Injuries and selected disorders in indigenous and foreign horses used for polo, racing and pleasure horses were reviewed pictorially. This first ever pictorial review in Nigeria reflected multiple equine health problems commonly found in northern Nigeria which comprises clinical cases and post mortem lesions. These have become an important source of wastage in the equine industry in Nigeria.
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Horse adaptation for elastic energy savings, which is surpassed only by the camel, the breathing which seems to be driven by the bending and extension of the back (Young et al., 1992) and the remarkable sophistication the hoof (Thomason et al., 1992) has made the horses to be of high value to man (Alexander, 2001). The high value of horses has increased their risk for injury and some disorders. Horses involved in polo and racing have a high chance of sustaining sporting related injuries that are traumatic than pleasure horses, though pleasure horses have a high chance of suffering automobile accidents and mere abuse from local handlers and children (Mshelia et al., 2009).
Diseases and disorders like secondary sinusitis (Fig. 1), traumatic injuries (Fig. 2), gonitis (Fig. 3), Congested lungs (Fig. 4), intestinal adhesion (Fig. 5), fecalith (Fig. 6, 7), osteomalacia (Fg. 8), fractures (Fig. 9), tick infestation (Fig. 10), pastern dermatitis (Fig. 11), squamous cell carcinoma (Fig. 12), photodermatitis (Fig. 13), dermal papillomas (Fig. 14), laminitis (Fig. 15), diaphragmatic hernia (Fig. 16), polyneuritis equi (Fig. 17), colic (Fig. 32), tick infestation (Fig. 18), gastrophilus (Fig. 19), injuries around the massetter muscle (Fig. 20), tracheal exudate (Fig. 21), osteodystrophia fibrosa (Fig. 22), carpal hygroma (Fig. 23), abscess (Fig. 24), ulcerative lymphangitis (Fig. 25), dermatomycosis (Fig. 26), African horse sickness (Fig. 27), injury of the pectoral muscle (Fig. 28), piroplasmosis (Fig. 29), tetanus (Fig. 30), injury of the limb (Fig. 31), colic (Fig. 32), granulomatous growth (Fig. 33) are on record in various stables, individual equine practices and very few local scientific journals in Northern Nigeria (Mshelia et al., 2008a, b, 2009; Kwanashie and Abdullahi, 1992; Useh et al., 2005; Sambo et al., 2008; Okege, 1977; Addo, 1980; Oladosu et al., 1993; Folorunso et al., 2008).
Single equine health problems have been reported in Northern Nigeria by Mshelia et al. (2008a), Kwanashie (1983), Addo (1980) and Okege (1977), while multiple health problems was also reported by Al-Haji (1975).
|Fig. 1:||Secondary Sinusitis|
|Fig. 2:||Traumatic Injury of the cranial aspect of the thigh as a result of Automobile accident|
|Fig. 3:||Gonitis in an Argentine-Part- Barb Filly as a result of a kick from a mare|
|Fig. 4:||Congested lungs in Part-Barb stallion at post mortem|
|Fig. 5:||Intestinal Adhesion as a result of Fibrin Formation|
|Fig. 6:||Fecalith in situ, which ruptured and led to peritonitis in a 9 year Part-Arab stallion|
|Fig. 7:||Fecalith after removal from colon|
|Fig. 8:||A suspected case of osteomalacia|
|Fig. 9:||Chip fracture of the tuber coxae|
|Fig. 10:||Tick infestation of caudal pastern area|
|Fig. 11:||Pastern dermatitis|
|Fig. 12:||Squamous cell carcinoma involving superior eye lid in 9 year old part Arab with intact eye|
|Fig. 13:||Photodermatitis albino Polo Stallion|
|Fig. 14:||Dermal papilloma|
|Fig. 16:||Diaphragmatic hernia|
|Fig. 17:||Polyneuritis equi; distended bladder and rectum in a 10 year old Part-Arab racing horse|
|Fig. 18:||Tick infestation at the base of the tail|
|Fig. 19:||Gastrophilus in the stomach|
|Fig. 20:||Traumatic injury around the massetter as a result of automobile accident|
|Fig. 21:||Exudate in trachea|
|Fig. 22:||Osteodystrophia fibrosa (big head disease).|
|Fig. 23:||Hygroma of the carpal joint with a bench knee|
|Fig. 24:||Abscess as result of intramuscular injection|
|Fig. 25:||Ulcerative lymphangitis|
|Fig. 27:||African Horse Sickness (AHS) Vaccine failure-edema of supraorbital fossa, Nasal and ocular discharges|
|Fig. 28:||Traumatic injury of the pectoral region as a result of automobile accident in a pleasure horse|
|Fig. 29:||Emaciation in a horse with chronic Piroplasmosis with a body score 2|
|Fig. 30:||A case of tetanus|
|Fig. 31:||Injury of the right forelimb|
|Fig. 32:||Colic as seen in a horse rolling|
|Fig. 33:||Granulomatous growth (proud flesh)|
Similarly, at international level also a number of equine health problems in equine populations have been reported. However, most of these studies dealt with single health problems (Prescott et al., 1984; Dunsmore and Jue Sue, 1985; Rossdale et al., 1985; Bell and Lowe, 1986; Brostrom et al., 1987; Traub-Dargtz et al., 1988; Sandgren et al., 1993; Cohen et al., 1994). This is the first pictorial review on equine health problems in Nigeria aimed at initiating a study on the prevalence of equine disorders in the nearest future.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
Considering the fact that no equine animal health monitoring and surveillance system has been developed in any country on either a state or national level (Kaneene et al., 1997). it has become imperative to initiate a review like this in order to stir up research in study of risk factors and prevalence of injuries and disorders in horses with the sole objective of developing and implementing strategies towards prevention of injuries and death in horses in the Nigerian Equestrian Industry.
These are important sources of wastage to the equine industry (Jeffcott et al., 1982) and raised similar concerns for animal welfare (Hopes, 1984).
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