Subscribe Now Subscribe Today
Mini Review
 

Origin, Distribution, Ethnobotany and Pharmacology of Jatropha curcas



Akhilesh Kumar and S.K. Tewari
 
Facebook Twitter Digg Reddit Linkedin StumbleUpon E-mail
ABSTRACT

Jatropha curcas L. (Euphorbiaceae) is a multipurpose perennial shrub/small tree, native to Mexico and Subtropical America, now grows naturally in most tropical areas of the world. It is an underutilized plant of multiple values. Various parts of the J. curcas are globally used for healthcare management of plants, human being and domesticated animals. Besides ethnomedicinal usages, this species have much other ethnobotanical, economic and ecological importance. Present review deals with origin and distribution, taxonomic description, ethnobotany, pharmacological activities, phytochemical properties and future prospective of this species.

Services
Related Articles in ASCI
Search in Google Scholar
View Citation
Report Citation

 
  How to cite this article:

Akhilesh Kumar and S.K. Tewari, 2015. Origin, Distribution, Ethnobotany and Pharmacology of Jatropha curcas. Research Journal of Medicinal Plants, 9: 48-59.

DOI: 10.3923/rjmp.2015.48.59

URL: https://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=rjmp.2015.48.59
 
Received: January 23, 2015; Accepted: April 25, 2015; Published: June 02, 2015



INTRODUCTION

The word ‘Jatropha’ is derived from Greek words ‘Jatros’ and ‘trope’ (food/nutrition) which implies medicinal uses. The genus Jatropha belongs to family Euphorbiaceae and subfamily Acalyphoideae and includes about 175 species. Jatropha curcas L. syn Curcas purgans Medik., Ricinus americanus Miller, Castiglionia lobata Ruiz. and Pavon. Jatropha edulis Cerv., J. acerifolia Salisb., Ricinus jarak Thunb., Curcas adansoni Endl., Curcas indica A. Rich. and Curcas curcas (L.) Britton and Millsp etc., are the most important species of the genus. Linnaeus classified the plant in 1753 and gave it the botanical name Jatropha curcas (Heller, 1996; Krishnan and Paramathma, 2009). It has 2n = 22 chromosomes (Soontornchainaksaeng and Jenjittikul, 2003; Jha et al., 2007; Carvalho et al., 2008). It is commonly known as physic nut, purging nut, barbados nut and nutmeg plant in English. Other vernacular names of J. curcas are pinhão manso, mundubi-assu (Brazil), pourghère (French), purgeernoot (Dutch), purgiernuss (German), purgeira, pinha˜o-manso (Portuguese), fagiola d’India (Italian), galamaluca (Mozambique), kadam (Nepal), yu-lu-tzu (Chinese), habel meluk (Arab), kananaeranda, parvataranda (Sanskrit), safed arand, bagbherenda, jangaliarandi, ratanjot (Hindi), mogalierenda, erandagachh, ranayerendi, jamalgota, nepalamu, peddanepalamu, kadalamannku, kattamankku, adaluharalu, karnocchi, kattavanaka, jahazigzba, bongalibhotorna, borbandong (various parts of India), sabudam (Thai), bagani (Ivory Coast) butuje funfun (Nigeria), makaen (Tanzania), piñoncillo (Mexico), tempate (Costa Rica) and piñon (Guatemala) (Anonymous, 1959; Heller, 1996; Carvalho et al., 2008; Brittaine and Lutaladio, 2010; Erinoso and Aworinde, 2012).

ORIGIN AND DISTRIBUTION

The origin of J. curcas remains controversial as it can be found over a wide range of countries in Central and South America. It is native to Central America but now grows naturally in most tropical areas of the world (Burkill, 1994; Heller, 1996; Openshaw, 2000; Fairless, 2007). Portuguese introduced J. curcas in Asia and Africa as an oil yielding plant. In India it occurs in wild, semi wild and cultivated state in almost all biogeographical zones from the coastal areas to the outer Himalayan ranges (Anonymous, 1959).

Morphological description: Jatropha curcas is a multipurpose perennial shrub/small tree of 3-6 m height. It may be evergreen or deciduous, depending on climate. It has a short tap root, robust laterals and many fine tertiary roots. The stem is woody, erect, cylindrical, solid and branched. Branches are stout, green and semi woody. Leaves are palmate and have 5-7 shallow lobes and are arranged in alternate with spiral phyllotaxis. Length and widths of leaves varies from 16-21 and 14-18 cm and are cauline and ramel, ex-stipulate, petiolate. Petioles are 12-19 cm long. Venation is multicostate, reticulate and divergent type (Anonymous, 1959; Singh, 1970; Heller, 1996; Raju and Ezradanam, 2002; Bhattacharya et al., 2005; Achten et al., 2008; Brittaine and Lutaladio, 2010).

Jatropha atropha curcas is monoecious and the terminal inflorescences contain unisexual greenish yellow 17-105 male and 2-19 female flowers in loose panicle of cymes. The ratio of male to female flowers ranges from 13:1 to 29:1. The inflorescence is composed by a main florescence and a distinct coflorescence. There are nodes on the upper pedicels of male (staminate) flowers and no node on the upper pedicels of female (pistillate) flowers. The flowers are tiny (about 7 mm), unisexual, regular, petals are oblong and light green in colour and sepals are quinquepartite. Androecium is absent in female flower, present in male flower with ten stamens. Stigma are six furcated, dorsifixed and introrse. Gynoecium is absent in male flowers but present in female flowers and is tricarpellary, syncarpous with trilocular and superior ovary. Flowers are pollinated by moths and bees. Fruits trilocullar, ellipsoidal, sudrupaceous. The exocarp remains fleshy until the seeds become mature, finally separating into three cocci. The fruit is 2.5-3.5 cm long to 2-2.5 cm wide. Seeds are black, oblong, 2.5-3 cm long and 1 cm thick, more or less spherical or ellipsoidal (Fig. 1). Seed weight (10 seed) ranges from 53-77 g which contains 13.06-42.41% oil content.

ETHNOBOTANY AND ECONOMIC BOTANY

Jatropha curcas is emerging as an interesting multipurpose species within academic, civil society and policy makers. The seed oil can be easily converted into liquid biofuel which meets the American and European standards (Azam et al., 2005; Fairless, 2007; Tiwari et al., 2007). Various parts of J. curcas can be used for healthcare management of plants, animals and human being (Table 1). Besides biofuels and healthcare management, J. curcas is also useful to control soil erosion and improved water infiltration, to reclaim wasteland, phytoremediation of various contaminated soils, livestock barrier and land demarcation or live fence around agricultural fields, fuel wood and support for vanilla, green manure, soil carbon sequestration and sustainable environmental development. Other economic products obtained from various parts of J. curcas are glycerol, soap, cosmetics, varnish, dye, molluscicide, pesticide, fertilizer, synthesis of silver nano-particles (Heller, 1996; Mangkoedihardjo and Surahmaida, 2008; Bar et al., 2009; Jamil et al., 2009; Sharma and Pandey, 2009; Agamuthu et al., 2010; Brittaine and Lutaladio, 2010; Pandey et al., 2012; Warra, 2012).

Image for - Origin, Distribution, Ethnobotany and Pharmacology of Jatropha curcas
Fig. 1(a-h):
Morphology of Jatropha curcas L., (a) Plant having leaves and fruits, (b) Stem, (c) Leaves, (d) Flower, (e) Immature fruits, (f) Mature fruits, (g) Seeds and (h) Crude seed oil

Seeds are toxic for human (Kulkarni et al., 2005) and animal and are used as ordeal poisons for internal use in Africa (De Smet, 1998). Seed cake may also be used for human consumption after treatment (Schuh and Schuh, 2012).

Table 1: Traditional medicinal uses of various parts of Jatropha curcas L.
Image for - Origin, Distribution, Ethnobotany and Pharmacology of Jatropha curcas

PHARMACOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES

Anti-bacterial activity: Acetone, chloroform, ethanol and methanol extracts of J. curcas root bark has been reported to inhibit the growth of both gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus) and gram negative bacteria like Klebsiella pneumonia, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli (Naqvi et al., 1991; Muanza et al., 1994; Tona et al., 1999; Sundari et al., 2011).

Anti-fungal activity: Various plant parts of J. curcas have antifungal activity against Aspergillus fumigatus, A. flavus, A. niger, Bacillus subtillis, Phymatotrichopsis omnivora, Candida albicans etc. which are responsible for many diseases in human being and plants (Naqvi et al., 1991; Muanza et al., 1994; Kubmarawa et al., 2007; Hu et al., 2011; Sundari et al., 2011).

Antiviral activity: The water extract of the branches of J. curcas strongly inhibit the HIV-induced cytopathic effects with low cytotoxicity (Matsuse et al., 1999). Latex of J. curcas possesses inhibitory property against Water melon mosaic virus (Tewari and Shukla, 1982).

Anti-inflammatory activity: Topical application of J. curcas root powder in paste form in mice and rats has been reported to possess anti-inflammatory activity by Mujumdar and Misar (2004).

Anti-oxidant activity: Root bark extract of J. curcas were capable of scavenging hydroxyl in a concentration dependent manner and have a stronger hydroxyl scavenging activity of compared with ascorbic acid (Sundari et al., 2011).

Coagulant and anticoagulant activities: Latex is a blood coagulant whereas dilute latex is anticoagulant. Curcin from seed produces deleterious effects to the blood (Osoniyi and Onajobi, 2003).

Anti-diarrhoeal activity: The petroleum ether and methanol extract of J. curcas roots shows anti-diarrhoeal activity in various species of albino mice (Mujumdar et al., 2000).

Pregnancy terminating effect: Pregnancy terminating effect of methanol, petroleum ether and dichloromethane extracts extract of J. curcas fruits in rats have been scientific reported by Goonasekera et al. (1995).

Wound healing activity: Wound healing activities of stem bark of J. curcas has been reported in literature (Villegas et al., 1997; Shetty et al., 2006; Igbinosa et al., 2009). Sachdeva et al. (2011) had scientifically evaluated wound healing potential of white soft paraffin base ointment containing 5 and 10% (w/w) extract of stem bark of J. curcas using incision and excision wound model in albino rats.

Insecticidal, larvicidal and anthelmintic activity: Various plant parts of J. curcas have been reported to possess insecticidal and larvicidal and anthelmintic activity. Insect pests of stored grains (Sitophilus zeamais and Rhyzorpertha dominica) are susceptible to seeds and pericarps of J. curcas (Silva et al., 2012). Ethanol extract of leaves of J. curcas may be as useful for developing a safe and ecofriendly therapeutic agent to combat the problems of tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus and tick-borne diseases (Juliet et al., 2012). Jatropha curcas is a potential source of herbal mosquito control agent. Larvicidal activities methanol extract of leaves, crude protein extract and purified toxin, Jc-SCRIP, from the seed coat of J. curcas has the larvicidal potential against Aedes aegypti, Anopheles arabiensis, Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus (Karmegam et al., 1997; Rahuman et al., 2008; Sakthivadivel and Daniel, 2008; Aina et al., 2009; Cantrell et al., 2011; Tomass et al., 2011; Kovendan et al., 2011; Nuchsuk et al., 2012). Aqueous extract of leaves of J. curcas possesses anthelmintic activity against Pheritima poshtuma (Ahirrao et al., 2008, 2011).

Phytochemicals: The leaf, bark and latex of Jatropha contains alkaloids such as jatrophine, jatropham, curcacycline A, curcain, tannins, glycosides, flavonoids and sapogenins with anti-cancerous properties (Van den Berg et al., 1995; Thomas et al., 2008; Debnath and Bisen, 2008). The seeds of J. curcas contains some toxic compounds such a protein (curcin) and phorbol-esters diterpenoids (King et al., 2009). The diterpenes isolated from Jatropha species belongs to rhamnofolane, daphnane, lathyrane, tigliane, dinorditerpene, deoxy preussomerin and pimarane skeletal structures and the majority of the diterpenes exhibited cytotoxic, antitumor and antimicrobial activities in vitro. Jatrophone, spruceanol and jatrophatrione exhibited antitumor properties against P338 lymphocytic leukaemia and japodagrol against KB carcinoma cells. Curcusone exhibited anti-invasive effects against cholangiocarcinoma cells. The phorbol esters (Jatropha factor C1-C6) and jatropherol exhibited insect deterrent/cytotoxic properties. Jatrophalactam, faveline derivatives, multifolone, curcusone, jatrophone derivatives etc. have shown in vitro cytotoxic activity. Japodagrin, jatrogrossidione derivatives and jatropholone derivatives exhibited antimicrobial activities. Jatropha diterpenoids having a wide spectrum of bioactivity could form lead compounds or could be used as templates for the synthesis of new compounds with better biological activity for utilization in the pharmaceutical industries (Devappa et al., 2011). Three deoxypreussomerins, palmarumycins CP1, JC1 and JC2, have been isolated from the stems of J. curcas (Ravindranath et al., 2004) which possess a wide range of biological properties including antibacterial, antifungal, herbicidal, antibiotic and antitumor activities (Wipf et al., 2001). Jatropha curcas seed oil chemically consists of triacylglycerol with linear fatty acid chain. Palmitic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid and linoleic acid, lauric acid, meristic acid, arachidic acid, arachidonic acid and behenic acid are some important fatty acids present in J. curcas seed oil (Adebowale and Adedire, 2006; De Oliveira et al., 2009). Li et al. (2010) identified a new chemical compound jatrophasin A (3,4,4’,5’-tetrahydroxyl-3’-methoxyl-bisepoxylignan) with strong anti-oxidative activity from the seeds of J. curcas.

CONCLUSION

Large scale seed production of J. curcas remains the single most important issue that will ultimately decide the success of this crop at commercial level. High seed productivity and oil content are desired for commercial utilization of this crop for biofuel production. The challenges of developing viable market for J. curcas are as follows:

Besides biofuel, research on medicinal, plant protecting and other economic potential of various plant parts of J. curcas for development of new pharmaceuticals and plant protectants of herbal origin
Economic analysis of the biogas production potential of husk and seed cake
Economic analysis of fertilizer value of the seed cake
Identification of sufficient quantity and quality of available land for large scale commercial cultivation of J. curcas which do not compete with food production
Identification of suitable accessions of J. curcas for various types of degraded lands and agro climatic zones
Identification of suitable practice of packages (irrigation, nutrient management requirement and optimum use of organic, chemical and/or biofertilizer etc.) for cultivation of J. curcas in various types of degraded lands and agro climatic zones
Practice of apiculture in J. curcas field to promote pollination resulting good seed yield
Though influence of pruning on growth and dry mass partitioning has been analyzed by Rajaona et al. (2011) but its effect on seed yields has yet to be analyzed
Intercropping of J. curcas with non edible crops like essential oils to increase income per unit land area
Building agencies to facilitate trade of seed between smallholder farmers and industries using the seed for oil extraction and processing for production of value added products including biodiesel
Increasing investment in Jatropha research projects for development of pharmaceutical and plant protectants (insecticide and pesticide for crops and stored grains) along with projects ensuring commercial seed production on various types of waste land and efficient seed oil extraction methods
Economic analysis of use of seed oil for agricultural instruments (tube well, tractors etc.), lighting and soap production in rural areas
Socioeconomic studies on how J. curcas can aid development in rural areas

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

Authors are thankful to the director, CSIR-National Botanical Research Institute for providing necessary facilities.

REFERENCES

1:  Achten, W.M.J., L. Verchot, Y.J. Franken, E. Mathijs, V.P. Singh, R. Aerts and B. Muys, 2008. Jatropha bio-diesel production and use. Biomass Bioenergy, 32: 1063-1084.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

2:  Adebowale, K.O. and C.O. Adedire, 2006. Chemical composition and insecticidal properties of underutilized Jatropha curcas seed oil. Afr. J. Biotechnol., 5: 901-906.
Direct Link  |  

3:  Agamuthu, P., O.P. Abioye and A.A. Aziz, 2010. Phytoremediation of soil contaminated with used lubricating oil using Jatropha curcas. J. Hazard. Mater., 179: 891-894.
CrossRef  |  PubMed  |  Direct Link  |  

4:  Ahirrao, R.A., M.R. Patel, H. Sayyed, J.K. Patil, H.P. Suryawanshi and S.A. Tadavi, 2011. In vitro anthelmintic property of various herbal plants extracts against Pheritima posthuma. Pharmacologyonline, 2: 542-547.

5:  Ahirrao, R.A., S.P. Pawar, L.B. Borse, S.L. Borse, S.G. Desai and A.K. Muthu, 2008. Anthelmintic activity of leaves of Jatropha circus linn and Vitex negundo Linn. Pharmacol. Newslett., 1: 279-293.
Direct Link  |  

6:  Aina, S.A., A.D. Banjo, O.A. Lawal and K. Jonathan, 2009. Efficacy of some plant extracts on Anopheles gambiae mosquito larvae. Acad. J. Entomol., 2: 31-35.
Direct Link  |  

7:  Ambasta, S.P., 1986. The Useful Plants of India. 1st Edn., CSIR Publication, New Delhi, India, ISBN: 81-85038-02-3, Pages: 238

8:  Anonymous, 1959. The Wealth of India-Raw Material. Vol. 4, CSIR, New Delhi, pp: 293-297

9:  Azam, M.M., A. Waris and N.M. Nahar, 2005. Prospects and potential of fatty acid methyl esters of some non-traditional seed oils for use as biodiesel in India. Biomass Bioenergy, 29: 293-302.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

10:  Bar, H., D.K. Bhui, G.P. Sahoo, P. Sarkar, S.P. De and A. Misra, 2009. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using latex of Jatropha curcas. Colloids Surfaces A: Physicochem. Eng. Aspects, 339: 134-139.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

11:  Baral, S.R. and P.P. Kurmi, 2006. A Compendium of Medicinal Plants in Nepal. Rachana Shrama Publication, Kathmandu, ISBN-13: 9789994620272, Pages: 534

12:  Bhattacharya, A., K. Datta and S.K. Datta, 2005. Floral biology, floral resource constraints and pollination limitation in Jatropha curcas L. Pak. J. Biol. Sci., 8: 456-460.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

13:  Brittaine, R. and N. Lutaladio, 2010. Jatropha: A Smallholder Bioenergy Crop: The Potential for Pro-Poor Development. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy, ISBN-13: 9789251064382, Pages: 96

14:  Burkill, H.M., 1994. The Useful Plants of West Tropical Africa. (Families E-J). Royal Botanical Gardens, Kew, pp: 90-94

15:  Cantrell, C.L., A. Ali, S.O. Duke and I. Khan, 2011. Identification of mosquito biting deterrent constituents from the Indian folk remedy plant Jatropha curcas. J. Med. Entomol., 48: 836-845.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

16:  Cartaxo, S.L., M.M.A. Souza and U.P. de Albuquerque, 2010. Medicinal plants with bioprospecting potential used in semi-arid northeastern Brazil. J. Ethnopharmacol., 131: 326-342.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

17:  Carvalho, C.R., W.R. Clarindo, M.M. Praca, F.S. Araujo and N. Carels, 2008. Genome size, base composition and karyotype of Jatropha curcas L., an important biofuel plant. Plant Sci., 174: 613-617.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

18:  Chowdhury, M.S.H. and M. Koike, 2010. Towards exploration of plant-based ethno-medicinal knowledge of rural community: Basis for biodiversity conservation in Bangladesh. New For., 40: 243-260.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

19:  De Oliveira, J.S., P.M. Leite, L.B. de Souza, V.M. Mello and E.C. Silva et al., 2009. Characteristics and composition of Jatropha gossypiifolia and Jatropha curcas L. oils and application for biodiesel production. Biomass Bioenergy, 33: 449-453.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

20:  De Smet, P.A., 1998. Traditional pharmacology and medicine in Africa: Ethnopharmacological themes in sub-Saharan art objects and utensils. J. Ethnopharmacol., 63: 1-175.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

21:  Debnath, M. and P.S. Bisen, 2008. Jatropha curcas L., a multipurpose stress resistant plant with a potential for ethnomedicine and renewable energy. Curr. Pharm. Biotechnol., 9: 288-306.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

22:  Deshmukh, R.R., V.N. Rathod and V.N. Pardeshi, 2011. Ethnoveterinary medicine from Jalna district of Maharashtra state. Indian J. Traditional Knowledge, 10: 344-348.
Direct Link  |  

23:  Devappa, R.K., H.P.S. Makkar and K. Becker, 2011. Jatropha diterpenes: A review. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc., 3: 301-322.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

24:  Erinoso, S.M. and D.O. Aworinde, 2012. Ethnobotanical survey of some medicinal plants used in traditional health care in Abeokuta areas of Ogun State, Nigeria. Afr. J. Pharm. Pharmacol., 6: 1352-1362.
Direct Link  |  

25:  Fairless, D., 2007. Biofuel: The little shrub that could-maybe. Nature, 449: 652-655.
CrossRef  |  

26:  Goonasekera, M.M., V.K. Gunawardana, K. Jayasena, S.G. Mohammed and S. Balasubramaniam, 1995. Pregnancy terminating effect of Jatropha curcas in rats. J. Ethnopharmacol., 47: 117-123.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

27:  Grade, J.T., J.R.S. Tabuti and P. van Damme, 2009. Ethnoveterinary knowledge in pastoral Karamoja, Uganda. J. Ethnopharmacol., 122: 273-293.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

28:  Heller, J., 1996. Physic nut Jatropha curcas Linn, promoting the conservation and use of underutilized and neglected crops. Ph.D. Thesis, Institute of Plant Genetics and Crops Plant Research, Gatersleben International Plant Genetics Resource, Institute, Rome, Italy.

29:  Hu, P., A.S. Wang, A.S. Engledow, E.B. Hollister and K.L. Rothlisberger et al., 2011. Inhibition of the germination and growth of Phymatotrichopsis omnivora (cotton root rot) by oilseed meals and isothiocyanates. Applied Soil Ecol., 49: 68-75.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

30:  Idu, M., O. Timothy, H.I. Onyibe and A.O. Comor, 2009. Comparative morphological and anatomical studies on the leaf and stem of some medicinal plants: Jatropha curcas L. and Jatropha tanjorensis JL Ellis and Saroja (Euphorbiaceae). Ethnobotanical Leafl., 13: 1232-1239.
Direct Link  |  

31:  Igbinosa, O.O., E.O. Igbinosa and O.A. Aiyegoro, 2009. Antimicrobial activity and phytochemical screening of stem bark extracts from Jatropha curcas (Linn). Afr. J. Pharm. Pharmacol., 3: 58-62.
Direct Link  |  

32:  Jamil, S., P.C. Abhilash, N. Singh and P.N. Sharma, 2009. Jatropha curcas: A potential crop for phytoremediation of coal fly ash. J. Hazard. Mater., 172: 269-275.
CrossRef  |  

33:  Jha, T.B., P. Mukherjee and M.M. Datta, 2007. Somatic embryogenesis in Jatropha curcas Linn., an important biofuel plant. Plant Biotechnol. Rep., 1: 135-140.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

34:  Juliet, S., R. Ravindran, S.A. Ramankutty, A.K.K. Gopalan and S.N. Nair et al., 2012. Jatropha curcas (Linn) leaf extract-a possible alternative for population control of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus. Asian Pacific J. Trop. Dis., 2: 225-229.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

35:  Kovendan, K., K. Murugan, S. Vincent and S. Kamalakannan, 2011. Larvicidal efficacy of Jatropha curcas and bacterial insecticide, Bacillus thuringiensis, against lymphatic filarial vector, Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae). Parasitol. Res., 109: 1251-1257.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

36:  Karmegam, N., M. Sakthivadivel, V. Anuradha and T. Daniel, 1997. Indigenous-plant extracts as larvicidal agents against Culex quinquefasciatus say. Bioresour. Technol., 59: 137-140.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

37:  King, A.J., W. He, J.A. Cuevas, M. Freudenberger, D. Ramiaramanana and I.A. Graham, 2009. Potential of Jatropha curcas as a source of renewable oil and animal feed. J. Exp. Bot., 60: 2897-2905.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

38:  Krishnan, P.R. and M. Paramathma, 2009. Potentials and Jatropha species wealth of India. Curr. Sci., 97: 1000-1004.
Direct Link  |  

39:  Kubmarawa, D., G.A. Ajoku, N.M. Enwerem and D.A. Okorie, 2007. Preliminary phytochemical and antimicrobial screening of 50 medicinal plants from Nigeria. Afr. J. Biotechnol., 6: 1690-1696.
Direct Link  |  

40:  Kulkarni, M.L., H. Sreekar, K.S. Keshavamurthy and N. Shenoy, 2005. Jatropha curcas-poisoning. Indian J. Pediatr., 72: 75-76.

41:  Kunwar, R.M., Y. Uprety, C. Burlakoti, C.L. Chowdhary and R.W. Bussmann, 2009. Indigenous use and ethnopharmacology of medicinal plants in far-West Nepal. Ethnobot. Res. Applic., 7: 5-28.
Direct Link  |  

42:  Lans, C., 2007. Comparison of plants used for skin and stomach problems in Trinidad and Tobago with Asian ethnomedicine. J. Ethnobiol. Ethnomed., Vol. 3.
CrossRef  |  

43:  Lans, C., T. Harper, K. Georges and E. Bridgewater, 2001. Medicinal and ethnoveterinary remedies of hunters in Trinidad. Complement. Altern. Med., Vol. 1.
CrossRef  |  

44:  Li, L., X.L. Wang, X.F. Li and N.L. Wang, 2010. A new compound with anti-oxidative activity from seeds of Jatropha curcas. Chin. Herbal Med., 2: 245-247.

45:  Longuefosse, J.L. and E. Nossin, 1996. Medical ethnobotany survey in Martinique. J. Ethnopharmacol., 53: 117-142.
CrossRef  |  

46:  Luseba, D. and D. Van der Merwe, 2006. Ethnoveterinary medicine practices among Tsonga speaking people of South Africa. Onderstepoort J. Vet. Res., 73: 115-122.
Direct Link  |  

47:  Manandhar, N.P., 2002. Plants and People of Nepal. Timber Press, Portland, USA., ISBN-13: 978-0881925272, Pages: 636

48:  Mangkoedihardjo, S. and Surahmaida, 2008. Jatropha curcas L. for phytoremediation of lead and cadmium polluted soil. World Applied Sci. J., 4: 519-522.
Direct Link  |  

49:  Matsuse, T.I., Y.A. Limb, M. Hattori, M. Correa and M.P. Gupta, 1999. A search for anti-viral properties in panamanian medicinal plants. The effects on HIV and its essential enzymes. J. Ethnopharmacol., 64: 15-22.

50:  McGaw, L.J. and J.N. Eloff, 2008. Ethnoveterinary use of southern African plants and scientific evaluation of their medicinal properties. J. Ethnopharmacol., 119: 559-574.
CrossRef  |  PubMed  |  Direct Link  |  

51:  Mesfin, A., M. Giday, A. Animut and T. Teklehaymanot, 2012. Ethnobotanical study of antimalarial plants in Shinile District, Somali Region, Ethiopia and in vivo evaluation of selected ones against Plasmodium berghei. J. Ethnopharmacol., 139: 221-227.
CrossRef  |  

52:  Moshi, M.J., D.F. Otieno and A. Weisheit, 2012. Ethnomedicine of the Kagera Region, North Western Tanzania. Part 3: Plants used in traditional medicine in Kikuku village, Muleba District. J. Ethnobiol. Ethnomed., Vol. 8.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

53:  Muanza, D.N., B.W. Kim, K.L. Euler and L. Williams, 1994. Antibacterial and antifungal activities of nine medicinal plants from Zaire. Int. J. Pharmacogn., 32: 337-345.
CrossRef  |  

54:  Mujumdar, A.M. and A.V. Misar, 2004. Anti-inflammatory activity of Jatropha curcas roots in mice and rats. J. Ethnopharmacol., 90: 11-15.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

55:  Mujumdar, A.M., A.S. Upadhye and A.V. Misar, 2000. Studies on antidiarrhoeal activity of Jatropha curcas root extract in albino mice. J. Ethnopharmacol., 70: 183-187.

56:  Namsa, N.D., H. Tag, M. Mandal, P. Kalita and A.K. Das, 2009. An ethnobotanical study of traditional anti-inflammatory plants used by the Lohit community of Arunachal Pradesh, India. J. Ethnopharmacol., 125: 234-245.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

57:  Naqvi, S.A.H., M.S.Y. Khan and S.B. Vohora, 1991. Antibacterial, antifungal and anthelmintic investigations on Indian medicinal plants. Fitoterapia, 62: 221-228.
Direct Link  |  

58:  Nath, K.K., P. Deka and S.K. Borthakur, 2011. Traditional remedies of Joint diseases in Assam. Indian J. Tradit. Knowledge, 10: 568-571.
Direct Link  |  

59:  Nuchsuk, C., N. Wetprasit, S. Roytrakul and S. Ratanapo, 2012. Larvicidal activity of a toxin from the seeds of Jatropha curcas Linn. against Aedes aegypti Linn. and Culex quinquefasciatus say. Trop. Biomed., 29: 286-296.
Direct Link  |  

60:  Offiah, N.V., S. Makama, I.L. Elisha, M.S. Makoshi and J.G. Gotep et al., 2011. Ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants used in the treatment of animal diarrhoea in Plateau State, Nigeria. BMC Vet. Res., Vol. 7.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

61:  Openshaw, K., 2000. A review of Jatropha curcas: An oil plant of unfulfilled promise. Biomass Bioenergy, 19: 1-15.
CrossRef  |  

62:  Osoniyi, O. and F. Onajobi, 2003. Coagulant and anticoagulant activities in Jatropha curcas latex. J. Ethnopharmacol., 89: 101-105.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

63:  Pandey, V.C., K. Singh, J.S. Singh, A. Kumar, B. Singh and R.P. Singh, 2012. Jatropha curcas: A potential biofuel plant for sustainable environmental development. Renewable Sustainable Energy Rev., 16: 2870-2883.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

64:  Pragada, P.M. and G.M.N. Rao, 2012. Ethnoveterinary medicinal practices in tribal regions of Andhra Pradesh, India. Bangladesh J. Plant Taxon., 19: 7-16.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

65:  Rahuman, A.A., G. Gopalakrishnan, P. Venkatesan and K. Geetha, 2008. Larvicidal activity of some Euphorbiaceae plant extracts against Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae). Parasitol. Res., 102: 867-873.
CrossRef  |  

66:  Rajaona, A.M., H. Brueck and F. Asch, 2011. Effect of pruning history on growth and dry mass partitioning of Jatropha on a plantation site in Madagascar. Biomass Bioenergy, 35: 4892-4900.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

67:  Raju, A.J.S. and V. Ezradanam, 2002. Pollination ecology and fruiting behaviour in a monoecious species, Jatropha curcas L. (Euphorbiaceae). Curr. Sci., 83: 1395-1398.
Direct Link  |  

68:  Ravindranath, N., M.R. Reddy, G. Mahender, R. Ramu, K. Ravi Kumar and B. Das, 2004. Deoxypreussomerins from Jatropha curcas: Are they also plant metabolites? Phytochemistry, 65: 2387-2390.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

69:  Sachdeva, K., P. Garg, M. Singhal and B. Srivastava, 2011. Wound healing potential of extract of Jatropha curcas L. (Stem bark) in rats. Pharmacogn. J., 3: 67-72.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

70:  Saikia, A.P., V.K. Ryakala, P. Sharma, P. Goswami and U. Bora, 2006. Ethnobotany of medicinal plants used by Assamese people for various skin ailments and cosmetics. J. Ethnopharmacol., 106: 149-157.
CrossRef  |  PubMed  |  Direct Link  |  

71:  Sakthivadivel, M. and T. Daniel, 2008. Evaluation of certain insecticidal plants for the control of vector mosquitoes viz. Culex quinquefasciatus, Anopheles stephensi and Aedes aegypti. Applied Entomo. Zool., 43: 57-63.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

72:  Schuh, A.J. and P.A. Schuh, 2012. Production of human food from Jatropha and other biologicals. Patent No. US 8137717 B1, March 20, 2012. http://www.google.com/patents/US8137717.

73:  Sharma, D.K. and A.K. Pandey, 2009. Use of Jatropha curcas hull biomass for bioactive compost production. Biomass Bioenergy, 33: 159-162.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

74:  Shetty, S., S.L. Udupa, A.L. Udupa and V.R. Vollala, 2006. Wound healing activities of Bark Extract of Jatropha curcas Linn in albino rats. Saudi Med. J., 27: 1473-1476.
Direct Link  |  

75:  Silva, G.N., L.R.A. Faroni, A.H. Sousa and R.S. Freitas, 2012. Bioactivity of Jatropha curcas L. to insect pests of stored products. J. Stored Prod. Res., 48: 111-113.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

76:  Singh, R.P., 1970. Structure and development of seeds in Euphorbiaceae, Jatropha species. Beitrage Biologie Pflanzen, 47: 79-90.

77:  Soontornchainaksaeng, P. and T. Jenjittikul, 2003. Karyology of Jatropha (Euphorbiaceae) in Thailand. Thai For. Bull. (Bot.), 31: 105-112.
Direct Link  |  

78:  Srivastava, A., S.P. Patel, R.K. Mishra, R.K. Vashistha, A. Singh and A.K. Puskar, 2012. Ethnomedicinal importance of the plants of Amarkantak region, Madhya Pradesh, India. Int. J. Med. Aromat. Plants, 2: 53-59.
Direct Link  |  

79:  Sundari, J., R. Selvaraj and N.R. Prasad, 2011. Antimicrobial and antioxidant potential of root bark extracts from Jatropha curcas (Linn). J. Pharmacy Res., 4: 3743-3746.

80:  Tabuti, J.R.S., S.S. Dhillion and K.A. Lye, 2003. Ethnoveterinary medicines for cattle (Bos indicus) in Bulamogi county, Uganda: Plant species and mode of use. J. Ethnopharmacol., 88: 279-286.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

81:  Tangjang, S., N.D. Namsa, C. Aran and A. Litin, 2011. An ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants in the Eastern Himalayan zone of Arunachal Pradesh, India. J. Ethnopharmacol., 134: 18-25.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

82:  Tewari, J.P. and I.K. Shukla, 1982. Inhibition of infectivity of two strains of watermelon mosaic virus by latex of some angiosperms. Geobios, 9: 124-126.

83:  Thomas, R., N.K. Sah and P.B. Sharma, 2008. Therapeutic biology of Jatropha curcas: A mini review. Curr. Pharm. Biotechnol., 9: 315-324.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

84:  Tiwari, A.K., A. Kumar and H. Raheman, 2007. Biodiesel production from jatropha oil (Jatropha curcas) with high free fatty acids: An optimized process. Biomass Bioenergy, 31: 569-575.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

85:  Tomass, Z., M. Hadis, A. Taye, Y. Mekonnen and B. Petros, 2011. Larvicidal effects of Jatropha curcas L. against Anopheles arabiensis (Diptera: Culicidea). Momona Ethiopian J. Sci., 3: 52-64.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

86:  Tona, L., K. Kambu, K. Mesia, K. Cimanga and S. Apers et al., 1999. Biological screening of traditional preparations from some medicinal plants used as antidiarrhoeal in Kinshasa, Congo. Phytomedicine, 6: 59-66.
CrossRef  |  PubMed  |  Direct Link  |  

87:  Umapriya, T., A. Rajendran, V. Aravindhan, B. Thomas and M. Maharajan, 2011. Ethnobotany of Irular tribe in Palamalai Hills, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu. Indian J. Nat. Prod. Resour., 2: 250-255.
Direct Link  |  

88:  Upadhyay, B., Parveen, A.K. Dhaker and A. Kumar, 2010. Ethnomedicinal and Ethnopharmaco-statistical studies of Eastern Rajasthan, India. J. Ethnopharmacol., 129: 64-86.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

89:  Van den Berg, A.J.J., S.F.A.J. Horsten, J.J. Kettenes-van den Bosch, B.H. Kroes, C.J. Beukelman, B.R. Leeflang and R.P. Labadie, 1995. Curcacycline A-a novel cyclic octapeptide isolated from the latex of Jatropha curcas L. FEBS Lett., 358: 215-218.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

90:  Villegas, L.F., I.D. Fernandez, H. Maldonado, R. Torres, A. Zavaleta, A.J. Vaisberg and G.B. Hammond, 1997. Evaluation of the wound-healing activity of selected traditional medicinal plants from Peru. J. Ethnopharmacol., 55: 193-200.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

91:  Wagh, V.V., A.K. Jain and C. Kadel, 2011. Ethnomedicinal plants used for curing dysentery and diarrhoea by tribals of Jhabua district (Madhya Pradesh). Indian J. Nat. Prod. Resour., 2: 256-260.
Direct Link  |  

92:  Warra, A.A., 2012. Cosmetic potentials of physic nut (Jatropha curcas Linn.) seed oil: A review. Am. J. Scient. Ind. Res., 3: 358-366.
Direct Link  |  

93:  Watt, J.M. and M.G. Breyer-Brandwijk, 1962. The Medicinal and Poisonous Plants of Southern and Eastern Africa. 2nd Edn., E and S Liningstone Ltd., London, UK., Pages: 1457

94:  Wipf, P., J.K. Jung, S. Rodriguez and J.S. Lazo, 2001. Synthesis and biological evaluation of deoxypreussomerin A and palmarumycin CP1 and related naphthoquinone spiroketals. Tetrahedron, 57: 283-296.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

©  2021 Science Alert. All Rights Reserved