Subscribe Now Subscribe Today
Research Article
 

Documentation of Physiochemical Parameters of the Folkloric Medicinal Plant Pisonia grandis R.Br. Reared under Greenhouse and Local Environment Conditions



G. Poongothai and Shubashini K. Sripathi
 
Facebook Twitter Digg Reddit Linkedin StumbleUpon E-mail
ABSTRACT

Medicinal plants represent the eternal kindness of almighty for the perpetuation of life in the universe. Pisonia grandis R.Br. is a flowering plant of the four O’clock family Nyctaginaceae, commonly called lettuce tree. The medicinal potential of the plant is well established and is documented by many workers. The present study is aimed to document the physiochemical parameters of the plant P. grandis reared under green house and local environment conditions. Standard methods were adopted for the physiochemical analyses. Physiochemical parameters of leaves, stem and roots of P. grandis revealed that the plant parts are a rich source of metabolites, micro and macro nutrients, minerals, fibers and proteins. Toxic metal contamination in leaves stems and roots of P. grandis are within the World Health Organization (WHO) permissible limits. All feasible documentation obtained from the current investigation makes it a wholesome record on physiochemical parameters of the folkloric medicinal plant P. grandis.

Services
Related Articles in ASCI
Search in Google Scholar
View Citation
Report Citation

 
  How to cite this article:

G. Poongothai and Shubashini K. Sripathi, 2015. Documentation of Physiochemical Parameters of the Folkloric Medicinal Plant Pisonia grandis R.Br. Reared under Greenhouse and Local Environment Conditions. Research Journal of Medicinal Plants, 9: 427-434.

DOI: 10.3923/rjmp.2015.427.434

URL: https://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=rjmp.2015.427.434
 
Received: July 04, 2015; Accepted: September 04, 2015; Published: October 10, 2015



INTRODUCTION

The World Health Organization has defined medicinal plants as those which possess the potential to cure ailments or those that synthesize metabolites to produce useful drugs. The use of whole plant or different parts of the plant like leaves, stems, roots, bark, pods, flowers and seeds for treatment of various ailments has been practiced in Indian system of herbal medicine. The government of India has identified medicinal plants as one of the thrust areas of global trade. Even during the recent economic recession, a robust growth of global economy was witnessed due to herbal trade (UN., 2015). According to a study on export of Indian medicinal plants, although around 880 medicinal plant species find place in all India trade, India’s share is only 0.5% in global medicinal plant related export trade (Kumar and Janagam, 2011). Despite the fact that the Indian subcontinent is a bountiful source of medicinal plants and has a rich heritage of knowledge on medicinal plants, yet it fails to satisfy the global requirements on quality, safety, efficacy and standardization on medicinal plants export (Bhatt, 2010).

India’s prospects of achieving a significant share in global market are contingent on systematic documentation of medicinal plants on the requirement of their traditional use, percentage of toxic metal content, elemental content, pesticide content, water content, inorganic matter and active ingredient content. Such scientifically generated data will project India’s medicinal plant trade in a proper perspective and facilitate a sustained global market (Kamboj, 2000). Based on this fact, a large number of plant species have been taken up for validation studies and systematic documentation of data is being done. Pisonia grandis is one such medicinal plant of Nyctaginaceae family that has been reported in Indian traditional medicine as an anti-diabetic and anti-inflammatory agent. The pharmacological potential of this plant has been explored extensively by many groups of workers (Anbalagan et al., 2002; Prabu et al., 2008; Christudas et al., 2009; Sunil et al., 2009; Jayakumari et al., 2012; Shubashini and Poongothai, 2010; Rahman et al., 2011; Elumalai and Yoganandam, 2012; Shanmugam et al., 2013). Documentation on pharmacognostical data of the leaves of P. grandis serves in the identification and preparation of a monograph of the plant (Jayakumari et al., 2011). The present research was focused on documenting the physiochemical parameters of leaves, stems and roots of the folkloric medicinal plant Pisonia grandis reared under local environment and greenhouse conditions.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Greenhouse conditions: The plant Pisonia grandis was grown under a greenhouse made of ultraviolet stabilized low density polyethylene sheets under normal day-light conditions. Spraying frequency of water was controlled by a mechanical controller. The growth of the plant was monitored weekly. After a year of growth, the leaves, stems and roots of the plant were harvested for physiochemical analysis.

Survey on use of Pisonia grandis by local people: A survey on the folkloric use of Pisonia grandis was carried out in two local areas of Coimbatore where the plant P. grandis was found to be grown widely along the road side. A total of 64 houses were surveyed and the response from the local people was documented.

Authentication of chosen plant: The plant Pisonia grandis was authenticated at the Institute of Forest Genetics and Tree Breeding (IFGTB) Coimbatore.

Plant collection: Fresh plant parts of greenhouse grown Pisonia grandis (leaves, stems and roots) were collected, cleaned, shade dried and pulverized into small pieces and labeled PGGL, PGGS, PGGR. The plant parts collected from local areas of Coimbatore region, were cleaned, shade dried and pulverized into small pieces and labeled PGLL, PGLS, PGLR.

Physicochemical analysis
Organoleptic study:
The colour, odour and taste of the leaves, stems and roots were documented as per standard procedure (Hashmi, 2007).

Fluorescence analysis: Fluorescence analysis of leaves, stems and roots of Pisonia grandis was done by the procedure described by Nanna et al. (2012).

Elemental analysis: Each plant material was digested with a mixture of HNO3 and HClO4(5:2) and the solution made up to 50 mL with HPLC grade water. The filtered solutions were analyzed for their carbon, nitrogen, hydrogen, sulphur, calcium, potassium, magnesium, sodium and zinc content in ICP-AES system.

Proximate analysis: Air-dried powdered parts of the plant material were subjected to proximate analysis (AOAC., 2012). Surface moisture, inherent moisture, ash, volatile matter and Gross Calorific Value (GCV) were determined as part of the analysis.

Toxic metal analysis: The air dried powdered plant material was digested with a mixture of HNO3 and HClO4 (5:2 mL) and made up to 50 mL with HPLC grade water. The filtered solutions wereanalyzedby ICP-AES system to estimate the presence of lead, cadmium and arsenic.

Extraction efficacy: Soaking, refluxing and sonication methods were employed to find the extraction efficacy of solvent used for extracting the plant material (10 g).

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

The plant P. grandis was reared under greenhouse condition to compare the physio chemical data of the greenhouse grown plant with that of the locally grown plant, since the plant has been used by locals for internal consumption. Figure 1a-c depicts the greenhouse reared plant.

A survey conducted on the folkloric use of the chosen plant ascertained its ethno medicinal use by locals and trials as an anti-diabetic, anti-arthritic and anti-inflammatory agent. Though the history of the plant dates back to the 18th century, the plant has been documented in many databases for their medicinal properties that supports the present survey result (McClatchey, 1996; Buenz et al., 2005).

Image for - Documentation of Physiochemical Parameters of the Folkloric Medicinal Plant Pisonia grandis R.Br. Reared under Greenhouse and Local Environment Conditions
Fig. 1(a-c): Greenhouse reared plants

The results of the survey revealed that leaves of the plant have been largely used for medicinal and culinary purposes when compared to the stems and roots. The survey results expressed as percentage of overall response by the local people is presented in Table 1.

The plant P. grandis was authenticated at the Institute of Forest Genetics and Tree Breeding (IFGTB), Coimbatore. Voucher specimens have been deposited in the herbarium of the Institute for further reference (F. No. 14932). Organoleptic characteristics of leaves, stem and roots of P. grandis (Table 2) revealed that the chosen plant parts are suitable for use in Ayurvedic medicine and the results are expedient for inclusion in pharmacopeia of medicinal plants (Arya and Thakur, 2012).

The dried powdered parts of leaves, stems and roots of locally grown and greenhouse grown P. grandis displayed fluorescence with chemical reagents under UV light indicating that the selected plant parts are sources of natural metabolites (Nanna et al., 2012). Elemental analysis of each of the chosen parts indicated that they are a good source of micro and macro nutrients. The content of zinc, sodium and magnesium in leaves increased in the greenhouse reared plant. The percentage of calcium in the leaves of greenhouse reared plant reduced to almost half of that present in the leaves of plant grown in local environment conditions.

Table 1:Survey questions and response
Image for - Documentation of Physiochemical Parameters of the Folkloric Medicinal Plant Pisonia grandis R.Br. Reared under Greenhouse and Local Environment Conditions

Table 2:Comparison of organoleptic characteristic of leaves, stem and roots of greenhouse and locally grown Pisonia grandis
Image for - Documentation of Physiochemical Parameters of the Folkloric Medicinal Plant Pisonia grandis R.Br. Reared under Greenhouse and Local Environment Conditions

Magnesium is an essential macro nutrient is necessary for normal plant growth. Without sufficient amounts of magnesium, plants begin to degrade the chlorophyll in the old leaves. An apparent feature of Pisonia grandis is the presence of lush green leaves in the body of the plant and yellowish green leaves at the top of the plant. The leaves of plants growing on road side and under local environment exhibit necrosis. This may be attributed to the low magnesium content of the plants grown in local soil conditions. Results of elemental analysis reveal that the content of magnesium in the leaves of greenhouse reared plant has increased threefold.

Zinc is a micronutrient of plants and is essential for promoting certain metabolic reactions in plants and is necessary for the production of chlorophyll and carbohydrates. The content of zinc in the leaves of Pisonia grandis is significantly high in both the samples (Table 3).

The content of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen and sulphur was high in leaves of P. grandis which suggests that leaves are a good source of organic compounds compared to stem and roots.

The comparison revealed that the element content of leaves of greenhouse plant showed significant change in nutrients, whereas not much of a change was observed with respect to stem and roots. The results of elemental analysis suggest that rearing the plant under greenhouse conditions bestows it with the requisite nutrients that enhance its nutritional and medicinal value. Table 3 provides the comparison of elemental content of greenhouse reared and locally grown P. grandis.

Proximate analysis helps to assess the quality of plant. Greenhouse grown plant parts were found to possess significantly greater moisture content, ash content and crude fiber than the locally grown plant. Volatile matter and Gross Calorific Value (GCV) is higher for locally grown plant. Table 4 gives the comparison on proximate analysis of greenhouse reared and locally grown P. grandis.

Greenhouse grown plant parts were found to contain higher moisture content than the locally grown plant parts which may be due to the humidity in the greenhouse environment. Surface moisture content of the plant is highest in the leaf whereas inherent moisture content of the plant is highest in the stem. Ash content of greenhouse reared plant parts is higher than the locally grown plants; especially leaves of P. grandis were found to possess higher minerals followed by stem and roots (Nair et al., 2012). The higher extractive value of aqueous extract of leaves, stem and roots of P. grandis indicated higher assimilation efficacy on intake. Leaves, stem and roots of greenhouse gown plant were found to yield higher extractive values than the local samples. Similarly fiber content of the greenhouse reared plant parts is higher than the commercial samples. Plant food provides more than 12% of their calorific value from proteins and thus making it a good source of protein (Aberoumand, 2011). The roots of P. grandis were found to have the highest energy as well as protein content followed by leaves and stem.

Medicinal herbs can be easily contaminated with heavy metals from the environment by rainfall, atmospheric dust and usage of plant protective agents and fertilizers (Flamini et al., 2007). Heavy metal analysis of leaves, stem and roots of P. grandis revealed that the metal contamination in the plant parts were within the WHO permissible limits (Table 5).

Table 3:Comparison of elemental contents of greenhouse reared and locally grown Pisonia grandis
Image for - Documentation of Physiochemical Parameters of the Folkloric Medicinal Plant Pisonia grandis R.Br. Reared under Greenhouse and Local Environment Conditions
ND: Not detected

Table 4:Comparison on proximate analysis of greenhouse reared and locally grown Pisonia grandis
Image for - Documentation of Physiochemical Parameters of the Folkloric Medicinal Plant Pisonia grandis R.Br. Reared under Greenhouse and Local Environment Conditions

Table 5:Comparison on toxic metal analysis of greenhouse reared and locally grown Pisonia grandis
Image for - Documentation of Physiochemical Parameters of the Folkloric Medicinal Plant Pisonia grandis R.Br. Reared under Greenhouse and Local Environment Conditions
WHO permissible level (ppm) Pb: 10, Cd: 0.3, As: 1, BDL: Below detection limit, ND: Not detected

Table 6:Yield of ethanolic extracts obtained
Image for - Documentation of Physiochemical Parameters of the Folkloric Medicinal Plant Pisonia grandis R.Br. Reared under Greenhouse and Local Environment Conditions

Table 7:Yield of aqueous extracts obtained
Image for - Documentation of Physiochemical Parameters of the Folkloric Medicinal Plant Pisonia grandis R.Br. Reared under Greenhouse and Local Environment Conditions

Extraction efficacy of leaves, stem and roots of P. grandis reared in greenhouse and local conditions is documented in Table 6 and 7. The method of extraction, solvents and duration of extraction determine the quantity of therapeutically desired metabolites in crude drug extracts. In the present study, extraction efficacy was assessed in safe and nontoxic solvents; ethanol and water and by adopting four different extraction methods viz soaking, refluxing, sonicating (homogenizing) and ultra-sonication. Refluxing and sonication gave higher yield of crude drugs extracts probably due to efficient cellular breakdown of plant tissues to extract metabolites (Handa et al., 2008).

CONCLUSION

The present study led to the documentation of physiochemical parameters of the folkloric medicinal plant P. grandis reared in greenhouse and local environment conditions. The survey results revealed that the leaves of the plant have been extensively used by locals and trials as an anti-diabetic and anti-inflammatory agent. Physiochemical parameters of leaves, stem and roots of P. grandis revealed that the plant parts are a rich source of metabolites, micro and macro nutrients, minerals, fibers and proteins. The higher extractive values of the plant parts indicated higher assimilation efficacy on intake. The metal contamination in leaves, stem and roots of plants reared in greenhouse and local environment are within the WHO permissible limits. All feasible documentation obtained from the current investigation makes it a wholesome record on physiochemical parameters of the folkloric medicinal plant Pisonia grandis.

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

The authors thank the authorities of Avinashilingam Institute for Home Science and Higher Education for Women University, Coimbatore, India for providing necessary facilities to carry out this work. Authors are also grateful to the Sophisticated Analytical Instruments Facility, Cochin, India for analyzing the samples by ICP-AES.

REFERENCES

1:  Aberoumand, A., 2011. Determination and comparison of potential nutritive values and mineral elements of three important food edible plants from southern part of Iran. Croatian J. Food Technol. Biotechnol. Nutr., 6: 148-151.
Direct Link  |  

2:  Anbalagan, N., K.N. Rajinikanth, S.K. Gnanasam, J.T. Leonard, K. Balakrishna, S. Ramachandran and S.K. Sridhar, 2002. Analgesic, anti-inflammatory and diuretic activities of Pisonia grandis. Nat. Prod. Sci., 8: 97-99.
Direct Link  |  

3:  AOAC., 2012. Official Methods of Analysis. American Organisation of Agricultural Chemists (AOAC), Washington, DC., USA

4:  Bhatt, A., 2010. Ayurvedic Herbal Industry: Quest for Global Acceptance. Clininvent Research Pvt. Ltd., Mumbai, India

5:  Arya, V. and R. Thakur, 2012. Organoleptic and microscopic analysis of Gentiana regeliana. J. Pharmacogn. Phytochem., 1: 32-35.
Direct Link  |  

6:  Buenz, E.J., H.E. Johnson, E.M. Beekman, T.J. Motley and B.A. Bauer, 2005. Bioprospecting rumphius's Ambonese herbal: Volume I. J. Ethnopharmacol., 96: 57-70.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

7:  Elumalai, A. and G.P. Yoganandam, 2012. Evaluation of anti-arthritic activity of ethanolic extract of Pisonia grandis R.Br. Asian J. Pharmaceut. Res., 2: 91-93.
Direct Link  |  

8:  Flamini, G., P.L. Cioni, I. Morelli and A. Bader, 2007. Essential oils of the aerial parts of three Salvia species from Jordan: Salvia lanigera, S. spinosa and S. syriaca. Food Chem., 100: 732-735.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

9:  Rahman, H., A. Elumalai, M.C. Eswaraiah and D. Bardalai, 2011. Evaluation of anxiolytic activity of ethanolic extract of Pisonia grandis R. Br leaves in mice. J. Chem. Pharmaceut. Res., 3: 646-652.
Direct Link  |  

10:  Hashmi, I., 2007. Sensory evaluation techniques. Proceedings of the 18th Annual IAOM Conference, December 8-11, 2007, Muscat, Oman -

11:  Jayakumari, S., A. Arthanareswaran, A. Vijayalakshmi, M. Velraj and V. Ravichandran, 2012. Free radical scavenging activity of Pisonia grandis R.Br leaves. Indian J. Pharmaceut. Educ. Res., 46: 37-40.
Direct Link  |  

12:  Jayakumari, S., M. Velraj, A. Vijayalakshmi and P. Arthanarieswaran, 2011. Pharmacognostical studies on the leaves of Pisonia grandis R.Br. Res. J. Pharmaceut. Biol. Chem. Sci., 2: 193-199.
Direct Link  |  

13:  Kamboj, V.P., 2000. Herbal medicine. Curr. Sci., 78: 35-51.
Direct Link  |  

14:  Nair, L.D., K. Sar Santosh, A. Arora and D. Mahapatra, 2012. A comparative study on proximate analysis conducted on medicinal plants of Chhattisgarh, CG, India. Res. J. Chem., 2: 18-21.
Direct Link  |  

15:  Nanna, S.R., M. Banala, A. Pamulaparthi, A. Kurra and S. Kagithoju, 2012. Evaluation of phytochemicals and fluorescent analysis of seed and leaf extracts of Cajanus cajan L. Int. J. Pharmaceut. Sci. Rev. Res., 22: 11-18.
Direct Link  |  

16:  Prabu, D., M. Nappinnai, K. Ponnudurai and K. Prabu, 2008. Evaluation of wound-healing potential of Pisonia grandis R.Br: A preclinical study in wistar rats. Int. J. Lower Extrem. Wounds, 7: 21-27.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

17:  Kumar, M.R. and D. Janagam, 2011. Export and import pattern of medicinal plants in India. Indian J. Sci. Technol., 4: 245-248.
Direct Link  |  

18:  Shubashini, K.S. and G. Poongothai, 2010. Bioassay-guided fractionation and anti-fungal activity studies on Pisonia grandis R.Br. Int. J. Curr. Res., 10: 35-37.
Direct Link  |  

19:  Handa, S.S., S.P.S. Khanuja, G. Longo and D.D. Rakesh, 2008. Extraction Technologies for Medicinal and Aromatic Plants. International Centre for Science and High Technology, Trieste, Italy, Pages: 260

20:  Sunil, C., P.G. Latha, S.R. Suja, V.J. Shine and S. Shyamal et al., 2009. Effect of ethanolic extract of Pisonia alba span. leaves on blood glucose levels and histological changes in tissues of alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Int. J. Applied Res. Nat. Prod., 2: 4-11.
Direct Link  |  

21:  Christudas, S., L. Gopalakrishnan, P. Mohanraj, K. Kaliyamoorthy and P. Agastian, 2009. α-glucosidase inhibitory and antidiabetic activities of ethanolic extract of Pisonia alba Span. leaves. Int. J. Integr. Biol., 6: 41-45.
Direct Link  |  

22:  Shanmugam, T., K. Sugavanam, S. Uthirapathi, S. Duraiswamy and D. Manoharan, 2013. Hepatoprotective constituents from the leaves of Pisonia grandis R.Br. Pharmacologia, 4: 383-390.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

23:  McClatchey, W., 1996. The ethnopharmacopoeia of Rotuma. J. Ethnopharmacol., 50: 147-156.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

24:  UN., 2015. World economic situation and prospects, 2015. United Nations, New York, USA., pp: 33.

©  2021 Science Alert. All Rights Reserved