Effect of Essential Oils Treatments on Quality Characteristics of Apple (Malus domestica var. Gala) During Storage
Apple texture can deteriorate during cold storage, resulting in softness and mealiness. The experiment was started in season 2010-2011 and fruit weight losses, fruit firmness, total soluble solids, pH; titratable acidity, total soluble solids/titratable acidity ratio and ethylene production were measured at 20, 80 and 140 the days of postharvest life. The fruits were immersed in distilled water, calcium (1%) or at essential oils thyme (300 ppm) and lavender (500 ppm). Results showed that fruit weight loss significantly decreased in essential oils and calcium treatments in comparison to control. Also, results showed that essential oils and calcium treatments increase fruit firmness, TA while decreasing of ethylene production during cold storage at 0-2°C for 140 days (p = 0.05). The results showed that essential oils and calcium treatments application was influenced on ethylene in comparison to control. In general, this experiment showed that post-harvest essential oils and calcium treatments prevented fruit softening and decreased weight losses.
to cite this article:
E. Shirzadeh and M. Kazemi, 2012. Effect of Essential Oils Treatments on Quality Characteristics of Apple (Malus domestica var. Gala) During Storage. Trends in Applied Sciences Research, 7: 584-589.
Received: January 09, 2012;
Accepted: January 27, 2012;
Published: May 25, 2012
Malus domestica is a climacteric fruit and is belongs to the Rosaceae
family, ethylene affecting apple fruit quality and can decreased Fruit quality
during cold storage that resulting it is in softness and mealiness. (Kader,
1985; Shirzadeh and Kazemi, 2011). Shirzadeh
and Kazemi (2011) reported that exogenously applied calcium stabilizes the
plant cell wall, maintains cell turgor, membrane integrity and increase calcium
content considerably compared to control. The effects of ethylene reduced by
anti-ethylenes. The essential oils medicinal and aromatic plants have shown
pharmaceutical, antibacterial properties (Ismail et al.,
2011; Ahmad et al., 2005; Ganjewala
and Luthra, 2007a, b; Reza and
Abbas, 2007; Swamy and Rao, 2008; Upadhyay
and Patra, 2011). Soltan et al. (2009), Fortes
et al. (2011), Louis et al. (2011)
and Patra (2011) reported that essential oils obtained
from aerial parts and seeds of aromatic plants have antifungal and antibacterial
properties. Rabiei et al. (2011) reported, application
of essential oil on apple decreased Ethylene production. preharvest calcium
treatment may increase fruit postharvest life (Crisosto
et al., 2000). Calcium application decrease ion leakage and delays
senescence in horticultural, extending storage life of fresh fruits (Picchioni
et al., 1998). Mahajan and Dhatt (2004) reported
that pear fruit treated with Ca proved to be most effective in reducing weight
loss compared to non treated fruit during storage period. Misra
and Gupta (2006) and Singh et al. (2006)
reported that calcium stabilizing cellular membranes and delaying senescence
in horticultural and agronomy crops. The objectives of this study were to determine
the effect of postharvest fruit immersion in different calcium nitrate, thyme
and lavender essential oils and the effect of calcium concentrations on apple
fruit tissue during storage.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Plant material: Gala apple fruits were harvested manually at the optimal date for commercial harvesting located in an experiment orchard at the apple Research Institute of Iran (Zanjan, Iran) in 2010-2011. Apples uniform in shape and size and free of fungal infection were selected. Fruits were subsequently transferred to laboratory and sorted based on size and the absence of physical injuries or infections.
Thyme and lavender essential oils treatment and storage: The study was arranged as factorial experiment based on a completely randomized design with three replications. The first factor was included immersion fruits at different levels of calcium (1%), thyme essential oils solutions (300 ppm) and second was lavender essential oils solutions (500 ppm) and fruits immersed in distilled water as control for 10 min. Fruits were then dried for about 24 h and then stored at 0-2°C and 85-90% relative humidity for 140 days. After 20, 80 and 140th day of storage, 12 fruits per treatment were taken from cool storage for fruit quality assessment.
Oil extraction: Oil was extracted from thyme fresh leaves and lavender flowers via hydro distillation. The method started with 300 g of fresh leaves cut into small pieces with 700 mL of water in a 2 L round flask placed on electrical mantel. The steam and extracted essential oil pass through a water condenser, allowing the volatile oil fraction to float on top of the water. The oil was collected by drawing out the water.
Fruit quality evaluation: Physical and chemical quality factors were measured periodically after treatment and every 40 days of storage at 0±2°C plus 2 days at 25°C in 12 apple samples per treatment (4 apples replicate-1). Fruit weight losses, fruit firmness, total soluble solids, titratable acidity, TSS/TA, pH and ethylene production were measured at 140 days of postharvest life.
Fruit firmness: Firmness was measured on two opposite peeled sides using a pressure meter (OSK 10576 CO., Japan) fitted with an 8 mm diameter flat tip. The firmness considered as an average peak force of 10 fruits and expressed as kg.
Total soluble solid: TSS in the juice was determined with a hand-refractometer (NC-1, Atago Co., Japan) at room temperature and expressed as a percentage.
Titratable acidity: TA was determined by titration an aliquot (20 mL) of the juice to pH 8.2 with 0.1 N NaOH and the result was expressed as a percentage of malic acid.
TSS/TA ratio: The maturity index was evaluated as the TSS/TA ratio (i.e.,
ratio increasing with maturity) (Schirra et al.,
pH: pH of the juice were measured using a pH meter.
Thiault index: The Thiault index was calculated as follows:
[10xacidity (g L-1)+sugar content (g L-1)]
(Harker et al., 2002).
Perlim index: Perlim index was evaluated as follows:
PI = [Kg
cm-2x0.5+Brixx6.7+malic acid (g L-1)x0.67]
Ethylene determination: Three fruits were enclosed in 3 L airtight jars for 1 h at 20°C. Ethylene measurements were performed by withdrawing 1 mL headspace gas sample from the jars with a syringe and injecting it into a Varian 3300 gas chromatograph, equipped with a stainless steel column filled with Porapak, length 100 cm, diameter 0.32 cm, at 50°C and a flame-ionisation detector at 120°C. The carrier gas was nitrogen at a flow rate of 20 mL min-1.
Experimental design and statistical analysis: A completely randomized factorial design with three replications was used. Analysis of variance was used to analyze difference between means and the Duncan test was applied for mean separation at p = 0.05. All analyses were done with MSTAT-C statistical software.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Results showed that fruit weight loss significantly decreased in essential oils and calcium treatments in comparison to control (Table 1) (p = 0.05). Fruit firmness increased during storage (p = 0.05). The results shows that the thyme essential oil and lavender essential oil and lavender essential oil had no effect on fruit firmness after 160 days storage (Table 1) (p = 0.05).
||Mean comparison of fruit weight loss, firmness, ethylene,
TSS, TA, TSS/TA, pH in different thyme and lavender essential oils and calcium
nitrate treatments during 140 days storage at 0-2°C
|Means in each column followed by similar letters are not significantly
different at 5% level
At the end of storage (160 days) apples calcium was significantly firmer than
apples from the other treatments or the control (Table 1)
(p = 0.05). The results of this study were in agreement with those of previous
studies which showed that of essential oil had positive effect on firmness and
quality of fruits. The increase in cell wall-bound calcium of calcium-treated
peaches was related to both calcium concentration and time of storage. Similar
results after postharvest calcium application have been reported for apple fruits
by Chardonnet et al. (2003) and Saftner
et al. (1998) who suggested that soluble calcium was mobilized and
integrated into the cell wall. After 160 days storage, lavender essential oil
had no a significant effect on apple titratable acids and total soluble solids,
but thyme essential oil and calcium nitrate had a significant effect on apple
titratable acids total soluble solids, after 160 days storage (Table
1) (p = 0.05). Saftner et al. (1998) have
reported that water-soluble pectin calcium does not affect flesh firmness. Furthermore,
Chardonnet et al. (2003) in postharvest dips of
apple fruits in concentrations up to 4% calcium chloride found that immersions
in 2% calcium chloride was enough for maximum calcium accumulation in the cell
wall, avoiding at the same time possible surface damage. Calcium accumulation
in the cell wall facilitates cross-linking of pectic polymers leading to a cell
wall network that increases wall strength and cell cohesion (White
and Broadley, 2003) with unbound calcium ions to have little or no direct
effect on tissue strength (Saftner et al., 1998).
Consequently, cell wall calcium cannot be used as indicator of peach fruit quality.
On the contrary, the calcium bound in the water-insoluble pectin fraction can
be used as quality indicator. This result was in agreement with Anthony
et al. (2003) who reported that spraying of essential oils Cymbopogon
nardus, Cymbopogon flexuosus and Ocimum basilicum had no effect
had on the TSS after ripening during storage. Calcium salts can suspend or even
accelerate the senescing-related processes, depending on calcium concentration
(Conway et al., 1994; Saftner
et al., 1998). In Gala apples, after 160 days, there
were not significant differences in pH fruit treatments with thyme essential
oil, lavender essential oil, calcium and control (Table 1)
(p = 0.05). These results are in line with those reported by Wang
(2003) that treated raspberries with natural volatile compounds increase
the acidity during storage. Calcium, thyme essential oil and lavender essential
oil immersion had no effect on TSS/TA ratio of Gala apples after
160 days storage (Table 1) (p = 0.05). The results indicate
that after 160 days storage, lavender essential oil had a slight significant
effect on decreased ethylene production (Table 1) (p = 0.05)
but the results indicate that ethylene production significantly decreased with
increasing calcium concentrations in the storage duration (Table
1) (p = 0.05). The high calcium concentrations resulted in decreased flesh
browning symptoms. These symptoms have been directly associated with calcium
content in other fresh fruits (Hewajulige et al.,
2003). Therefore, calcium dips raise the possibility of producing fruits
less susceptible to flesh browning symptoms. Physiological disorders that are
caused by low storage temperatures probably are related to calcium content (Hewajulige
et al., 2003). The same action of calcium salts has also been reported
for fresh-cut fruits (Gorny et al., 2002; Luna-Guzam
and Barrett, 2000) where the enzymatic browning of flesh is a result of
different metabolic pathways. As Rabiei et al. (2011)
reported, application of essential oil on apple decreased ethylene production.
However, further studies should be conducted, including sensory evaluation,
in order to assure that such treatments do not lead to bitter, salty or other
off-flavour developments. In addition, it must be elucidated whether such calcium
salts are corrosive to metal processing equipment used in processing factories
for fruit sanitation and sorting.
In this study, Essential oils and calcium had positive effect in postharvest and quality properties of Gala apples which our speculated that this efficacy of essential oils may be related to its potential to initiation of defense responses in the fruits.
Ahmad, N.R., M.A. Hanif and U. Rashid, 2005.
Chemical compositional and intra provenance variation for content of essential oil in Eucalyptus crebra
. Asian J. Plant Sci., 4: 519-523.CrossRef | Direct Link |
Anthony, S., K. Abeywickrama and S.W. Wigaratnam, 2003.
The effect of spraying essential oils Cymbopagon nardus
, Cymbopagon flexuosus
and Ocimum basilicum
on postharvest diseases and storage life of embul banana. J. Horticult. Sci. Biotechnol., 78: 780-785.Direct Link |
Chardonnet, C.O., C.S. Charron, C.E. Sams and W.S. Conway, 2003.
Chemical changes in the cortical tissue and cell walls of calcium infiltrated ‘Golden Delicious’ apples during storage. Postharvest Biol. Technol., 28: 97-111.CrossRef | Direct Link |
Conway, W.S., C.E. Sams and A. Kelman, 1994.
Enhancing the natural resistance of plant tissues to postharvest diseases through calcium applications. HortScience, 29: 751-754.Direct Link |
Crisosto, C.H., K.R. Day, R.S. Johnson and D. Garner, 2000.
Influence of in-season foliar calcium sprays on fruit quality and surface discoloration incidence of peaches and nectarines. J. Am. Pomol. Soc., 54: 118-122.Direct Link |
Ganjewala, D. and R. Luthra, 2007.
Essential oil biosynthesis and metabolism of geranyl aceate and geraniol in developing Cymbopogon flexuosus
(Nees ex Steud) Wats Mutant cv. GRL-1 leaf. Am. J. Plant Physiol., 2: 269-275.CrossRef | Direct Link |
Ganjewala, D. and R. Luthra, 2007.
Inhibitors of essential oil biosynthesis in Cymbopogon flexuosus
nees ex. steud. Mutant cv. GRL-1 leaves. Am. J. Plant Physiol., 2: 227-232.CrossRef | Direct Link |
Fortes, G.A.C., S.S. Naves, F.F.F. Godoi, A.R. Duarte, P.H. Ferri and S.C. Santos, 2011.
Assessment of a maturity index in jabuticaba fruit by the evaluation of phenolic compounds, essential oil components, sugar content and total acidity. Am. J. Food Technol., 6: 974-984.CrossRef | Direct Link |
Gorny, J.R., B. Hess-Pierce, R.A. Cifuentes and A.A. Kader, 2002.
Quality changes in fresh-cut pear slices as affected by controlled atmospheres and chemical preservatives. Postharvest Biol. Technol., 24: 271-278.CrossRef | Direct Link |
Harker, F.R., K.B. Marsh, H. Young, S.H. Murray, F.A. Gunson and S.B. Walker, 2002.
Sensory interpretation of instrumental measurements 2: Sweet and acid taste of apple fruit. Postharv. Biol. Technol., 24: 241-250.
Hewajulige, I.G.N., R.S.W. Wijeratnam, R.L.C. Wijesundera and M. Abeysekere, 2003.
Fruit calcium concentration and chilling injury during low temperature storage of pineapple. J. Sci. Food Agric., 83: 1451-1454.CrossRef | Direct Link |
Ismail, A., H. Lamia, H. Mohsen and J. Bassem, 2011.
Chemical composition of Juniperus oxycedrus
L. subsp Macrocarpa
essential oil and study of their herbicidal effects on germination and seedling growth of weeds. Asian J. Applied Sci., 4: 771-779.CrossRef | Direct Link |
Kader, A.A., 1985.
Ethylene-induced senescence and physiological disorders in harvested horticultural crops. HortScience, 20: 54-57.
Lafer, G., 1999.
Fruit ripening and quality in relation to crop-load of apple trees. Res. Station Fruit Growing Heidegger, 2: 369-373.
Louis, B., J. Nguefack and P. Roy, 2011.
Evaluation of antifungal potential of Ocimum gratissimum
extracts on two seedborne fungi of rice (Oryza sativa
L.) in cameroon. Asian J. Biol. Sci., 4: 306-311.CrossRef | Direct Link |
Mahajan, B.V.C. and A.S. Dhatt, 2004.
Studies on postharvest calcium chloride application on storage behaviour and quality of Asian pear during cold storage. Int. J. Food Agric. Environ., 2: 157-159.Direct Link |
Misra, N. and A.K. Gupta, 2006.
Interactive effects of sodium and calcium on proline metabolism in salt tolerant green gram cultivar. Am. J. Plant Physiol., 1: 1-12.CrossRef | Direct Link |
Luna-Guzam, I. and D.M. Barrett, 2000.
Comparison of calcium chloride and calcium lactate effectiveness in maintaining shelf stability and quality of fresh-cut cantaloupes. Postharvest Biol. Technol., 19: 61-72.CrossRef | Direct Link |
Patra, A.K., 2011.
Effects of essential oils on rumen fermentation, microbial ecology and ruminant production. Asian J. Anim. Vet. Adv., 6: 416-428.CrossRef | Direct Link |
Picchioni, G.A., A.E. Watada, W.S. Conway, B.D. Whitaker and C.E. Sams, 1998.
Postharvest calcium infiltration delays membrane lipid catabolism in apple fruit. J. Agric. Food Chem., 46: 2452-2457.CrossRef | Direct Link |
Rabiei, V., E. Shirzadeh, H. RabbiAngourani and Y. Sharafi, 2011.
Effect of thyme and lavender essential oils on the qualitative and quantitative traits and storage life of apple Jonagold cultivar. J. Med. Plant Res., 5: 5522-5527.Direct Link |
Reza, V.R.M. and H. Abbas, 2007.
The essential oil composition of Levisticum officinalis
from Iran. Asian J. Biochem., 2: 161-163.CrossRef | Direct Link |
Saftner, R.A., W.S. Conway and C.E. Sams, 1998.
Effects of postharvest calcium and fruit coating treatments on postharvest life, quality maintenance and fruit-surface injury in Golden delicious apples. J. Am. Soc. Horticultural Sci., 123: 294-298.Direct Link |
Schirra, M., M. Mulas, A. Fadda and E. Cauli, 2004.
Cold quarantine responses of blood oranges to postharvest hot water and hot air treatments. Postharvest Biol. Technol., 31: 191-200.CrossRef |
Shirzadeh, E. and M. Kazemi, 2011.
Effect of malic acid and calcium treatments on quality characteristics of apple fruits during storage. Am. J. Plant Physiol., 6: 176-182.CrossRef | Direct Link |
Singh, V.K., D.K. Singh and S.M. Pathak, 2006.
Relationship of leaf and fruit transpiration rates to the incidence of softening of tissue in mango (Mangifera indica
L.) cultivars. Am. J. Plant Physiol., 1: 28-33.CrossRef | Direct Link |
Soltan, M.A.E., R.S. Shewita and S.I. Al-Sultan, 2009.
Influence of essential oils supplementation on digestion, rumen fermentation, rumen microbial populations and productive performance of dairy cows. Asian J. Anim. Sci., 3: 1-12.CrossRef | Direct Link |
Swamy, K.N. and S.S.R. Rao, 2008.
Influence of 28-homobrassinolide on growth, photosynthesis metabolite and essential oil content of geranium [Pelargonium graveolens
(L.) Herit]. Am. J. Plant Physiol., 3: 173-179.CrossRef | Direct Link |
Upadhyay, R.K. and D.D. Patra, 2011.
Influence of secondary plant nutrients (Ca and Mg) on growth and yield of chamomile (Matricaria recutita
L.). Asian J. Crop Sci., 3: 151-157.CrossRef | Direct Link |
Wang, C.Y., 2003.
Maintaining postharvest quality of raspberries with natural volatile compounds. Int. J. Food Sci. Technol., 38: 869-875.CrossRef |