Bisphenol A (BPA) is a chemical compound extensively employed to manufacture certain plastics and epoxy resin. Due to his hormone-like properties, the BPA can disrupt endocrine function in humans and animals. The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) and the International scientific community launched a broad program, to evaluate and investigate the adversely potential effect of BPA, on human endocrine pathways and health. Consequently, the BPA have been banned in several industrialized countries (France, Canada, Belgium, Denmark, Sweden etc.). However, in Algeria BPA still an unknown substance by the public and health professionals. This compound is not subject to any specific regulations. Currently, the debate concerning interdiction or/no interdiction is reported. The purpose of this mini-review is: (a) To provide the reader with the weight of evidence, current regulatory stance, regarding the safe use of BPA in industrials countries and (b) To show the absence of debate, evaluation and legislation in Algeria.
How to cite this article:
Sofiane Boudalia and Malha Oudir, 2016. Bisphenol-A: Legislation in Industrials Countries and in Algeria. Research Journal of Environmental Toxicology, 10: 189-192.
The BPA is an estrogen-mimicking industrial chemical used to make polycarbonate plastics bottles, epoxy resins and food packaging. The BPA is found in human blood and urine due to its ubiquitous use in the production of water bottles, plastic food containers, linings of food and beverage cans and medical products, such as syringes and dental sealants. The BPA is used as an additive in plastics such as PVC. Halogenated derivatives of BPA are also widely used as flame retardants (http://www.bisphenol-a.org). Currently, a debate is witnessing around the use of BPA in commercial products. A number of scientists and activists have worked to highlight concerns about the potential effects of exposure to BPA on human health. In contrast, industry groups and their allies have emphasized uncertainty about the effects of BPA and pointed to studies that failed to find links between BPA exposure and human health (Brewer and Ley, 2014).
At the policy level, various governmental bodies in industrial countries have weighed proposals to ban the use of BPA in products. For their part, the news media have devoted considerable coverage to the controversy, much of it focusing on competing claims about what scientific research has shown regarding BPA and human health (Brewer and Ley, 2014).
Several in vivo studies have reported developmental and behavioral effects of low-dose BPA exposure depending on non-monotonic dose responses that contradict the logic of "The dose makes the poison" (Seta et al., 2005; Melzer et al., 2010; Ryan et al., 2010; Xu et al., 2011; Boudalia et al., 2014; Jedeon et al., 2013, 2014; Auxietre et al., 2014).
In humans, recent reports have revealed a link between the endocrine disruptor levels in biological fluids and the prevalence of certain diseases, including heart disease, obesity and diabetes (Melzer et al., 2010; Lang et al., 2008; Shankar and Teppala, 2011) attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (Hong et al., 2015), behavior problems, including anxiety and depression in children (Harley et al., 2013) and other reproductive problems as sperm quality (Goldstone et al., 2015).
As evidenced by in vivo studies, adverse reproductive and developmental effects of BPA can result from early exposure to very low doses, down to the no observable adverse effect level (NOAEL = 5 mg kg1 b.wt. day1) (Salian et al., 2009, 2011; Rubin et al., 2001; Braniste et al., 2010; Cabaton et al., 2011; Boudalia et al., 2014; Folia et al., 2013; Jedeon et al., 2013).
Similarly, prenatal daily exposure to BPA in the range of 1-50 μg kg1 b.wt. is associated with several behavioral disorders, including altered sexual, social, learning and maternal behaviors (Farabollini et al., 2002).
Moreover, it is suspected that the adipogenic effect, induced by exposures to low doses of BPA in early life, could be related to neuronal disruptions of the brain areas involved in the regulation of food intake and choice (Rubin et al., 2001; Somm et al., 2009; Ryan et al., 2010; Boudalia et al., 2014; Miyawaki et al., 2007).
These scientific findings indicate that exposure to BPA has adverse effects at various ages, for doses below the acceptable daily intake referenced as a "safe" dose for humans by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA).
This mini-review aimed (a): To provide the reader with the weight of evidence, current regulatory stance, regarding the safe use of BPA in industrials countries and (b): To show the absence of debate, evaluation and legislation in algeria.
Legislation on bisphenol-A in europe: The BPA was authorized in Europe in 2002 (European Commission, 2002) to be used as monomer and additive for the manufacture of 66 plastic materials and articles intended to come into contact with foodstuffs together with a specific 67 migration limits of 0.6 mg kg1 food.
The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) conducted several scientific assessments on BPA since 2006. In each case EFSA, reaffirmed that there is no concern for human health from BPA: Human exposure to BPA is far below the safe intake level and even lower than previously estimated. In its draft human health assessment of BPA published January, 2014, based on a comprehensive review of over 450 recent studies related to potential health hazards associated with BPA, EFSA again finds no concern for consumers health from BPA-based products (EFSA, 2014).
However, in late December, 2012, France officially passed a law suspending the production, trade and marketing of food containers containing BPA. Such containers are banned on January 1, 2013, for food products intended for infants (0-3 years) and on January, 1, 2015, for all other products. Also and in several other industrial countries the same decision is adopted (Table 1).
Algeria: In Algeria BPA is an unknown substance by the public and health professionals and it is not subject to any specific regulations.
Also, outside the regulations concerning packaging products in the widest sense of the term, no legislation is made to regulate the use of BPA.
|Table 1:||The BPA legislation from industrial countries|
In addition, the absence of agencies related to food security, human health, animal health and welfare and plant health. Equivalent to the French National Agency for Food Safety (ANSES) or the American Food and Drug Administration (FDA) amplify the problem.
Currently and to our knowledge we have only one law n°09-03 of February, 25, 2009 relating to the consumer protection and the repression of the frauds, which stipulates that "The equipment, materials, tools, packing and other instruments intended to be put in contact with the foodstuffs, must be made up exclusively of materials not being able to deteriorate these food products".
And the executive decree n°91-04 of 19 January, 1991 relating to materials intended to be put in contact with the foodstuffs and cleaning products of these materials, is the only payment, which exists concerning materials intended to come into contact with the foodstuffs, it specifies in article 05 that the materials intended to be put in contact with the foodstuffs must be elaborated exclusively with components not presenting any risk of attack at the health of the consumer.
Following scientific results alarming it is imperative to take preventive measures to protect public health.
CONCLUSION AND FUTURE RECOMMENDATIONS
The absence of competent authorities, that can manage the questions of toxic chemicals, makes the task very difficult.
Also, BPA cannot be prohibited with just taking consideration of European and American studies; we must answer the following questions in future:
|•||What are the sources and the levels of exposure of Algerian citizen to the BPA|
|•||Is the BPA largely used in local industry? Is there any control of the importing products|
|•||Does Algeria have the necessary techniques which enable detection of these substances, to have a specific regulation|
|•||Does the Algerian consumer know what is BPA? Is it conscious of the risks? Do we have the culture to seek what is hidden in packing|
We thank Bassim TAZIR (Max Planck Institute) for his pertinent comments on the manuscript.
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