Research Journal of Information Technology1815-74322151-7959Science International10.3923/rjit.2014.270.290VelumaniR. SeenivasagamV. 4201464Healthcare providers employ Quick Response (QR) codes for patient identification
and tracking. Earlier, we have implemented a zero watermarking system in the
composite Contourlet Transform (CT), Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) domain
to embed a QR code of a Health Level 7 (HL7) PID segment, for patient authentication.
The work proposed in this study is an extension of the above which presents
a study on the behavior of the system exclusively under intense noise attacks.
The purpose of this study is to evaluate the robustness of the systems under
noise attacks in the composite CT-SVD and SVD domains. The methodology employed
for this study implements watermarking systems employing SVD and Hu’s
image invariants and extracts the QR code watermark from the host images subjected
to AWGN, poisson, salt and pepper and speckle noise attacks. The findings of
this investigation show that the system exhibits better robustness in the CT-SVD
domain compared to the SVD domain. Further, it is also demonstrated that, lower
order Hu’s moments are adequate
to impart robustness against noise in zero watermarking systems. This research
also advocates the need to identify noise invariants for medical images with
small regions of interest. Extreme robustness demonstrated by the systems also
calls for further investigations on ambiguity attacks on zero watermarking systems.]]>Alghoniemy, M. and A.H. Tewfik,2000Alghoniemy, M. and A.H. Tewfik,2004Benjamin, M., Y. Aradi and R. Shreiber,2010Cramer, B., G, Butler, J. Chalaoui, K. Silverthorn, L. Lepanto and D. Koff,2008Chang, C.C. and J.C. Chuang,2002Chang, C.C., K.F. Hwang and M.S. Hwang,1999Chen, W.Y. and J.W. Wang,2009Cordos, A., B. Orza, A. Vlaicu, S. Meza, C. Avram and B. Petrovan,2010Do, M.N. and M. Vetterli,2005Fan, T.Y., B.C. Chieu and H.C. Chao,2012Garcia-Betances, R.I. and M.K. Huerta,2012Guo, H. and N.D. Georganas,2003Hsieh, S.L. and B.Y. Huang,2004Hsu, C.S. and Y.C. Hou,2005Hu, M.K.,1962Huang, Z. and J. Leng,2010Davis, K.,2012Kim, J., N. Kim, D. Lee, S. Park and S. Lee,2010Lal, S., M. Chandra, G.K. Upadhyay and D. Gupta,2011Li, X.W., S.J. Cho and S.T. Kim,2012Liu, G., H. Liu and A. Kadir,2012Ferdous, M., M. Ferdous and M. ShorifUddin,2012Naor, M. and A. Shamir,1995Nyeem, H., W. Boles and C. Boyd,2013Gonzalez, R.C. and R.E. Woods,2008Rahimi, F. and H. Rabbani,2011Prokop, R.J. and A.P. Reeves,1992Rawat, S. and B. Raman,2012Sawatzky, A.,2011Soon, T.J.,2008HIPAA,1996Tzouveli, P., K. Ntalianis and S. Kollias,2006Seenivasagam, V. and R. Velumani,2013Wang, M.S. and W.C. Chen,2009Ye, T.Y.,2011