Gastrointestinal parasite becomes a serious threat to the livestock production
in the developing nations. Inspite of the development of anthelmintic resistance
in the parasites of higher economical significance, chemotherapy is still used
widely for the purpose of controlling the helminthes (Jabbar
et al., 2007). Helminthiasis which is caused by the helminthes infection
is proved to be a major constraint in the livestock production all around the
globe. As mentioned above, chemotherapeutics remain the corner stone for treating
the helminthiasis by overcoming certain factors such as chemical residues and
toxicity, increased cost, non-adaptability of drugs and non-availability in
the remote areas (Hussain et al., 2011).
For example, breeding of small ruminants plays as a widespread economic activity
in Northeastern Brazil. However, gastrointestinal nematode limits the production
by causing high mortality rates in herds during the rainy season. Epidemiological
investigations that were carried out in that region proved that sheep and goats
were infected completely by nematodes and that Haemonchus contortus was
found to be the most prevalent species. Synthetic anthelmintics were the only
soul source for the control of the gastrointestinal nematode by means of continuous
and intensive use in the recent decades. However, certain constraints like the
high cost of these drugs and the usual development of the nematode-resistant
populations, along with the risk of contamination of the animal products and
environment have lead to the search for control alternatives. The usage of medicinal
plants for the above problem is more acceptable from the ancient period since
they have the advantage of sustainable supply and are ecologically acceptable
(Oliveira et al., 2009).
Chenopodium album L. belonging to the Chenopodiaceae family has been
found to possess diuretic, laxative, sedative, hepatoprotective and antiparasitic
properties (Jabbar et al., 2007). The seeds of
Caesalpinia crista L. a member of the Fabaceae family are used to treat
asthma, chronic fever, cough, headache, stomach or bowel upset (Jabbar
et al., 2007). Trianthema portulacastrum L. belongs
to the Aizoaceae family and is used widely as anthelmintic vermifuge and antirhematitis,
alexiteric, analgesic and stomachic, laxative (Jabbar et
al., 2007). Musa paradisiaca L. of the Musaceae family
has been used traditionally to treat inflammation, rheumatism, gripe, diabetes,
hypertension, cough and bronchitis, antidote for snake bite, diarrhea (Hussain
et al., 2011). Cocos nucifera L. belongs to the Palmae family
and is used for the treatment of gastrointestinal parasitism (Oliveira
et al., 2009). Hedera helix L.of the Araliaceae family is
used to treat diseases of the gastrointestinal tract and gall-stones and for
the treatment of inflammations and burns, cough, neuralgia and rheumatism (Eguale
et al., 2007a). Concoctions obtained from the bark, roots and fruits
of Rapanea melanophloeos and Myrsine africana trees which are
members of the Myrsinaceae family have been widely used as anthelmintics in
humans and livestock (Githiori et al., 2002).
Albizia schimperiana of the Fabaceae family is known for its anthelmintic
properties (Githiori et al., 2002). Leucas
martinicensis of the Lamiaceae family is as an anthelmintic (vermifuge)
and also in the treatment of cancer, diarrhea and stomach pain (colic), schistosomiasis,
asthma (Githiori et al., 2002). Rumex abyssinicus
a member of the Polygonaceeae family is widely used in the treatment of headache,
hemorrhoid, ascaris, scabies, leprosy, fungal skin infection, wound, eczema
and soar throat and to control mild forms of diabetes. The decoction obtained
from the root or leaf powder of the plant is used as vermifuge (Githiori
et al., 2002). Leonotis ocymifolia of the Lamiaceae family
is used for the treatment of hook worm infection. Flowers and roots are used
against gout, leishmaniasis and cancer (Githiori et al.,
2002). Albizia gummifera belonging to the Fabaceae family
is used in the treatment of guinea-worm and as a vermifuge in children (Eguale
et al., 2011). Combretum molle of the Combretaceae family
is used to treat Human ailments, including abdominal discomfort, body pains,
respiratory disorders, colds and fevers, ear and eye ailments, schistosomiasis,
hookworms, dysmenorrhoea and infertility in women, leprosy, syphilis, microbial
infections and general body weakness (Ademola and Eloff,
2010). Brucea javanica a member of the Simaroubaceae family is used
for the treatment of cancer, amoebic dysentery and malaria (Wang
et al., 2011). Carica papaya is a member of the Caricaceae
family and the leaves of this plant are routinely consumed as food (Satrija
et al., 1995). Coriandrum sativum of the Apiaceae family
is used widely in the treatment of stomach ache, ascariasis and hepatitis in
human (Eguale et al., 2007b). Liquid waste from
Agave sisalana commonly known as sisal possess anthelmintic efficacy
(Botura et al., 2011). Khaya senegalensis
belonging to the Meliaceae family is used as an vermifuge, taenicide and
as antimicrobial agent (Ademola et al., 2004).
Paris polyphylla of the Lilaceae family is antifebrile, alexipharmic,
detumescent, demulcent, hemostatic and the treatment of hepatopathy (Wang
et al., 2010). Ocimum sanctum a member of the Lamiaceae is
widely used as an anthelmintic, expectorant, antipyretic, insecticidal and in
a variety of skin diseases (Asha et al., 2001).
Ficus species of the Moraceae family is a vermifuge (De
Amorin et al., 1999). Butea monosperma belongs to the Papilionaceae
family and its gum is being used as an astringent. The seeds of Butea monosperma
are used as laxative and anthelmintic; leaves and flowers are tonic, aphrodisiac
and diuretic (Prashanth et al., 2001). Artemisia
brevifolia of the Asteraceae family is used as an anthelmintic (Iqbal
et al., 2004). Pycnanthus angolensis a member of the Myristicaceae
family has been used as a haemostatic, an analgesic, anthelmintic, anti-inflammatory
and also in treating craw-craw and pneumonial infections (Gbolade
and Adeyemi, 2008). Sphenocentrum jollyanum of the Menispermaceae
family is used as an Analgesic, aphrodisiac and for treating cough and wounds
(Gbolade and Adeyemi, 2008). Ziziphus nummularia
of the Rhamnaceae family is being used as an analgesic (Bachaya
et al., 2009). Acacia nilotica belongs to the Fabaceae family
and has used widely as an astringent, insect repellent. Calotropis procera
a member of the Asclepiadaceae family is used as an expectorant, anti-helminthic,
laxative, purgative, anti-inflammatory and diuretic (Iqbal
et al., 2005). Azadirachta indica commonly known as neem,
a member of the Meliaceae family is used traditionally in treating indigestion,
tick infestation and toxemia (Iqbal et al., 2010).
Artemisia absinthium a well-known ornamental plant is used as
a vermifuge, an insecticide, in the treatment of chronic fevers and for inflammation
of the liver, as an antispasmodic and antiseptic, antipyretic, antiseptic, anthelmintic,
tonic and diuretic and for the treatment of stomach aches (Tariq
et al., 2009). Nauclea latifolia belongs to the Rubiaceae
family and is used widely to treat gastrointestinal worm infections, malaria,
fever, stomach ache and liver diseases (Onyeyili et al.,
2001). Zingiber officinale is a member of the Zingiberaceae family
and has been showed to be effective against arthritis, rheumatism, sprains,
muscular aches, pains, sore throats, cramps, constipation, indigestion, vomiting,
hypertension, dementia, fever, infectious diseases and helminthiasis (Iqbal
et al., 2006).
ANTHELMINTIC EFFECTS OF THE ABOVE MEDICINAL PLANTS
Chenopodium album L: Seed kernel and crude aqueous and methanolic
extract of the plant part have been used and tested against trichostrongylid
nematodes of sheep and tested for adult motility assay and egg hatch test. They
found that plant exhibited dose and time-dependent anthelmintic effects by causing
mortality of worms and inhibition of egg hatching (Jabbar
et al., 2007).
Caesalpinia crista L: Whole plant and crude aqueous and methanolic
extract, Trichostrongylid nematodes of sheep, adult motility assay and egg hatch
test, plant exhibited dose and time-dependent anthelmintic effects by causing
mortality of worms and inhibition of egg hatching (Jabbar
et al., 2007).
Trianthema portulacastrum L: Whole plant was extracted with crude
aqueous and methanol and the extracts are veteran adjacent to gastrointestinal
nematodes of sheep by adult motility assay and egg hatch test. The plant found
to contain dose and time dependent anthelmintic effects on live worms as well
as egg hatching (Hussain et al., 2011).
Musa paradisiaca L: Leaves of the plant was extorted aligned
with crude aqueous and methanol are investigated against sheep gastrointestinal
nematodes via adult motility assay and egg hatch test, dose and time dependent
anthelmintic effects were found on live worms as well as egg hatching (Hussain
et al., 2011).
Cocos nucifera L: Fruit of this plant was extracted with ethyl
acetate and tested on sheep nematodes by egg hatching and larval development
tests. These extract were found to contain 100% efficacy on egg hatching and
99.77% on larval development (Oliveira et al.,
Hedera helix L: Aqueous and hydro-alcoholic extracts of ripe
fruits were investigated against eggs and adult nematode parasites with faecal
egg count reduction, packed red cell volume and total worm count reduction.
Hydro-alcoholic extract illustrated better in vitro activity aligned
with adult parasites compared to the aqueous extract (Eguale
et al., 2007a).
Myrsine Africana: Aqueous extract of leaves and fruits of the
plant was checked with nematode parasite. The faecal nematode egg counts, packed
red cell volume, live weight were identified and concluded that it is not efficacious
against H. contortus in sheep (Githiori et
Rapanea melanophloeos: Fruits and aqueous extracts were tested
against nematode parasite and determined for faecal nematode egg counts, packed
red cell volume, live weight and found that no efficacious against H. contortus
in sheep (Githiori et al., 2002).
Albizia schimperiana oliv: Stem bark was extracted with crude
aqueous and hydro-alcohol and tested with eggs and larvae of Haemonchus contortus
species. Egg-hatching and larval development assay was conducted.
The extract found to induce the complete inhibition of egg hatching at concentration
less than or equal to 1 mg mL-1
(Eguale et al., 2011).
Leucas martinicensis (Jacq) R. Br; Rumex abyssinicus Jacq;
Leonotis ocymifolia (Burm. f.) Iwarsson: Crude aqueous and
hydro-alcoholic extracts of aerial parts of plants were tested against eggs
and larvae of Haemonchus contortus. The extracts were initiate complete
inhibition of egg hatching at concentration less than or equal to 1 mg mL-1
(Eguale et al., 2011).
Senna occidentalis (L.) Link (Eguale
et al., 2011); Combretum molle (R. Br. ex G. Don) (Ademola
and Eloff, 2010): Leaves and crude aqueous and hydro-alcoholic extracts
of these plants were tested against eggs and larvae of Haemonchus contortus.
Extracts were induced the complete inhibition of egg hatching at concentration
less than or equal to 1 mg mL-1 in
a concentration-dependent manner.
Combretum molle (R. Br. ex G. Don): Leaf and acetone extract,
Haemonchus contortus ova and larvae, egg hatch and larval a development
and viability assay in vitro, the extracts inhibited egg hatching and
development of the larvae of H. contortus in a concentration-dependent
manner (Ademola and Eloff, 2010).
Brucea javanica: Dried fruits of the plant with methanol were
extracted and tested against Dactylogyrus Intermedius (Monogenea) in
goldfish, Bruceine A and D found to exhibit significant activity against D.
intermedius than the positive control mebendazole (Wang
et al., 2011).
Carica papaya L: Papaya latex was checked adjacent to Heligmosomoides
polygyrus infections in mice. The papaya latex showed an antiparasitic efficacy
(Satrija et al., 1995).
Coriandrum sativum: Crude aqueous and hydro-alcoholic extracts
of the seeds were tartan against egg and adult nematode parasite. Faecal egg
count reduction (FECR) and Total Worm Count Reduction (TWCR) parameters were
checked. Both the extracts were found to inhibit the hatching of eggs completely
at a concentration less than 0.5 mg mL-1
(Eguale et al., 2007b).
Agave sisalana perr: Aqueous extract from sisal waste was tested
with gastrointestinal nematodes in goats and checked for Faecal Eggs Counts
(FECs), co-procultures and post-mortem worm counts. It showed low efficacy for
the parasitic stages and was moderately effective against eggs and free-living
stages. Furthermore, the treatment was not toxic to the goats (Botura
et al., 2011).
Khaya senegalensis: Bark and ethanolic and aqueous extracts were
experienced against gastrointestinal nematodes of sheep by a larval development
assay, The activity of the extract is identified as concentration dependent
in vivo (Ademola et al., 2004).
Paris polyphylla: Rhizome was extracted with methanol and checked
against Dactylogyrus intermedius, Dioscin and polyphyllin D exhibited
significant activity against D. intermedius (Wang
et al., 2010).
Ocimum sanctum: Essential oil from the plant was studied in Caenorhabditis
elegans model with microwell plate assay. The essential oil of O. sanctum
and eugenol showed potent anthelmintic activity (Asha
et al., 2001).
Ficus species: Latex was tested in NIH mice naturally infected
with Syphacia obvelata, Aspiculuris tetraptera and Vampirolepis
nana. The observed high acute toxicity with hemorrhagic enteritis, in addition
to a weak anthelmintic efficacy, does not recommend the use of these lattices
in traditional medicine (De Amorin et al.,
Butea monosperma: Seeds with methanol extract were deliberated
in Caenorhabditis elegans by microwell plate assay. The methanol extract
of B. monosperma seeds showed potent anthelmintic activity (Prashanth
et al., 2001).
Artemisia brevifolia: Crude aqueous and methanol extracts of
whole plant were studied in vitro Haemonchus contortus, in
vivo sheep naturally infected with mixed species of gastrointestinal nematodes.
It was found that, although, Artemisia brevifolia whole plant possesses
anthelmintic activity against nematodes, it is not comparable with levamisole
at any of the doses tried in this study (Iqbal et
Pycnanthus angolensis: Stem bark with chloroform and methanol
extract were tested against Eudrilus eugeniae by Petridish method. The
Methanolic extract of P. angolensis was found to be more active than
its chloroform extract (Gbolade and Adeyemi, 2008).
Sphenocentrum jollyanum: Ethanol extract of fruits and seeds
was checked with Eudrilus eugeniae using Petri-dish method. Fruit ethanolic
extract of S. jollyanum was found to be more potent than the seed extract
(Gbolade and Adeyemi, 2008).
Ziziphus nummularia, Acacia nilotica: Crude methanolic
extract of bark for Ziziphus nummularia and Fruit for Acacia nilotica
was studied adjacent to trichostrongylid nematodes of sheep by conducting adult
motility assay, egg hatch test and the larval development assay. This reveal
the dose and time-dependent anthelmintic effects (Bachaya
et al., 2009).
Calotropis procera Ait. F: Crude aqueous and methanolic extract
of flowers were tested with live Haemonchus (H.) contortus and
measured for egg count percent reduction and found to possess good anthelmintic
activity against nematodes (Iqbal et al.,
Azadirachta indica A. Juss: Aqueous and methanol extract of seed
part was checked with gastrointestinal nematodes of sheep and determined for
faecal egg count reduction and larval counts from co-procultures. Haemonchus
contortus and Trichostrongylus species were found to be susceptible
to the tested compound (Iqbal et al., 2010).
Artemisia absinthium: Aqueous and ethanol extracts of aerial
parts was verified with ovine nematodes. Worm motility inhibition and faecal
egg count reduction assays were performed and concluded that ethanol extract
to be more effective (Tariq et al., 2009)
Nauclea latifolia: Crude aqueous extract of the stem and bark
with ovine nematodes was assayed and illustrated for faecal egg count reduction.
The extract identified to improve haemoglobin and leucocytosis values in worm-infected
sheep (Onyeyili et al., 2001).
Zingiber officinale Roscoe: Crude Powder (CP) and Crude Aqueous
Extract (CAE) of dried ginger, gastrointestinal nematodes of sheep, Eggs Per
Gram (EPG) of faeces, Both CP and CAE exhibited a dose and a time-dependent
anthelmintic effect (Iqbal et al., 2006).
Medicinal plants were used from the ancient period for the treatment of the
above diseases but without knowing their actual mechanism and the compound that
is responsible for the curing action. But now, due to the advancement in the
research field there were many research studies conducted to reveal the power
of the plant and its compound in the treatment of the helmintic infection. Still,
further research study is needed to explore more plants for the treatment and
to reduce the cost of the synthetic anthelmintic drugs. The chemically provided
drugs are more costly and provide higher side effects when compared to the natural
drugs that are obtained from the plant source were cheaper and provide lesser
effect on the host organism. Hence, further study must be carried out to explore
the plant of higher efficiency and lesser side effect.