcinogenic group it had been observed hyperplasic alterations (BALT hyperplasia) but in positive control group thickness of the alveolar wall was noticed. With more time, after 16, 24 weeks administration of PMF histopathological changes became lesser in the treated carcinogenic group as compared to animals treated with the B[a]P only. In conclusion, the main secondary alterations in the intra-pulmonary instillation of B[a]P of mice were: cellular proliferation, inflammatory alterations of several degrees. PMF treatment has a slightly protective effect to lung tissue along short time but with more time it improved the structure of the lung in carcinogenic treated group.
 
 
 
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