Benzodiazepines (BZDs) are the most commonly prescribed hypnotic-anexiolytic-sedative drugs in the world. Their effectiveness and safe usage have made them extremely popular among patients. To date more than 30 different brands of BZDs have been introduced to drug market, which vary enormously in side effects, potency and indications. Thus, due to global consumption and diversity of BZDs, lack of a information indicating the BZDs` side effects sorted by induced signs and symptoms, this study would ease the consultation and follow-up of the patients who have undergone BZD treatment. The review first gives a brief introduction about side effects encountered by BZDs and then classifies the signs and symptoms based on the organ involved and mentions which BZDs are responsible for them. The organs and functions which are influenced are classified under: cardiovascular system, CNS, cognitive function, mood changes, endocrine/metabolic, gastrointestinal tract, blood and bone marrow, liver, eyes, respiratory system, skin, genitourinary tract, musculoskeletal system, ears and miscellaneous. Each of these items is also sub-grouped into several categories.
PDF References Citation
How to cite this article
Hournaz Karimpour, , Sarvenaz Karimpour, Mohammad Jafar Zamani, Shekoufeh Nikfar, Ali Rezaie, Naghmeh Hajarolasvadi, Shahin Shadnia and Mohammad Abdollahi, 2005. Toxic Reactions to Chronic Use of Benzodiazepines: An Overview. International Journal of Pharmacology, 1: 376-382.
- Gold, M.S., N.S. Miller, K. Stennie and C. Populla-Vardi, 1995. Epidemiology of benzodiazepine use and dependence. Psychiatr. Ann., 25: 146-148.
- Nishioka, K., I. Katayama, M. Masuzawa, H. Yokozeki and S. Nishiyama, 1989. Drug-induced chronic pigmented purpura. J. Dermatol., 16: 220-222.
- Wakakura, M., T. Subouchi and J. Inouye, 2004. Etizolam and benzodiazepine induced blepharospasm. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry, 75: 506-507.