Trends in Applied Sciences Research1819-35792151-7908Science International10.3923/tasr.2011.507.536MoghaddamS. Shirvani MoghaddamM. Shirvani 6201166In recent years, power saving in transmitter or/and receiver, achieving higher capacity and reducing interference, are the main attractive research subjects in the field of wireless radio communications. The essential goal of these systems is to increase the power of the receiving signal by appropriate forming the antenna radiation pattern in the transmitter, receiver, or both of them. Antenna beamforming techniques, in addition to increase the overall system capacity and quality of the system, decrease the energy consumption. In this study, besides a short review on the advances on antenna and associated applications, by reviewing the current methods for antenna beamforming and their positive effects on reduction of energy consumption, some newest techniques and research areas are proposed. In the rest of study, we focus on antenna array digital processing. Two types of antenna beamforming proposed in antenna array digital processing, fixed-beam as well as adaptive-beam and these two major categories are illustrated with more details. Besides, Simulation results of three fixed-beam methods (Max-SIR, MMSE and LCMV) and two adaptive weighting algorithms (LMS and CM) are described and their performances are evaluated based on different metrics, normalized mean square error, bit error rate, maximum gain of array factor and signal to noise plus interference ratio. Finally, the advantages and disadvantages of each category and related techniques are extracted and they are compared based on computational complexity and convergence time.]]>Ahmadi, S.,2009Alexiou, A. and M. Haardt,2004Azevedo, J.A.R.,2009Badic, B., M. Rupp and H. Weinrichter,2003Balanis, C.A. and P.I. Ioannides,2007Bellofiore, S., C.A. Alanis, J. Foufz and A.S. Spanias,2002Bhobe, A.U. and P.L. Perini,2001Bouacha, A., F. Debbat and F.T. Bendimerad,2008Chandra, S.,2005Chen, Y., T. Le-Ngoc, B. Champagne and C. Xu,2004Djigan, V.I.,2007El-Zooghby, A.,2005Enosawa, K., D. Haruki and D. Thron,2006Etemad, K.,2008Fakharzadeh Jahromi, M.,2008Foutz, J., A. Spanias and M.K. Banavar,2008Fuhl, J. and E. Bonek,1998Gershman, A.B., M. Rubsamen and M. Pesavento,2010Ghadian, M. and S.S. Moghaddam,2010Godara, L.,2004Gross, F.B.,2005Haykin, S.,1996Hoymann, C. and B. Wolz,2006Huang, F., W. Sheng, X. Ma and W. Wang,2010Jalali, M., S.S. Moghaddam and H. Aminelahi,2007Kaiser, T., A. Bourdous, H. Boche, J.R. Fonollosa, J.B. Anderson and W. Utschick,2005Karfoul, A., L. Albera and L. De Lathauwer,2008Kraus, J.D. and R.J. Marhefka,2006Li, J. and P. Stoica,2006Liberti, Jr. J.C. and T.S. Rappaport,1999Litva, J. and T.K.Y. Lo, 1996Miranda, M.D., M.T.M. Silva and V.H. Nascimento,2008Nooralizadeh, H. and S.S. Moghaddam,2009Nooralizadeh, H. and S.S. Moghaddam,2010Nooralizadeh, H., S.S. Moghaddam and H.R. Bakhshi,2009Pattan, B.,2000Rappaport, T.S.,1999Santi Rani, C., P.V. Subbaiah, K. Chennakessava Redy and S. Sudha Rani,2009Sarkar, T.K., M.C. Wicks, M. Salazar-Palma and R.J. Bonneau,2003Shaukat, S.F., M. Ul Hassan, R. Faroo, H.U. Saeed and Z. Saleem,2009Moghaddam, S.S. and H. Saremi,2010Moghaddam, S.S. and H. Saremi,2008Moghaddam, S.S., M.S. Moghaddam and R. Kalami Rad,2010Moghaddam, S.S., M.S. Moghaddam and R. Kalami Rad,2010Shubair, R.M. and R.S. Al-Nuaimi,2008Skolnik, M.,2002Sun, C., J. Cheng and T. Ohira,2009Tuncer, E. and B. Friedlander,2009Wang, L., R.C. Lamare and Y.L. Cai,2009Wang, Y., C. Zhang and Z. Wang,2003Liu, W., S. Weiss, J.G. McWhirter and I.K. Proudler,2007Yang, J., H. Xi, F. Yang and Y. Zhao,2006Yuan, Q., Q. Chen and K. Sawaya,2006Yu, L., W. Liu and R.J. Langley,2010Yuvapoositanon, P. and J.A. Chambers,2002Zarzoso, V. and P. Comon,2008Zhang, X., W. Ser, Z. Zhang and A. Kumar Krishna,2010Zhang, Y. and C. Hsiao-Hwa,2008Zhang, Y., Z. Ye and C. Liu,2010