Tannins are well known as anti-nutritive factors that hinder the utilization of feeds by monogastric animals especially poultry. Tannins depressed growth rate and feed utilization by forming complexes with proteins and carbohydrates or inhibition of digestive enzymes. Unlike ruminant animals, poultry do not have microbes in their gastrointestinal tract to detoxify or reduce the effect of tannins, but several methods have been used to reduce the tannin content of poultry feeds for better utilization. These methods are mainly physical and chemical in nature. The physical methods are cooking, dehulling, autoclaving, toasting / roasting and soaking, while the chemical methods include, use of wood ash, addition of tallow, use of tannin binding agents, use of enzymes, germination and urea treatment. The choice of method(s) will depend on their effectiveness in reducing tannin and the cost involved.
PDF References Citation
How to cite this article
C.I. Medugu, B. Saleh, J.U. Igwebuike and R.L. Ndirmbita, 2012. Strategies to Improve the Utilization of Tannin-Rich Feed Materials by Poultry. International Journal of Poultry Science, 11: 417-423.
- Ahamefule, F.O. and V.U. Odemelam, 2008. Effect of soaking duration on the proximate composition, gross energy, mineral content and some anti-nutritional properties of Canavalia plagiosperma seed. Proceedings of the 13th Annual Conference of the Animal Science Association of Nigeria, September 15th-19th, 2008, ABU, Zaria, Nigeria, pp: 491-494.
- Akinmutimi, A.H., S.N. Ebe and E.I. Ewa, 2000. The true metabolizable energy and protein content of physically and chemically processed Jack beans using Muscovy Ducks. Proceeding of the 25th Annual Conference of the Nigerian Society for Animal Production, March 19th-22nd, 2000, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike, Abia State, Nigeria, pp: 151-153.
- Akpodiete, O.J., G.O. Okagbare, S.I. Omeje and J.A. Orogun, 2001. Effect of roasting, boiling and boiling with potash on soyabean and its utilization by finishing broiler chickens. Proceedings of the 6th Annual Conference of Animal Science Association of Nigeria, September 17th-19th, 2001, University of Maiduguri, Nigeria, pp: 50-52.
- Augustin, J., C.B. Beck, G. Kalbfleish, L.C. Kagel and R.H. Matthews, 1981. Variation in the vitamin and mineral content of raw and cooked commercial Phaseolus vulgaris classes. J. Food Sci., 46: 1701-1706.
- Awad, H.M., M.G. Boersma, S. Boeren, P.J. van Bladeren, J. Vervoort and I.M. Rietjens, 2001. Structure-activity study on the quinone/quinone methide chemistry of flavonoids. Chem. Res. Toxi., 14: 398-408.
- Barbour, E.K., M. Kallas and M.T. Farran, 2001. Immune response to Newcastle disease virus in broilers: A useful model for the assessment of detoxification of ervil seeds. Rev.-Sci. Technol. Office Int. EPIZ., 20: 785-790.
- Bressani, R., 1993. Grain quality of common beans. Foods Rev. Int., 9: 237-297.
- Bressani, R., 2002. Factors influencing nutritive value in food grain legumes: Mucuna compared to other grain legumes. Proceedings of International Workshop on Food and Feed from Mucuna: Current Uses and the Way Forward, April 26-29, 2002, World Hunger Research Center, Tegucigalpa, Honduras, pp: 164-188.
- Buba, W., S. Duru and B.M. Shehu, 2010. The effects of cooking duration on the chemical and anti- nutritional composition of sickle pod (Cassia tora) seeds. Proceedings of the 15th Annual Conference of Animal Science Association of Nigeria, September 13th-15th, 2010, University of Uyo, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria, pp: 560-561.
- Diarra, S.S., I.D. Kwari, L.G. Asheik, G. Mohammed and J.U. Igwebuke, 2008. Growth performance of broiler chicks fed raw or boiled mango (Mangifera indica) kernel meal as a source of dietary energy. Proceedings of the 13th Annual Conference of Animal Science Association of Nigeria, September 15th-19th, 2008, ABU, Zaria, Nigeria, pp: 311-314.
- Douglas, J.H., T.W. Sullivan, N.J. Gonzalez and M.M. Beck, 1993. Differential age response of turkeys to protein and sorghum tannin levels. Poult. Sci., 72: 1944-1951.
- Elkin, R.G., J.C. Rogler and T.W. Sullivan, 1990. Comparative effects of dietary tannins in ducks, chicks and rats. Poult. Sci., 69: 1685-1693.
- Esonu, B.O., I.O. Emenalon, A.B.I. Udedibie, I.C. Okoli, U. Herbert, F.C. Iheukwumere and C.F. Ekpor, 2001. Performance and blood chemistry of weaner pigs fed raw mucuna bean (Velvet bean). Proceedings of the 6th Annual Conference of Animal Science Association of Nigeria, September 17th-19th, 2001, University of Maiduguri, Nigeria, pp: 86-88.
- Etiegni, L. and A.G. Campbell, 1991. Physical and chemical characteristics of wood ash. Bioresour. Technol., 37: 173-178.
- Horigome, T., R. Kumar and K. Okamoto, 1988. Effects of condensed tannins prepared from leaves of fodder plants on digestive enzymes in vitro and in the intestine of rats. Br. J. Nutr., 60: 275-285.
- Ibrahim, S., C. Fisher, H. El Alaily, H. Soliman and A. Anwar, 1988. Improvement of the nutritional quality of Egyptian and Sudanese sorghum grains by the addition of phosphates. Br. Poult. Sci., 29: 721-728.
- Jambunathan, R., U. Singh and V. Subramanian, 1984. Grain Quality of Sorghum, Pearl Millet, Pigeon-Pea and Chick-Pea. In: Interfaces between Agriculture, Nutrition and Food Science: Proceedings of a Workshop held at Hyderabad, India, 10-12 November 1981, Achaya, K.T. (Ed.). United Nations University Press, Tokyo, Japan, ISBN: 92-808-0478-2, pp: 47-50.
- Kyarisiima, C.C., M.W. Okot and B. Svihus, 2004. Use of wood ash in the treatment of high tannin sorghum for poultry feeding. South Afr. J. Anim. Sci., 34: 110-115.
- Layrisse, M., M.N. Garcia-Casal, L. Solano, M.A. Baron and F. Arguello et al., 2000. Iron bioavailability in humans from breakfasts enriched with iron Bis-glycine chelate, phytates and polyphenols. J. Nutr., 130: 2195-2199.
- Longstaff, M. and J.M. McNab, 1991. The inhibitory effects of hull polysaccharides and tannins of field beans (Vicia faba) on the digestion of amino acids, starch and lipid and on digestive enzyme activities in young chicks. Br. J. Nutr., 65: 199-216.
- Marquardt, R.R., A.T. Ward, L.D. Campbell and P.E. Cansfield, 1977. Purification, identification and characterization of a growth inhibitor in faba beans (Vicia faba L. var. minor). J. Nutr., 107: 1313-1324.
- Medugu, C.I, I.D. Kwari, J. Igwebuike, I. Nkama, I.D. Mohammed and B. Hamaker, 2010. Carcass and blood components of broiler chickens fed sorghum or millet as replacement for maize in the semi-arid zone of Nigeria. Agric. Biol. J. North Am., 1: 326-329.
- Ogundipe, S.O., P.J. Damang, I.I. Dafwang and E.A. Abu, 2008. Biochemical evaluation of raw and cooked African locust bean seeds (Parkia spp) for poultry feeding. Proceedings of the 13th Annual Conference of the Animal Science Association of Nigeria, September 15th-19th, 2008, ABU, Zaria, Nigeria, pp: 586-589.
- Omoikhoje, S.O., E.T.E. Etebha, A.M. Bamgbose and B.A. Osifi, 2009. Performance indices of staring broiler chickens fed dietary levels of roasted fluted pumpkin pod Husk waste meal. Proceedings of the 14th Annual conference of Animal Science Association of Nigeria, September 14th-17th, 2009, LAUTECH, Ogbomoso, Nigeria, pp: 459-461.
- Rafiu, T.A., G.M. Babatunde, A.A. Odunsi, A.O. Aderinola and C.O. Olaniyi et al., 2009. Performance and egg quality characteristics of poultry fed differently processed mango seed kernel meal based diet at growing and laying phases. Proceedings of the 14th Annual Conference of Animal Science Association of Nigeria, September 14th-17th, 2009, LAUTECH, Ogbomoso, Nigeria, pp: 442-445.
- Uchegbu, M.C., A.O. Ibekwe, I.P. Ogbuewu, H.O. Obikaonu, C.H. Nwaodu and I.C. Okoli, 2008. Performance of broiler finisher chikens fed diets containing raw and cooked Napoleon imperialis seed meal. Proceedings of the 13th Annual conference of Animal Science Association of Nigeria, September 15th-19th, 2008, A.B.U, Zaria, Nigeria, pp: 384-387.
- Ward, A.T., R.R. Marquardt and L.D. Campbell, 1977. Further studies on the isolation of the thermolabile growth inhibitor from the faba bean (Vicia faba L. var. minor). J. Nutr., 107: 1325-1334.
- Yashim, S.M., S.B. Abdu, C. Alphonsus and A. Adeniyi, 2009. Proximate and mineral composition of castor seed Riccinus communis) cake as influenced by duration of fermentation. Proceedings of the 14th Annual Conference of Animal Science Association of Nigeria, September 14th-17th, 2009, LAUTECH, Ogbomoso, Nigeria, pp: 232-233.