Subscribe Now Subscribe Today
Research Article
 

Morphological and Molecular Characterization of Vicia faba and Phaseolus vulgaris Seed-born Fungal Endophytes



K. S. Akutse, N. K. Maniania, S. Ekesi, K. K.M. Fiaboe, J. Van den Berg, O. L. Ombura and F. M. Khamis
 
Facebook Twitter Digg Reddit Linkedin StumbleUpon E-mail
ABSTRACT

Background: Fungal endophytes are heterotrophic microorganisms that occur inside plant tissues, with some showing adverse effects against insects, nematodes and plant pathogens. Initiatives are underway at the International Center of Insect Physiology and Ecology (ICIPE) to use these endophytes as a novel strategy for control of Liriomyza leafminer. Objective: The objective of this study was therefore to search for fungal endophytes from the Liriomyza major host plants that could be used in the management of this invasive insect pest. Materials and Methods: Bioprospecting was undertaken to isolate fungal endophytes from Phaseolus vulgaris and Vicia faba seeds collected from different local and super markets in Kenya. Fungal endophytes were isolated through seeds surface sterilization and characterized using morphological and molecular techniques. Fungal occurrence was analyzed using analysis of variance while Chi-square tests were performed to compare the various endophytes species occurring in the two host seeds. Results: Five fungal isolates were isolated from both P. vulgaris and V. faba seeds with no significant differences in their occurrence. However, there was significant difference between the endophyte species occurring in V. faba compared to P. vulgaris seeds (p<0.0001). Isolated fungi included Beauveria bassiana, Phialemonium sp., Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Metarhizium anisopliae. Beauveria bassiana ICIPE 693 occurred in all the V. faba seeds (100%) but not in P. vulgaris seeds. Similarly, P. chrysosporium had 66.7% occurrence in V. faba but absent in P. vulgaris seeds. The prevalence of Phialemonium sp. (55%) was only recorded in P. vulgaris, while that of M. anisopliae was recorded in both P. vulgaris and V. faba seeds with 55.4 and 70.8% occurrence, respectively. Conclusion: Fungal endophyte species occurrence in V. faba differed from P. vulgaris seeds. The characterization of these bean seed-born endophytes will not only create awareness but also facilitate studies on the role of these fungi in pest management strategies. The outcome of this study will stimulate further studies on the possible roles of these fungi in inhibiting the growth of artificially inoculated endophytes, assessing their pathogenicity and virulence effects on different sucking arthropod pests and evaluating the nutritional value of the seeds containing these endophytes.

Services
Related Articles in ASCI
Search in Google Scholar
View Citation
Report Citation

 
  How to cite this article:

K. S. Akutse, N. K. Maniania, S. Ekesi, K. K.M. Fiaboe, J. Van den Berg, O. L. Ombura and F. M. Khamis, 2017. Morphological and Molecular Characterization of Vicia faba and Phaseolus vulgaris Seed-born Fungal Endophytes. Research Journal of Seed Science, 10: 1-16.

DOI: 10.3923/rjss.2017.1.16

URL: https://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=rjss.2017.1.16
 
Received: September 07, 2016; Accepted: October 15, 2016; Published: December 15, 2016



INTRODUCTION

Endophytes are heterotrophic microorganisms1 that live inside plants primarily for nutrition, protection and reproduction. Some of them are beneficial by showing adverse effects against insects, nematodes and plant pathogens2,3. Fungal endophytes have been detected in hundreds of plant species, including important agricultural crops such as wheat4, bananas5-7, soybeans8 and tomatoes9. Endophytes occur in virtually all tissues of the host plant, however, Baker and Smith10 and Schardl et al.11 suggested that seeds may serve as good sources of endophytes or pathogens. Seeds are of particular interest as they may transmit endophytes vertically from generation to generation12. Indeed, plant seeds usually fall into the soil, a microbially rich habitat and lie dormant waiting for environmental cues to germinate, possibly recruiting surface microbes to help protect them against degradation or predation13. As seeds begin to germinate, endophytes may colonize the seedling as shown in rice14,15, eucalyptus16, maize17 and beans.

However, most recent studies on seeds born-fungi were mainly focused on the fungal pathogens that transmit plant diseases to the host plants and consequently determined the quality of the seeds as well as their effects on the seeds germination18-21. In addition, until recently, most of the studies on these seed-born fungi were targeting fungi or microorganisms that were found to compromise the quality of the seed in terms of nutritional value and oil quality22 but not necessarily in the prospect of exploring possible entomopathogenic fungi inside the seeds and that could be used not only as plant growth promoters but also as biocontrol candidates under the umbrella of pest management strategies. Gouda et al.23 considered endophytes as a treasure of bioactive compounds and reported that they act as reservoirs of novel bioactive secondary metabolites, such as alkaloids, phenolic acids, quinones, steroids, saponins, tannins and terpenoids that serve as a potential candidate for antimicrobial, anti-insect, anticancer and many more properties. Hence, exploring possible seed endophytes could give a new research route to explore their potential for insect pest’s management.

Horticultural crops are highly valued due to their importance in terms of nutrition, income generation and employment24-26. In Kenya where this study was conducted, Phaseolus vulgaris and Vicia faba are among the high value horticultural crops, which are also attacked by the invasive Agromyzid leafminer species, Liriomyza huidobrensis (Blanchard) L. sativae Blanchard and L. trifolii (Burgess) (Diptera: Agromyzidae) the most damaging pests on these crops27,28. It is then important to assess the occurrence of fungal endophytes in P. vulgaris and V. faba seeds in the scope of developing a sustainable management strategy against these pests and indirectly, reduce the abusive use of insecticides.

Fungal endophytes have been recognized to play multiple roles such as protecting plants from pests and diseases and promoting plant growth29,30 and are being considered as important component of IPM7,31-34. Some fungal endophytes protect host plants against plant pathogens35,36 and herbivores, including insects29,32,37-40. For example, exposure of two aphid species, Rhopalosiphum padi and Metopopophium dirhodum (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and wheat stem sawfly, Mayetiola destructor (Diptera: Chloropidae) to wild barley infected with Neotyphodium coenophialum (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) reduced their survival41,42. Wheat leaves colonized by either B. bassiana or Aspergillus parasiticus (Eurotiales: Trichocomaceae) reduced the growth rate of Chortoicetes terminifera (Orthoptera: Acrididae) nymphs34. Endophytic B. bassiana in banana significantly reduced larval survivorship of banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), resulting in 42-87% reduction in plant damage43,44. Reduction in feeding and reproduction by Aphis gossypii (Hemiptera: Aphididae) has also been reported on cotton endophytically colonized by either B. bassiana or Lecanicillium lecanii (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae)34. Another possible role of the fungal endophytes includes plant growth promotion as well as impact on tritrophic interaction7,29,45,46. Fungal entomopathogens that become established as endophytes can therefore play an important role in the regulation of insect populations. Most recently, Akutse et al.31 demonstrated the effects of fungal endophytes on life-history parameters of Liriomyza huidobrensis (Diptera: Agromyzidae) leafminers and their associated parasitoids47. The researchers reported that endophytic fungal isolates of both Hypocrea lixii (F3ST1) and Beauveria bassiana (G1LU3, S4SU1 and ICIPE 279) could endophytically colonize Vicia faba and Phaseolus vulgaris plants through seeds inoculation and cause detrimental effects on survival, fecundity, oviposition, emergence and longevity of L. huidobrensis. Thus, this study focuses on assessing the occurrence of fungal endophytes in P. vulgaris and V. faba seeds to develop a sustainable management strategy against Liriomyza leafminer pests. The aim was therefore to search for fungal endophytes that can be developed further for the control of the invasive Liriomyza leafminer specifically and other crop insect pests and diseases. Bioprospecting was subsequently carried out for isolation of fungal endophytes from P. vulgaris and V. faba seeds and we report here on their morphological and molecular characterization.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Seeds: Seeds of open pollinated varieties of Phaseolus vulgaris (Rose coco beans) and Vicia faba (Faba beans) were collected from local markets in Kenya (Nairobi, Kasarani, Eastleigh, Nyamakima, Gikomba and sometimes from Ethiopia to Kenya’s markets) and sometimes procured from super markets (Naivas) since farmers often use these seeds for sowing.

Fungal isolation and culture: Seeds were surface-sterilized in 70% ethanol for 2 min followed by 1.5% sodium hypochlorite for 3 min after which they were rinsed three times with sterile distilled water32. Prior to incubation of seeds at the laboratory (25±1°C and 60% RH), half of the seeds were ground in a sterile motor and the other half used as a whole for detection of variations in the fungal endophyte species occurrence and diversity. Three to five seeds were plated onto 9 cm petri dishes containing either Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA), Sabouraud Dextrose Agar (SDA) or Yeast Extract Agar (YEA). A total of 320 seeds were used and incubated in 40 plates per seed species and replicated 5 times.

To determine the presence of fungal endophytes in both ground and whole seeds, the latter was placed on PDA, SDA and YEA plates (at a distant of 4 cm apart) containing 0.05% antibiotics (Streptomycin sulfate salt and chloramphenicol)33,34. Plates were incubated at 25±1°C for 14 days, after which the presence of endophytes was determined. Prior to incubation of the seeds, the last rinse water was also plated to assess the effectiveness of the surface sterilization procedure32. The presence or occurrence of fungal endophytes in the seeds was recorded by counting the number of seeds of the different varieties that showed fungal growth/mycelia according to Koch’s postulates48. This assessment of the fungal endophytes occurrence was repeated daily from the 1st day of incubation until 14 days post-incubation.

Isolated fungi were sub-cultured 4-6 times to obtain pure cultures and preserved in the ICIPE’S Arthropod Germplasm Center.

Morphological identification: Morphological identification was carried out using the procedures described by Burgess et al.49, Humber50 and Goettel and Inglis51. Fungal colony features, such as appearance, texture (colonization pattern) and pigmentation on both the top and reverse plates were observed52,53.

Slide culture preparations were used for observation of the following characteristics: (1) Presence or absence of microconidia and macroconidia, (2) Shapes and sizes of conidia, (3) Type of phialides bearing microconidia, (4) Presence or absence of chlamydospores, microconidial chains and sporodochia and (5) Type of fungal mycelia. The variability of colony appearance, pigmentation, growth rate, length of chains, production of bluish sclerotia and concentric ring aerial mycelium were also observed.

Morphological data analysis: Fungal occurrence was expressed as a percentage of the total number of seeds that were plated out. Percentages were square root transformed [√(x+1)] before applying analysis of variance (ANOVA) in R (2.13.1). Tukey HSD multiple comparisons of means was used to separate the means. The chi-square tests were used to compare the various endophytes species occurring in V. faba and P. vulgaris seeds. All the analyses were performed using R (2.13.1) statistical software packages54, while relying heavily on the epicalc package55.

Molecular characterization
Preparation of fungal material:
Conidia were harvested by scraping the surface of 2 week old cultures with a sterile spatula. Genomic DNA was extracted from the harvested conidia/mycelia using the Fast DNA Spin® kit for soil following the manufacturer’s instructions (MP Biomedicals). Mycelia/conidia were freeze-dried for 24 h to facilitate easy grinding. Isolates of B. bassiana ICIPE 279 and M. anisopliae ICIPE 30 and S4ST7, previously used in the endophytic colonization study31 were included as references in the phylogenetic trees for sibling or related isolate species characterization. These were obtained from the ICIPE’S Arthropod Germplasm Center.

Amplifications using ITS 5 and 4 and TW81 and AB28 primers: Amplifications were carried out for the rDNA region of the fungal isolates using56 the ITS 5 and 4 and the TW81 and AB2857 primers. The isolated DNA was amplified in 30 μL–1 PCR mix. The reaction mixture consisted of 3 μL–1 10X PCR buffer (GenScript USA Inc), 1.5 μL–1 25 mM MgCl2, 0.6 μL–1 10 mM dNTP mix, 1.5 μL–1 10 μM of the primers (Table 1), 1 unit Taq polymerase (GenScript USA Inc) and 20 ng μL–1 genomic DNA. For the ITS region, the thermo-cycling conditions involved initial denaturation at 94°C for 3 min, followed by 35 cycles of denaturation at 94°C for 40 sec, annealing at 58°C for 40 sec and primer elongation at 72°C for 1 min followed by a final extension at 72°C for 10 min giving a product range of between 550-600 bp.

Table 1:Primer sequences used in the DNA amplification
Image for - Morphological and Molecular Characterization of Vicia faba and Phaseolus vulgaris Seed-born Fungal Endophytes

The same procedure was applied during amplification using the TW81 and AB28 primers with the exception that the reaction was set for 40 cycles with the annealing temperature of 57°C for 40 sec. This gave a target region ranging between 500-550 bp. Both reactions were done in a PTC 100 thermocycler (MJ Research, Gaithersburg).

DNA purification and sequencing
Agarose gel electrophoresis and purification:
The PCR products were resolved through 1% agarose gel for 1 h at 70 V (Bio-Rad model 200/2-0 power supply and wide mini-sub cell GT horizontal electrophoresis system, Bio-Rad laboratories, Inc., USA), followed by visualization of the DNA under UV-illumination. The gel was photographed, analyzed and documented using KODAK Gel Logic 200 Imaging System software (Raytest, GmbH, Straubenhardt).

The products were then gel purified using the QuickClean 5M Gel Extraction Kit II from GenScript (GenScript Corporation, Piscataway, NJ), following the manufacturer’s instructions and subsequently sequenced in both directions using ABI 3700 genetic analyzers.

Sequencing and molecular data analysis: The sequences obtained were assembled and edited using Chromas version 2.13 (Technelysium Pty ltd, Queensland, Australia). Consensus sequences from both the forward and reverse strands were generated and were then queried through BLASTN in the GenBank database provided by the National Center of Biotechnology Information (NCBI) (http://www.ncbi.nlm. nih.gov/) for identification purposes and to check for similarity with organisms already identified. Any isolate exhibiting ≥95% sequence similarity to NCBI strains were considered as the correct species for that isolate58.

Moreover, the consensus sequences were aligned using59 ClustalX version 1.81. These alignments were used for phylogenetic and molecular evolutionary analyses that were conducted60 using MEGA version 6. Neighbour-joining trees were constructed61 with bootstrapping and using the Kimura 2 distance matrix62,63 for both sets of sequences of the 2 gene regions. Tables of between species distances were also constructed using60 MEGA version 6. The tables of distances were used to generate the principal component plots using the program64 GenAlEx 6.41.

RESULTS

Morphological identification of seed-born fungal endophytes: No fungal growth was observed in any of the plated washing water. There were no significance differences (F = 0.97, df = 3, 20, p = 0.423) in the growth of fungal endophytes in ground and whole seeds of both V. faba and P. vulgaris. A total of 5 fungal isolates were obtained from the 320 seeds of V. faba and P. vulgaris using morphological features and they belonged to genera Metarhizium, Beauveria, Phialemonium and Phanerochaete (Fig. 1). Among the key morphological features used to identify the isolates in the study that belong to the M. anisopliae included (1) The type of conidia formed that appeared either in short to long chains, (2) The short conidiogenous cells, with rounded to broadly conical apices (not having a distinctly narrowed and extended neck), (3) The conidiogenous cells borne at the apices of broadly branched and densely intertwined conidiophores that form a compact hymenium while the conidia are borne in parallel chains that are usually green in mass and (4) The cylindrical or ovoid conidia, forming chains that usually aggregated into a solid mass and appear as pale to bright green to yellow-green in colour (Fig. 1). For the B. bassiana isolates, the conidia were produced singly on many separate denticles on each conidiogenous cell or, if they were growing in some sort of slime, they were either singly or in small groups in a slime droplet. Their conidiogenous cells had globose bases with extended denticulate raches/apex and each rachis normally bore a single conidium per denticle. The conidia were usually white in colour (Fig. 1).

While the genus Phialemonium isolate was characterized by its abundance of adelophialides and few discrete phialides with no signs of collarettes. It also had distinct grayish white to brownish colonies pigmentation (Fig. 1) and allantoid conidia which had a cylindrical to bean-shaped structure.

Lastly, the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium isolate had colonies which were white in colour when cultured on Potato Dextrose Agar (Fig. 1). The isolate also had hyaline mycelia which were well branched and lacked clamp-connections. Likewise, three types of conidia were observed, the aleuriospores, arthrospores and chlamydospores.

Image for - Morphological and Molecular Characterization of Vicia faba and Phaseolus vulgaris Seed-born Fungal Endophytes
Fig. 1:
Fungal species isolated from Phaseolus vulgaris and Vicia faba seeds 2 weeks after incubation. ICIPE 692: Phanerochaete chrysosporium, ICIPE 695: Phialemonium sp., ICIPE 696: ICIPE 694: Metarhizium anisopliae and ICIPE 693: Beauveria bassiana, G: Grinded seeds, NG: Non grinded seeds

These isolates were given ICIPE’S Arthropod Germplasm Centre’s accession numbers as follows: Phialemonium sp., isolate ICIPE 695, Phanerochaete chrysosporium isolate ICIPE 692, Beauveria sp., isolate ICIPE 693 and Metarhizium sp., isolates ICIPE 694 and ICIPE 696, in addition to the existing standards isolates (ICIPE 30, ICIPE 279 and S4ST7) (Table 2). GenBank accession numbers provided for the nucleotide sequences of the fungal isolates for both primers pairs are as follows: For ITS 5 and 4, S4ST7 = KM463106,ICIPE 279 = KM463107, ICIPE 694 = KM463108, ICIPE 696 = KM463109, ICIPE 692 = KM463110, ICIPE 695 = KM463111, ICIPE 693 = KM463112, ICIPE 30 = KM463113 and for TW81 and AB28, ICIPE 693 = KM463114, ICIPE 696 = KM463115, ICIPE 695 = KM463116, ICIPE 30 = KM463117, ICIPE 694 = KM463118, ICIPE 279 = KM463119, S4ST7 = KM463120, ICIPE 692 = KM463121 (www.ncbi.nlm. nih.gov/books/NBK51157/, GenBank Submissions Handbook).

There were no significant differences in the prevalence/occurrence of fungal endophytes between V. faba (F = 0.81, df = 3, 20, p = 0.502) and P. vulgaris seeds (F = 0.47, df = 3, 20, p = 0.707) (Fig. 2). However, there was significant difference between the endophyte species, which occurred in V. faba compared to P. vulgaris seeds (χ2 = 31.11, df = 1, p<0.0001). For instance, B. bassiana ICIPE 693 which occurred in all the V. faba seeds (100%) did not occur in P. vulgaris seeds (Fig. 2). Similarly, the occurrence of Phanerochaete chrysosporium ICIPE 692 was 66.7% in V. faba whereas, the prevalence of Phialemonium sp. ICIPE 695 was of 55% in P. vulgaris only. However, the prevalence of M. anisopliae was recorded in both P. vulgaris (ICIPE 696, with 55.4% occurrence) and V. faba seeds (ICIPE 694, with 70.8% occurrence) (Fig. 2).

Molecular characterization of seed-born fungal endophytes: The molecular identification of the endophyte isolate species after sequencing is consolidated in Table 2. All fungal isolates identified using the ITS 5 and 4 primer sets were also confirmed by the TW81 and AB28 primer sets. The two sets of primers depicted isolate species identities with 99-100% similarity and 0.0 E values (Table 2). Like the morphological identification, the molecular characterization also yielded four isolates species identities: Metarhizium anisopliae (isolates ICIPE 694, ICIPE 696, S4ST7 and ICIPE 30), Beauveria bassiana (isolates ICIPE 693 and ICIPE 279), Phanerochaete chrysosporium (isolate ICIPE 692) and Phialemonium sp. (isolate ICIPE 695) (Table 2). Thus the molecular identification corroborates with the morphological identification for the endophyte isolates (Fig. 1, Table 2).

Table 2:Identified fungal endophytes species using ITS 5 and 4 and TW81 and AB28
Image for - Morphological and Molecular Characterization of Vicia faba and Phaseolus vulgaris Seed-born Fungal Endophytes

Phylogenetic trees
Phylogenetic tree using the ITS 5 and 4 gene region:
The evolutionary history was inferred using the Neighbor-Joining method61. The optimal tree with the sum of branch length = 0.68264451 is shown in Fig. 3. The percentage of replicate trees in which the associated taxa clustered together in the bootstrap test (500 replicates) is shown next to the branches65. The tree is drawn to scale, with branch lengths in the same units as those of the evolutionary distances used to infer the phylogenetic tree (Fig. 3). The analysis involved 12 nucleotide sequences. Codon positions included were 1st+2nd+3rd+noncoding. All positions containing gaps and missing data were eliminated. There were a total of 506 positions in the final dataset.

Four groups resulted from this analysis (Fig. 3). The first group consisted of the M. anisopliae isolates where each of the sample (ICIPE 696 and ICIPE 694) and the standards (ICIPE 30 and S4ST7) isolates branched separately. Furthermore, all the Metarhizium isolates linked to a Metarhizium sp., of accession number FJ545302.1 during blasting (Table 2). The second group consisted of B. bassiana isolates ICIPE 693 and ICIPE 279, likewise branching from the same node but occupying different branches, a clear indication that the ICIPE 693 from V. faba seeds is different from the standard ICIPE 279 isolate. The last two clusters of the phylogenetic tree consisted of Phialemonium sp., isolate ICIPE 695 and P. chrysosporium isolate ICIPE 692, respectively (Fig. 3).

The genetic distances between the isolates were also inferred using Kimura 2-parameter model. The estimates of evolutionary divergence between sequences of the various endophyte isolates ranged between 0.0 and 0.472 (Table 3).

Image for - Morphological and Molecular Characterization of Vicia faba and Phaseolus vulgaris Seed-born Fungal Endophytes
Fig. 2(a-b):
Fungal endophytes species prevalence (%) in Vicia faba (left) and in Phaseolus vulgaris (right) seeds. ICIPE 692: Phanerochaete chrysosporium, ICIPE 695: Phialemonium sp., ICIPE 694: ICIPE 696: Metarhizium anisopliae and ICIPE 693: Beauveria bassiana

Image for - Morphological and Molecular Characterization of Vicia faba and Phaseolus vulgaris Seed-born Fungal Endophytes
Fig. 3:
Phylogenetic tree using ITS 5 and 4 regions showing the evolutionary relationships of fungal endophyte isolates from Vicia faba and Phaseolus vulgaris

Comparison of M. anisopliae isolates ICIPE 694 and ICIPE 696, isolated from V. faba and P. vulgaris with the standards ICIPE 30 and S4ST7 gave a square distance of 0.0. Similarly, comparison of B. bassiana isolate ICIPE 693 isolated from V. faba with the standard ICIPE 279, gave a square distance of 0.0 (Table 3). Table 3 was used to generate principal component plots. In the Principal Coordinate Analysis (PCA) plot, the 1st two axes explained 76.9% of the variation (the 1st axis 49.8% and the second axis 27.1%) (Fig. 4). The PCA separated the nine isolates into four distinct clusters. Each cluster was occupied by the isolates belonging to the different genera i.e., Metarhizium, Beauveria, Phialemonium and Phanerochaete, respectively (Fig. 4).

Phylogenetic tree using the TW81 and AB28 gene region: The evolutionary history was inferred using the Neighbor-Joining method61. The optimal tree with the sum of branch length = 2.17571022 is shown in Fig. 5. The percentage of replicate trees in which the associated taxa clustered together in the bootstrap test (500 replicates) is shown next to the branches65. The tree is drawn to scale, with branch lengths in the same units as those of the evolutionary distances used to infer the phylogenetic tree (Fig. 5). The analysis involved 14 nucleotide sequences. Codon positions included were 1st+2nd+3rd+noncoding.

Image for - Morphological and Molecular Characterization of Vicia faba and Phaseolus vulgaris Seed-born Fungal Endophytes
Fig. 4:
Plot of Principal Components Analysis (PCA) via the covariance matrix with data standardization calculated using GenAIEx for the various endophytes species isolated from Vicia faba and Phaseolus vulgaris using the ITS 5 and 4 regions (PC1 = 49.78 and PC2 = 27.11%)

Image for - Morphological and Molecular Characterization of Vicia faba and Phaseolus vulgaris Seed-born Fungal Endophytes
Fig. 5:
Phylogenetic tree using TW81 and AB28 regions showing the evolutionary relationships of fungal endophyte isolates from Vicia faba and Phaseolus vulgaris

Table 3:Estimates of evolutionary divergence between sequences using ITS 5 and 4
Image for - Morphological and Molecular Characterization of Vicia faba and Phaseolus vulgaris Seed-born Fungal Endophytes

Image for - Morphological and Molecular Characterization of Vicia faba and Phaseolus vulgaris Seed-born Fungal Endophytes
Fig. 6:
Plot of principal components analysis (PCA) via the covariance matrix with data standardization calculated using GenAIEx for the various endophytes species isolated from Vicia faba and Phaseolus vulgaris using the TW81 and AB28 regions (PC1 = 61.48% and PC2 = 20.99%)

Table 4:Estimates of evolutionary divergence between sequences using TW81 and AB28
Image for - Morphological and Molecular Characterization of Vicia faba and Phaseolus vulgaris Seed-born Fungal Endophytes

All positions containing gaps and missing data were eliminated. There were a total of 444 positions in the final dataset.

This analysis also clustered the Metarhizium, Phanerochaete, Phialemonium and Beauveria isolates into four distinct groups (Fig. 5). The first cluster consisted of all the M. anisopliae isolates included in the study. The ICIPE 696 and ICIPE 694 isolates branched separately from the standards (ICIPE 30 and S4ST7). The second group consisted of B. bassiana isolates ICIPE 693 likewise branching separately from the standard ICIPE 279. This is a clear indication that the samples are different from the standards. The last two clusters consisted of the Phialemonium sp., ICIPE 695 and P. chrysosporium ICIPE 692, respectively (Fig. 5).

The genetic distances between the isolates were also inferred as for the other primer region and were used for principal component analysis. The estimates of evolutionary divergence between sequences of the various endophyte isolates when using this primer region ranged between 0.0 and 1.952 (Table 4). Comparison of M. anisopliae isolates (ICIPE 694 and ICIPE 696) isolated from V. faba and P. vulgaris with the ICIPE standards, gave a square distance of 0.0, showing that the two are genetically closely related. However, comparison of B. bassiana isolate ICIPE 693 isolated from V. faba with the standard ICIPE 279, gave a square distance of 1.409 (Table 4), meaning that the 2 isolates are far apart. In the PCA plot, the first two axes explained 82.48% of the variation (the 1st axis 61.48% and the second axis 20.99%) (Fig. 6). The PCA separated the 9 isolates into 4 discrete clusters as observed with the ITS 5 and 4 gene region. Each cluster was occupied by isolates belonging to the 4 different genera i.e., a cluster consisting of the Metarhizium isolates, a cluster consisting of Beauveria, Phialemonium and Phanerochaete, respectively (Fig. 6).

DISCUSSION

Early approaches to fungal taxonomy or identification relied on morphological characterization at the macro and microscopic levels. The presence or absence of microconidia and macroconidia, shapes and sizes of conidia, type of phialides bearing microconidia, presence or absence of chlamydospores, microconidial chains and sporodochia, as well as the type of fungal mycelia as described by Burgess et al.49, Humber50 and Goettel and Inglis51 have contributed to the morphological identification of especially the M. anisopliae and B. bassiana isolates. The variability of colony appearance, pigmentation, growth rate, length of chains, production of bluish sclerotia and concentric ring aerial mycelium52,53 were other additional features which also assisted in the morphological identification of the isolated endophytes.

The key features used to identify M. anisopliae isolates (ICIPE 30, S4ST7, ICIPE 694 and ICIPE 696) are the conidia formed in short to long chains, short conidiogenous cells and with rounded to broad conical apices. Johnston66 also proposed the morphological classification of M. anisopliae into long and short-spored forms. These features are also in line with the morphological idendification keys of Humber50.

In B. bassiana isolates (ICIPE 279 and ICIPE 693), the conidia and conidiogenous shapes as well as the pigmentation (white in mass) corroborate with the features used by Humber50 to describe B. bassiana. According to Thomas et al.67, Viaud et al.68, Alves et al.69 and Kirkland et al.70, the entomopathogen B. bassiana produces three distinct features in vitro, single cell propagules: Aerial conidia, blastospores and submerged conidia. Different infectious B. bassiana propagules can be isolated and selected for host targeting. Thus, in addition to mycelial and hyphal growth, B. bassiana produces a number of mono-nucleated single cell types, including aerial conidia, blastospores and submerged conidia71,72. These cells display distinct morphological, biochemical and pathological characteristics and attempts are being made to exploit these properties in pest targeting and/or the enhancement of virulence.

Phialemonium sp., isolate ICIPE 695 was mainly characterized by its abundance of adelophialides and few discrete phialides with no signs of collarettes as well as its grayish white to brownish colonies pigmentation. These morphological features were also used by Gams and McGinnis73 when describing P. curvatum. Perdomo et al.74 when describing Phialemonium species, focused on key morphological features such as smooth or finely floccose, white colonies, becoming brown at maturity, short and cylindrical adelophialides and less commonly, long, tapering discrete phialides. Inconspicuous collarettes could also be observed on types of phialides, hyaline and cylindrical to curved conidia74.

The white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium isolate ICIPE 692 was identified morphologically based on the white floccose colonies, hyaline mycelia and the three types of conidia (aleuriospores, arthrospores and chlamydospores). These features observed in P. chrysosporium, were also described by Burdsall and Eslyn75 and their conidial productions were abundant76.

However, identification using morphological (macro and micro) and physiological (growth rates, media) characters alone of fungi were not only frequently criticized among mycologists but also are time-consuming and sometimes hard to interpret due to ambiguous responses by some isolates in the media tested and some unclear expressed features77. Morphological identification was then combined with molecular characterization approach to confirm the identities of the seed-born fungal endophytes isolated in this study.

Results from the amplification of the rDNA region using the two sets of primers in this study confirmed the morphological identification of the isolates which belong to the genera Metarhizium, Beauveria, Phialemonium and Phanerochaete. They also linked the standards (ICIPE 30 and S4ST7) to the M. anisopliae species while isolate ICIPE 693 to Beauveria spp. Similar to the identity of M. anisopliae standard (S4ST7) using both primers, a study by Akello78 reported the isolate S4ST7 as a M. anisopliae species using molecular characterization with the following primers: IGS [PNFo (CCCGCCTGGCTGCGTCCGACTC) and PN22 (CAAGCATATGACTACTGGC)] and ITS [ITS1 (TCCGTAGGTGA ACCTGCGG) and ITS4 (TCCTCCGCTTATTGATATGC)]. These results confirm the identity of our standard using different primers sets. In addition, Fernandes et al.79 also used molecular-based techniques [AFLP and rDNA (ITS1, ITS2 and 5.8S) gene sequencing] to characterize morphologically identified Metarhizium spp., isolates from a wide range of sources.

Beauveria bassiana ICIPE 279 was reported earlier to be endophytic in V. faba and P. vulgaris by Akutse et al.31. Since, B. bassianna ICIPE 693, isolated from V. faba seeds, belongs to the same cluster as ICIPE 279, it may also be endophytic, not just in seeds of V. faba but also in the plants through vertical transmission or when artificially inoculated. Beauveria bassiana (Ascomycota: Hypocreales) has previously been reported as an endophyte in seeds and needles of Pinus monticola Dougl. ex. D. Don80. A number of studies have also reported on the presence of endophytes in seeds81,82.

Rivero et al.83 and Rao et al.84 have also used ITS1 and ITS4 primers for molecular identification of Phialemonium curvatum. A species of Phialemonium (KF746155.1) has been reported as an endophyte58 and having potential bioactivity as both anti-parasitic and anti-bacterial85,86. This is widely distributed in the environment, having been isolated from air, soil, industrial water and sewage73. Similar to the molecular characterization in this study, Lim et al.76 have also identified 2 species of Phanerochaete, P. chrysomonium and P. sordida using ITS gene regions. Phanerochaete chrysosporium is known to be saprophytic capable of organic breakdown. Although, dying and dead plants serve as optimal substrate for P. chrysosporium, it has also been isolated from soil samples of petroleum refinery and was used for degradation of 5 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs: Acenaphthene, anthracene, phenanthrene, fluoranthene and pyrene), simultaneously and individually in sterile and unsterile soil87. Phanerochaete chrysosporium has also been reported to be thermo-tolerant88. The white rot fungus P. chrysosporium is the only microbe capable of efficient depolymerization and mineralization of lignin. Furthermore, P. chrysosporium also has several features that might make it very useful. For instance, unlike some white rot fungi, it leaves the cellulose of the wood virtually untouched and it has a very high optimum temperature (about 40°C), which means it can grow on wood chips in compost piles, which attain very high temperatures. These characteristics point to some possible or potential roles of this fungus in biotechnology. The endophytic fungi isolated from V. faba and P. vulgaris seeds, may occur and propagate/accumulate naturally inside seeds under farming conditions or during seeds processing.

Although, plants are commonly colonized by a diverse array of endophytic organisms, it was previously reported that hardly any information exists on interactions between endophytic fungi and other ecological groups of fungi co-occurring in the same plant tissues/seeds89. It can therefore be expected that antagonistic interactions between these fungi are the rule rather than the exception. When entomopathogenic endophytic fungi are starting to grow systemically from the point of inoculation (from seeds for example) to other plant parts, they inevitably have to confront other fungi already established. Since, seeds are likely to already harbor endophytic fungi at the time of artificial inoculation, thus adding a component of interspecific interaction to the already complex set-up become important to clarify. In line with this hypothesis, a recent paper by Yan et al.90 reported almost no systemic growth of endophytic fungi in Silene dioica (L.) Clairv., a non-mycorrhized forb, because most of the fungi were starting to exhibit antagonistic interactions when plated together in a kind of competitive setting on a growth medium. Vidal and Jaber91 also underlined the possible interaction effects of the existing endophytes and the inoculated ones where they reported that these microorganisms may impact the effect of the endophytic entomopathogenic fungi on the herbivorous insects.

Therefore, the results of this study would create awareness on seed endophytes and facilitate/stimulate studies on the role of these fungi in inhibition/suppression of the growth of artificially inoculated endophytes used for pest control in general and for Liriomyza leafminer species in particular, explore the additive, symbiotic or synergic effects of these seeds endophytes in the management of Liriomyza leafminers and other pests. Regarding the exploration of possible inhibition of the growth of the artificially inoculated fungi, Kerr92 has reported similar results where Pseudomonas aeruginosa was found to significantly suppress or inhibit the growth of Candida albicans and other eleven strains of fungi in vitro. The presence of these endophytes in V. faba and P. vulgaris seeds shows a high chance that the seedlings of these seeds may be colonized by the same fungal endophytes either naturally or artificially through inoculation. Beauveria bassiana and M. anisopliae are two key entomopathogenic fungi species isolated from these seeds, suggesting their potential use in biological control of arthropod pests. Entomopathogenic fungi are generally applied in inundative approach in the crops93. However, other strategies are currently being considered and include auto-dissemination94 and endophytic colonization30. Fungal pathogens can endophytically colonize host plants and confer resistance against insect pests30. The pathogenicity and virulence effects of the isolated endophytes can also be assessed on different sucking arthropods in vitro and in vivo especially for the entomopathogenic fungi M. anisopliae and B. bassiana isolates. For instance, endophytic B. bassiana in banana significantly reduced larval survivorship of banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), resulting in 42-87% reduction in plant damage43,44. Reduction in feeding and reproduction by Aphis gossypii (Hemiptera: Aphididae) has also been reported on cotton endophytically colonized by B. bassiana34. Vega et al.29 reported similar effects of an endophytic B. bassiana SPCL 03047 on adult coffee berry borers, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) with an average survival period of 4.8±0.2 days compared to 15.0±0.6 days for the un-inoculated plants. The pathogenicity and virulence of fungal isolates against Liriomyza leafminer adults was also reported by Migiro et al.95 using M. anisopliae through auto-dissemination approach. Akutse et al.31 also reported the effects of fungal endophytes on life-history parameters of Liriomyza huidobrensis (Diptera: Agromyzidae) leafminers and their associated parasitoids47. The researchers reported that endophytic fungal isolates of B. bassiana (G1LU3, S4SU1 and ICIPE 279) could endophytically colonize V. faba and P. vulgaris plants through seeds inoculation and cause detrimental effects on survival, fecundity, oviposition, emergence and longevity of L. huidobrensis. However, no significant detrimental effects were observed on the development, survival and parasitism ability of the associated parasitoids Diglyphus isaea Walker (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) and Phaedrotoma scabriventris Nixon (Hymenoptera: Braconidae)47.

Assessment of the quality and the nutritional value of the seeds colonized by the endophytes can also be undertaken not only having reference to plant pathogens18-22, but also when considering the possible presence of the entomopathogenic fungi in the seeds. For example, Van Du et al.96 reported that some fungi species, such as Fusarium graminum, Cephalosporium oryzae, Alternaria padwickii, Fusarium moniliforme, Fusarium pallidoroseum, Fusarium subglutinans, Phoma sp. and Sarocladium oryzae found in rice seeds, affect the quality of the seeds through their effects on grain discoloration, milling recovery, cooking and palatability as compared to healthy seeds. In addition, McGee and Nyvall97 reported that more than 30 fungi are seed-born on soybeans. Although, some cause quality problems98 and reduce seed viability, most fungi that are associated with soyabean seeds are not known to cause diseases. Furthermore, the effects of seeds derived from endophytically inoculated plants on stored products insects can also be investigated.

CONCLUSION

Beauveria bassiana isolate ICIPE 693, M. anisopliae isolates ICIPE 694, ICIPE 696, Phanerochaete chrysosporium isolate ICIPE 692 and Phialemonium sp., isolate ICIPE 695 were isolated as seed fungal endophytes. These isolates were clearly different from the standards B. bassiana ICIPE 279 and M. anisopliae ICIPE 30 and S4ST7 despite clustering into the same groups. Results of the study showed that bean seeds do not only bear in their inside plant pathogens but also entomopathogenic fungi. The outcome of this study will create awareness on seed endophytes and stimulate further studies on the role of these fungi in (1) Inhibiting or suppressing the growth of artificially inoculated endophytes used for pest control in general and Liriomyza leafminer species in particular, (2) Assessing the pathogenicity and virulence effects of these endophytes on different sucking arthropods, (3) Evaluating the nutritional value of the seeds containing these endophytes and finally (4) Assessing the effect on stored products insects when storing seeds derived from endophytically inoculated plants. Furthermore, since other fungi may block the systemic growth and colonization of the artificially inoculated fungi in the host plant parts distant to the point of inoculation, then there is need to know the already existing species of fungi in the seeds and study their interactions with the inoculated ones, not only for seedling growth promotion, but also for better biological pest management strategies development using endophytic fungi. And this study established some of the key entomopathogenic fungal endophytes that naturally exist in the bean seeds. Knowing that bean seeds contain already these fungi, the results of this study will also help to develop specific markers to trace the fate of the artificially inoculated endophytes when released in the ecosystem as biocontrol agents.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

The study was conducted with financial support from the Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development, Germany (BMZ) through the German Federal Enterprise for International Cooperation/Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) (Grant No. 09.7860.1-001.00, Contract No. 81121261). The first author received a scholarship through a PhD fellowship provided by the German Academic Exchange Service/Deutcher Akademischer Austausch Dienst (DAAD) through the African Regional Postgraduate Programme in Insect Science (ARPPIS) at ICIPE. The authors are grateful to Dr. D. Masiga (ICIPE) for allowing use of the Molecular Biology and Bioinformatics laboratory facilities, to J. G. Kabii, E. Ouna and S. Wafula for their technical assistance.

REFERENCES

1:  Ingram, D.S., 2002. The Diversity of Plant Pathogens and Conservation: Bacteria and Fungi Sensu Lato. In: Microorganisms in Plant Conservation and Biodiversity, Sivasithamparam, K., K.W. Dixon and R.L. Barret (Eds.). Chapter 9, Springer, Netherlands, ISBN: 978-1-4020-0780-4, pp: 241-267

2:  Azevedo, J.L., W. Maccheroni Jr., J.O. Pereira and W.L. de Araujo, 2000. Endophytic microorganisms: A review on insect control and recent advances on tropical plants. Electron. J. Biotechnol., 3: 40-65.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

3:  Backman, P.A. and R.A. Sikora, 2008. Endophytes: An emerging tool for biological control. Biol. Control, 46: 1-3.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

4:  Larran, S., A. Perello, M.R. Simon and V. Moreno, 2002. Isolation and analysis of endophytic microorganisms in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) leaves. World J. Microbiol. Biotechnol., 18: 683-686.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

5:  Pocasangre, L., R.A. Sikora, V. Vilich and R.P. Schuster, 2000. Survey of banana endophytic fungi from central america and screening for biological control of the burrowing nematode (Radopholus similis). InfoMusa, 9: 3-5.
Direct Link  |  

6:  Cao, L.X., J.L. You and S.N. Zhou, 2002. Endophytic fungi from Musa acuminata leaves and roots in South China. World J. Microbiol. Biotechnol., 18: 169-171.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

7:  Akello, J.T., T. Dubois, C.S. Gold, D. Coyne, J. Nakavuma and P. Paparu, 2007. Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin as an endophyte in tissue culture banana (Musa spp.). J. Invertebr. Pathol., 96: 34-42.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

8:  Larran, S., C. Rollan, H.B. Angeles, H.E. Alippi and M.I. Urrutia, 2002. Endophytic fungi in healthy soybean leaves. Invest. Agric. Prod. Prot. Veg., 17: 173-177.
Direct Link  |  

9:  Larran, S., C. Monaco and H.E. Alippi, 2001. Endophytic fungi in leaves of Lycopersicon esculentum mill. World J. Microbiol. Biotechnol., 17: 181-184.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

10:  Baker, K.F. and S.H. Smith, 1966. Dynamics of seed transmission of plant pathogens. Annu. Rev. Phytopathol., 14: 311-332.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

11:  Schardl, C.L., A. Leuchtmann and M.J. Spiering, 2004. Symbioses of grasses with seedborne fungal endophytes. Annu. Rev. Plant Biol., 55: 315-340.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

12:  Johnston-Monje, D. and M.N. Raizada, 2011. Conservation and diversity of seed associated endophytes in Zea across boundaries of evolution, ethnography and ecology. PLoS ONE, Vol. 6.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

13:  Dalling, J.W., A.S. Davis, B.J. Schutte and A.E. Arnold, 2011. Seed survival in soil: Interacting effects of predation, dormancy and the soil microbial community. J. Ecol., 99: 89-95.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

14:  Kaga, H., H. Mano, F. Tanaka, A. Watanabe, S. Kaneko and H. Morisaki, 2009. Rice seeds as sources of endophytic bacteria. Microbes Environ., 24: 154-162.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

15:  Mano, H., F. Tanaka, A. Watanabe, H. Kaga, S. Okunishi and H. Morisaki, 2006. Culturable surface and endophytic bacterial flora of the maturing seeds of rice plants (Oryza sativa) cultivated in a paddy field. Microbes Environ., 21: 86-100.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

16:  Ferreira, A., M.C. Quecine, P.T. Lacava, S. Oda, J.L. Azevedo and W.L. Araujo, 2008. Diversity of endophytic bacteria from Eucalyptus species seeds and colonization of seedlings by Pantoea agglomerans. FEMS. Microbiol. Lett., 287: 8-14.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

17:  Rijavec, T., A. Lapanje, M. Dermastia and M. Rupnik, 2007. Isolation of bacterial endophytes from germinated maize kernels. Can. J. Microbiol., 53: 802-808.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

18:  Sinha, P. and A.K. Prakash, 2014. Seed-borne storage fungi of cowpea: Pathogenic to the seedlings. Proceedings of the 3rd World Conference on Applied Sciences, Engineering and Technology, September 27-29, 2014, Basha Research Centre, Kathmandu, Nepal -

19:  Anjorin, S.T. and M. Mohammed, 2014. Effect of seed-borne fungi on germination and seedling vigour of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus thumb). Afr. J. Plant Sci., 8: 232-236.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

20:  Ghoneem, K.M., S.M. Ezzat and N.M. El-Dadamony, 2014. Seed-borne fungi of sunflower in Egypt with reference to pathogenic effects and their transmission. Plant Pathol. J., 13: 278-284.
Direct Link  |  

21:  Al-Amod, M.O., 2015. Seed-borne fungi of some peanut varieties from Hadhramout and Abyan Governorates in Yemen. J. Agric. Tech., 11: 1359-1370.
Direct Link  |  

22:  El-Wakil, D.A., 2014. Seed-borne fungi of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) and their impact on oil quality. IOSR J. Agric. Vet. Sci., 6: 38-44.
Direct Link  |  

23:  Gouda, S., G. Das, S.K. Sen, H.S. Shin and J.K. Patra, 2016. Endophytes: A treasure house of bioactive compounds of medicinal importance. Front. Microbiol., Vol. 7.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

24:  Weinberger, K. and T.A. Lumpkin, 2007. Diversification into horticulture and poverty reduction: A research agenda. World Dev., 35: 1464-1480.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

25:  McCulloch, N. and M. Ota, 2002. Export horticulture and poverty in Kenya. Working Paper 174, Institute of Development Studies, Sussex, UK. http://www.eldis.org/fulltext/mcculloch_neil_export_horticulture_2002.pdf.

26:  FPEAK., 2012. An overview of the Kenya Horticulture Industry. Kenya Horticultural Council (KHC), Fresh Produce Exporters Association of Kenya, http://fpeak.org/index.php/kenya-horticulture-council-k-h-c/.

27:  Chabi-Olaye, A., N. Mujica, B. Lohr and J. Kroschel, 2008. Role of agroecosystems in the abundance and diversity of Liriomyza leafmining flies and their natural enemies. Proceedings of the Abstracts of the 23rd International congress of Entomology, July 6-12, 2008, Durban, South Africa -

28:  Gitonga, Z.M., A. Chabi-Olaye, D. Mithofer, J.J. Okello and C.N. Ritho, 2010. Control of Invasive Liriomyza leafminer species and compliance with food safety standards by small scale snow pea farmers in Kenya. J. Crop Prot., 29: 1472-1477.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

29:  Vega, F.E., F. Posada, M.C. Aime, M. Pava-Ripoll, F. Infante and S.A. Rehner, 2008. Entomopathogenic fungal endophytes. Biol. Control, 46: 72-82.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

30:  Vega, F.E., M.S. Goettel, M. Blackwell, D. Chandler and M.A. Jackson et al., 2009. Fungal entomopathogens: New insights on their ecology. Fungal Ecol., 2: 149-159.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

31:  Akutse, K.S., N.K. Maniania, K.K.M. Fiaboe, J. Van den Berg and S. Ekesi, 2013. Endophytic colonization of Vicia faba and Phaseolus vulgaris (fabaceae) by fungal pathogens and their effects on the life-history parameters of Liriomyza huidobrensis (diptera: agromyzidae). Fungal Ecol., 6: 293-301.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

32:  Schulz, B. and C. Boyle, 2005. The endophytic continuum. Mycol. Res., 109: 661-686.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

33:  Istifadah, N. and P.A. McGee, 2006. Endophytic Chaetomium globosum reduces development of tan spot in wheat caused by Pyrenophora tritici-repentis. Aust. Plant Path., 35: 411-418.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

34:  Gurulingappa, P., G.A. Sword, G. Murdoch and P.A. McGee, 2010. Colonization of crop plants by fungal entomopathogens and their effects on two insect pests when in planta. Biol. Control, 55: 34-41.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

35:  Ownley, B.H., R.M. Pereira, W.E. Klingeman III, N.B. Quigley and B.M. Leckie, 2004. Beauveria bassiana, A Dual Purpose Biological Control with Activity against Insect Pests and Plant Pathogens. In: Emerging Concepts in Plant Health Management, Lartey, R.T. and A.J. Cesar (Eds.). Research Signpost, India, ISBN-13: 9788177362275, pp: 255-269

36:  Ownley, B.H., K.D. Gwinn and F.E. Vega, 2010. Endophytic fungal entomopathogens with activity against plant pathogens: Ecology and evolution. BioControl, 55: 113-128.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

37:  Arnold, A.E., L.C. Mejia, D. Kyllo, E.I. Rojas, Z. Maynard, N. Robbins and E.A. Herre, 2003. Fungal endophytes limit pathogen damage in a tropical tree. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA., 100: 15649-15654.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

38:  Arnold, A.E. and L.C. Lewis, 2005. Ecology and Evolution of Fungal Endophytes and their Roles Against Insects. In: Insect-Fungal Associations: Ecology and Evolution, Vega, F.E. and M. Blackwell (Eds.). Oxford University Press, New York, pp: 74-96

39:  Rudgers, J.A., J. Holah, S.P. Orr and K. Clay, 2007. Forest succession suppressed by an introduced plant-fungal symbiosis. Ecology, 88: 18-25.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

40:  Vega, F.E., 2008. Insect pathology and fungal endophytes. J. Invertebr. Pathol., 98: 277-279.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

41:  Clement, S.L., W.J. Kaiser and H. Eichenseer, 1994. Acremonium Endophytes in Germplasms of Major Grasses and Their Utilization for Insect Resistance. In: Biotechnology of Endophytic Fungi of Grasses, Bacon, C.W. and J.F. White Jr. (Eds.). CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL., USA., pp: 185-199

42:  Clement, S.L., L.R. Elberson, N.A. Bosque-Perez and D.J. Schotzko, 2005. Detrimental and neutral effects of wild barley-Neotyphodium fungal endophyte associations on insect survival. Entomol. Exp. Appl., 114: 119-125.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

43:  Akello, J., T. Dubois, D. Coyne and S. Kyamanywa, 2008. Endophytic Beauveria bassiana in banana (Musa spp.) reduces banana weevil (Cosmopolites sordidus) fitness and damage. Crop. Prot., 27: 1437-1441.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

44:  Akello, J., T. Dubois, D. Coyne and S. Kyamanywa, 2008. Effect of endophytic Beauveria bassiana on populations of the banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus and their damage in tissue-cultured banana plants. Entomologia Experimentalis Applicata, 129: 157-165.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

45:  Harish, S., M. Kavino, N. Kumar, D. Saravanakumar, K. Soorianasundaram and R. Samiyappan, 2008. Biohardening with plant growth promoting rhizosphere and endophytic bacteria induces systemic resistance against Banana bunchy top virus. Applied Soil Ecol., 39: 187-200.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

46:  Paparu, P., T. Dubois, D. Coyne and A. Viljoen, 2009. Dual inoculation of Fusarium oxysporum endophytes in banana: Effect on plant colonization, growth and control of the root burrowing nematode and the banana weevil. Biocontrol Sci. Technol., 19: 639-655.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

47:  Akutse, K.S., K.K. Fiaboe, J. Van den Berg, S. Ekesi and N.K. Maniania, 2014. Effects of endophyte colonization of Vicia faba (fabaceae) plants on the life: History of leafminer parasitoids Phaedrotoma scabriventris (hymenoptera: braconidae) and Diglyphus isaea (hymenoptera: eulophidae). Plos One, Vol. 9.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

48:  Petrini, O. and P.J. Fisher, 1986. Fungal endophytes in Salicornia perennis. Trans. Br. Mycol. Soc., 87: 647-651.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

49:  Burgess, L.W., B.A. Summerell, S. Bullock, K.P. Gott and D. Backhouse, 1994. Laboratory Manual for Fusarium Research. 3rd Edn., Fusarium Research Laboratory, University of Sydney and Royal Botanic Gardens, Sydney, Australia, ISBN-13: 9780867588491, Pages: 133

50:  Humber, R.A., 1997. Fungi: Identification. In: Manual of Techniques in Insect Pathology, Lacey, L.A. (Ed.). Academic Press, New York, pp: 153-185

51:  Goettel, M.S. and G.D. Inglis, 1997. Fungi: Hyphomycetes. In: Manual of Techniques in Insect Pathology, Lacey, L.A. (Ed.). Academic Press, New York, San Diego, USA., pp: 213-249

52:  Kornerup, A. and J.H. Wanscher, 1978. Methuen Hanbook of Colour. 3rd Edn., Eyre Methuen, London, UK., ISBN-13: 978-0413334008, Pages: 252
Direct Link  |  

53:  Leslie, J.F. and B.A. Summerell, 2006. The Fusarium Laboratory Manual. Blackwell Publish Ltd., Iowa, USA., Pages: 388

54:  R Development Core Team, 2011. R: A Language and Environment for Statistical Computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria

55:  Chongsuvivatwong, V., 2012. Epicalc: Epidemiological calculator. R Package Version 2.14.1.6, Prince of Songkla University, Thailand.

56:  White, T.J., T.D. Bruns, S.B. Lee and J.W. Taylor, 1990. Amplification and Direct Sequencing of Fungal Ribosomal RNA Genes for Phylogenetics. In: PCR Protocols: A Guide to Methods and Applications, Innis, M.A., D.H. Gelfand, J.J. Sninsky and T.J. White (Eds.). Academic Press, San Diego, CA., USA., ISBN-13: 9780123721808, pp: 315-322
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

57:  Curran, J., F. Driver, J.W.O. Ballard and R.J. Milner, 1994. Phylogeny of Metarhizium: analysis of ribosomal DNA sequence data. Mycol. Res., 98: 547-552.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

58:  Arnold, A.E. and F. Lutzoni, 2007. Diversity and host range of foliar fungal endophytes: Are tropical leaves biodiversity hotspots? Ecology, 83: 541-549.
PubMed  |  Direct Link  |  

59:  Thompson, J.D., T.J. Gibson, F. Plewniak, F. Jeanmougin and D.G. Higgins, 1997. The CLUSTAL_X windows interface: Flexible strategies for multiple sequence alignment aided by quality analysis tools. Nucleic Acids Res., 25: 4876-4882.
CrossRef  |  PubMed  |  Direct Link  |  

60:  Tamura, K., G. Stecher, D. Peterson, A. Filipski and S. Kumar, 2013. MEGA6: Molecular evolutionary genetics analysis version 6.0. Mol. Biol. Evol., 30: 2725-2729.
CrossRef  |  PubMed  |  Direct Link  |  

61:  Saitou, N. and M. Nei, 1987. The neighbor-joining method: A new method for reconstructing phylogenetic trees. Mol. Biol. Evol., 4: 406-425.
CrossRef  |  PubMed  |  Direct Link  |  

62:  Nei, M. and S. Kumar, 2000. Molecular Evolution and Phylogenetics. Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK., ISBN-13: 9780195135855, Pages: 333
Direct Link  |  

63:  Kimura, M., 1980. A simple method for estimating evolutionary rates of base substitutions through comparative studies of nucleotide sequences. J. Mol. Evol., 16: 111-120.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

64:  Peakall, R. and P.E. Smouse, 2006. genalex 6: Genetic analysis in Excel. Population genetic software for teaching and research. Mol. Ecol. Notes, 6: 288-295.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

65:  Felsenstein, J., 1985. Confidence limits on phylogenies: An approach using the bootstrap. Evolution, 39: 783-791.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

66:  Johnston, J.R., 1915. The entomogenous fungi of Porto Rico. Bulletin No. 10, Government of Porto Rico, Board of Commissioners of Agriculture, Rio Pedras.

67:  Thomas, K.C., G.G. Khachatourians and W.M. Ingledew, 1987. Production and properties of Beauveria bassiana conidia cultivated in submerged culture. Can. J. Microbiol., 33: 12-20.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

68:  Viaud, M., Y. Couteaudier and G. Riba, 1998. Molecular analysis of hypervirulent somatic hybrids of the entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana and Beauveria sulfurescens. Applied Environ. Microbiol., 64: 88-93.
Direct Link  |  

69:  Alves, S.B., L.S. Rossi, R.B. Lopes, M.A. Tamai and R.M. Pereira, 2002. Beauveria bassiana yeast phase on agar medium and its pathogenicity against Diatraea saccharalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) and Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae). J. Invertebrate Pathol., 81: 70-77.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

70:  Kirkland, B.H., E.M. Cho and N.O. Keyhani, 2004. Differential susceptibility of Amblyomma maculatum and Amblyomma americanum (Acari:Ixodidea) to the entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae. Biol. Control, 31: 414-421.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

71:  Boucias, D.G., J.C. Pendland and J.P. Latge, 1988. Nonspecific factors involved in attachment of entomopathogenic Deuteromycetes to host insect cuticle. Applied Environ. Microbiol., 54: 1795-1805.
Direct Link  |  

72:  Holder, D.J. and N.O. Keyhani, 2005. Adhesion of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria (Cordyceps) bassiana to substrata. Applied Environ. Microbiol., 71: 5260-5266.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

73:  Gams, W. and M.R. McGinnis, 1983. Phialemonium, a new anamorph genus intermediate between Phialophora and Acremonium. Mycologia, 75: 977-987.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

74:  Perdomo, H., D.A. Sutton, D. Garcia, A.W. Fothergill and J. Gene et al., 2011. Molecular and phenotypic characterization of Phialemonium and Lecythophora isolates from clinical samples. J. Clin. Microbiol., 49: 1209-1216.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

75:  Burdsall, H.H. and W.E. Eslyn, 1974. A new Phanerochaete with a Chrysosporium imperfect state. Mycotaxon, 1: 123-133.
Direct Link  |  

76:  Lim, Y.W., K.S. Baik, J. Chun, K.H. Lee, W.J. Jung and K.S. Bae, 2007. Accurate delimitation of Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Phanerochaete sordida by specific PCR primers and cultural approach. J. Microbiol. Biotechnol., 17: 468-473.
Direct Link  |  

77:  Foschino, R., S. Gallina, C. Andrighetto, L. Rossetti and A. Galli, 2004. Comparison of cultural methods for the identification and molecular investigation of yeasts from sourdoughs for Italian sweet baked products. FEMS Yeast Res., 4: 609-618.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

78:  Akello, J.T., 2012. Biodiversity of fungal endophytes associated with maize, sorghum and Napier grass and their influence of biopriming on the resistance of leaf mining, stem boring and sap sucking insect pests. Ph.D. Thesis, University of Bonn, Germany.

79:  Fernandes, E.K.K., C.A. Keyser, J.P. Chong, D.E.N. Rangel, M.P. Miller and D.W. Roberts, 2010. Characterization of Metarhizium species and varieties based on molecular analysis, heat tolerance and cold activity. J. Applied Microbiol., 108: 115-128.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

80:  Ganley, R.J. and G. Newcombe, 2005. Fungal endophytes in seeds and needles of Pinus monticola. Mycol. Res., 110: 318-327.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

81:  Aldrich-Markham, S., G. Pirelli, and A.M. Craig, 2007. Endophyte toxins in grass seed fields and straw effects on livestock. EM8598-E, Oregon State University Extention Service. https://ir.library.oregonstate.edu/xmlui/bitstream/handle/1957/20568/em8598-e.pdf.

82:  Medic-Pap, S., M. Milosevic and S. Jasnic, 2007. Soybean seed-borne fungi in the Vojvodina province. Phytopathol. Polonica, 45: 55-65.
Direct Link  |  

83:  Rivero, M., A. Hidalgo, A. Alastruey-Izquierdo, M. Cia, L. Torroba and J.L. Rodriguez-Tudela, 2009. Infections due to Phialemonium species: Case report and review. Med. Mycol., 47: 766-774.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

84:  Rao, C.Y., C. Pachucki, S. Cali, M. Santhiraj and K.L.K. Krankoski et al., 2009. Contaminated product water as the source of Phialemonium curvatum bloodstream infection among patients undergoing hemodialysis. Inform. Control Hosp. Epidemiol., 30: 840-847.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

85:  Higginbotham, S.J., 2013. Direct Submission (22-OCT-2013). Plant Sciences, University of Arizona, 1140 E South Campus Drive, Forbes 303, Tucson, AZ 85721, USA.

86:  Higginbotham, S., W.R. Wong, R.G. Linington, C. Spadafora, L. Iturrado and A.E. Arnold, 2014. Sloth hair as a novel source of fungi with potent anti-parasitic, anti-cancer and anti-bacterial bioactivity. PloS ONE., Vol. 9.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

87:  Bishnoi, K., R. Kumar and N.R. Bishnoi, 2008. Biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by white rot fungi Phanerochaete chrysosporium in sterile and unsterile soil. J. Scient. Ind. Res., 67: 538-542.
Direct Link  |  

88:  Liang, Y. and D.C. Li, 2010. Taxonomic studies and molecular phylogeny of thermotolerant fungi. Department of Plant Pathology, Shandong Agricultural University, Tai'an, China.

89:  Suryanarayanan, T.S., 2013. Endophyte research: Going beyond isolation and metabolite documentation. Fungal Ecol., 6: 561-568.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

90:  Yan, J.F., S.J. Broughton, S.L. Yang and A.C. Gange, 2015. Do endophytic fungi grow through their hosts systemically?. Fungal Ecol., 13: 53-59.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

91:  Vidal, S. and L.R. Jaber, 2015. Entomopathogenic fungi as endophytes: Plant-endophyte-herbivore interactions and prospects for use in biological control. Curr. Sci., 109: 46-54.
Direct Link  |  

92:  Kerr, J.R., 1994. Suppression of fungal growth exhibited by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. J. Clin. Microbiol., 32: 525-527.
Direct Link  |  

93:  Lacey, L.A. and M.S. Goettel, 1995. Current developments in microbial control of insect pests and prospects for the early 21st century. Entomophaga, 40: 3-27.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

94:  Vega, F.E., P.F. Dowd, L.A. Lacey, J.K. Pell, D.M. Jackson and M.G. Klein, 2007. Dissemination of Beneficial Microbial Agents by Insects. In: Field Manual of Techniques in Invertebrate Pathology: Application and Evaluation of Pathogens for Control of Insects and Other Invertebrate Pests, Lacey, L.A. and H.K. Kaya (Eds.). Springer, Dordrecht, Netherlands, ISBN: 9789401715478, pp: 127-146

95:  Migiro, L.N., K.N. Maniania, A. Chabi-Olaye and J. Vandenberg, 2010. Pathogenicity of entomopathogenic fungi Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) isolates to the adult pea leafminer (Diptera: Agromyzidae) and prospects of an autoinoculation device for infection in the field. Environ. Entomol., 39: 468-475.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

96:  Van Du, P., L.C. Loan, N.D. Cuong, H. Van Nghiep and N.D. Thach, 2001. Survey on seed borne fungi and its effects on grain quality of common rice cultivars in the Mekong Delta. Omonrice, 9: 107-113.
Direct Link  |  

97:  McGee, D.C. and R.F. Nyvall, 1994. Soyabean seed health. Coorative Extension Service, Iowa State University of Science and Technology and the United States Department of Agriculture Cooparating. Distributed in Furtherance of the Acts of Congress of May 8 and June 30, 1914.

98:  Fraedrich, S.W. and M.M. Cram, 2011. Seed fungi. Conifer and Hardwood Diseases, Forest Nursery Pests, pp: 132-134. http://www.rngr.net/publications/forest-nursery-pests/conifer-and-hardwood-diseases/seed-fungi/at_download/file.

©  2021 Science Alert. All Rights Reserved