Composition of the Essential Oils of Salvia leriifolia Benth. Growing Wild in Around of Two Mine in Iran
The oils of the aerial parts of Salvia leriifolia Benth. collected from around of two mines (copper and iron) of Bardscan town in Kashmar city was analyzed by GC/MS, the oils obtained upon hydrodistillation were 0.28 and 0.35% on dry weight basis, respectively. As the result of analysis of the oils was identification of 32 constituents totaling 100% from the first oil (copper mine) and 12 components by 96.94% of other oil (iron mine). The main compounds were 1,8-cineole (20.04%), camphor (18.48%), α-pinene (16.49%) and camphene (10.94%) from copper mine and artemisia ketone (62.92%) and cubenol (9.35%) from iron mine. By comparing with previous studies, we obtained different results, that may be because of the effects of pollutant of minerals of mine areas.
Salvia is an important genus consisting about 900 species in the family
of Lamiaceae (Rechinger, 1982). Some species of Salvia
used in folk medicine for culinary purposes (Imanshahidi
and Hosseinzadeh, 2006). In this study, there are many references about
pharmacological effects of S. leriifolia as: sedative and hypnotic (Hosseinzadeh
and Imanshahidi, 1999) antihyperglycemic effect (Hosseinzadeh
et al., 1998) skeletal muscle relaxant (Hosseinzadeh
and Hassanzadeh, 2001), analgesic and anti-inflammatory (Hosseinzadeh
et al., 2003; Hosseinzadeh and Yavary, 1999),
anticonvulsant (Hosseinzadeh and Arabsanavi, 2001) neuroprotective
(Hosseinzadeh et al., 2002; Sadeghnia
et al., 2003; Khooei et al., 2003)
inhibition of opioid and withdrawal syndrome (Hosseinzadeh
and Lari, 2000) and anti-ulcer effect (Hosseinzadeh
et al., 2000). Salvia leriifolia named Noruzak in persian
and effect of ethanolic and aqueous extraction from roots of Noruzak was investigated
on lipids in global cerebral ischemia (Khooei et al.,
2003; Sadeghnia et al., 2003) and effect
of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of root of S. leriifolia has been shown
to decrease Ischemia-Reperfusion (I/R) injury in brain tissues on animal model
of I/R injury in the rat hind limb (Hosseinzadeh et al.,
2007). However, in recent years much attention has been directed to the
biological activity, water-soluble components in the dried root decoction of
the salvia plants (Imanshahidi and Hosseinzadeh,
2006). In vitro biological activity of S. leriifolia Benth.
essential oil relevant to the treatment of Alzheimers disease (Loizze
et al., 2009). Habibi et al. (2000)
reported structure and antibacterial activity of p6 new labdane diterpenoid
from S. leriifolia.
In this study the effects of natural tension, effects of copper and iron mines
on the constituents of the oils of Salvia leriifolia were studied and
compared with two only before considered as the blank (Rustaiyan
et al., 2000, 2007).
MATERIALS AND METHODS
The aerial parts of S. leriifolia Benth. were collected from 37 km
Bardscan town in Kashmar city names to Taknar copper and Southwest of Bardscan
town between Dlacan, Kale Asb, Aghel Kaftar mountains names to Dehzaman iron
in Korassan Razavi Province in Iran, in Spring 2007. The voucher specimens have
been deposited at the Herbarium of Agricultural Faculty in Ferdosi University
The oils of air-dried of aerial parts of S. leriifolia from copper
mine region (50 g), iron mine region (63 g) were obtained by hydrodistillation
method, Clevenger-type apparatus for 2.5 and 2 h, with yields 0.28% green and
0.35% yellow, respectively. The oils dried over anhydrous sodium sulphate.
GC analysis was performed using a Hewlett-Packard 6890 with HP-5MS column
(30 mx0.25 mm, film thickness 0.32 μm) and coupled with MS, HP-5973. The
injection temperature was 250°C. The oven temperature was kept at 60°C
for 2 min, promoted to 220°C at 6°C min-1 and kept constant
at 220°C for 2 min. The carrier gas was Helium (99.999%) in a flow rate
of 1 mL min-1. Ionization energy of MS were 70 eV.
Identification of the constituents of the oils were made by comparison of their
mass spectra and Retention Indices (RI) with those given in the literature and
those authentic samples (Adams, 1995).
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
The chemical composition of the oils of S. leriifolia can be seen in Table 1. Among the 32 compounds (100% of total percent) characterized from copper mines oil monoterpenes were dominant (34.87% hydrocarbon and 52.87% oxygenated monoterpenes) which 1,8-cineole (20.04%), camphor (18.48%), α-pinene (16.49%) and camphene (10.94%) were the main constituents and 12 compounds identified from iron mines oil (96.94% of total percent), oxygenated monoterpenes with artemisia ketone (62.92%) and cubenol (9.35%) as a sesquiterpene were the major ones.
There was only report about composition of the essential oil of S. leriifolia
(Rustaiyan et al., 2000) that hydrocarbon monoterpenes
were dominant and β-pinene (23.7%) 1,8-cineole (16.2%), α-pinene (13.8%)
and α-cadinol (9.0%) characterized as the main from 22 compounds. And in
the searching on internet, there was one abstract from the other work of Rustaiyans
teams that reported stem oil consisted mainly both monoterpenes (β-pinene
(19.0%)) and sesquiterpenes (germacrene-D (11.0%) and δ-cadinene (10.05%)
from 34 compounds by 92.4% total identified), while leaf and flower oils monoterpenes
(β-pinene (31.5%), 1,8-cineole (24.7%) and α- pinene (17.5%) in the
leaf among 30 components by 98.9% and γ-terpinene ( 62.2%) and para cymene
( 11.1%) in flowers oil from 27 compounds (95.9%)) predominated over sesquiterpenes
(Rustaiyan et al., 2007).
the composition of the oils of S. leriifolia (copper mine and iron
In comparing present results with two before mentioned references (Rustaiyan
et al., 2000, 2007) we can also see mainly
monoterpenes, but with different quality and quantity of the compounds, for
example β-pinene before found as the major in stem and leaf oils but now
in the oil of copper mine 1, 8-cineol as the major and in the oil of iron mine
artemisia ketone be the major and γ-terpinene in the flower oil of before
result was major (62.2%) but in present result only in the copper mine oil find
as a trace amount (0.48%), that may be because of different date and area of
harvesting or effects of pollutants minerals. Also, there were different results
within two mines (copper and iron), artemesia ketone (62.92%) was seen only
in the iron mines oil, while 1, 8-cineole (20.04%), camphor (18.48%),
α-pinene (16.9%) and camphene (10.94%) were majors in the copper mines
Imanshahidi and Hosseinzadeh (2006) noted that despite
of showing good pharmacological or therapeutic effects, there is still a need
for more precise studies to determine and separate the active compounds and
elucidate their mechanisms of action. So we conclude that, in spite of study
on the pollutant area and different results with others in quality and quantity
of compounds, this is not enough and the investigation must be continued to
expand knowledge about active compounds and on elucidation significant structures.
The authors would like to grateful the financial support provided by Research Council of Payame Noor University, Fateme Asadollahi for her help in collecting and Dr. Mohammad Reza Javaherchi for his help in identifying plant specimens.
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