Review on Skin Aging and Compilation of Scientific Validated Medicinal Plants, Prominence to Flourish a Better Research Reconnoiters in Herbal Cosmetic
Ram Kumar Sahu,
Vinay Kumar Deshmukh,
Arvind Kumar Jha
As skin ages it deprives its charming youthful expression. Aging may be simple chronological passing of the years or photoaging induced by exposure to the sun. The free radical fabricated in the body commenced response of receptors of nuclear signaling, mitochondrial damage, protein oxidation, telomere based DNA damage, genetic mutations and decrease of many hormone levels. Due to this aging skin displays variable epidermal thickness, dermal elastosis, reduced collagen, increased matrix degrading metalloproteinases, severe atrophy, telangiectases, inflammatory infiltrates and vessel ectasia. The secondary metabolites such as quercetin, polyphenol, flavonoid and flavonol, ellagic acids are obtained from plant extracts, provokes the free-radical scavenging activity, antagonize the UV signaling pathway, inhibition of elastase activity and matrix metalloproteinase expression and increase of expression of procollagen type I. Herbal cosmetics play a leading role in impeding and reversing aging of skin. The botanical ingredients present in herbal cosmetic impact biological functions of skin and contribute nutrients required for the healthy skin. The imperative efforts are constrained to associate the medicinal plants with possible mechanism based on scientifically validated, leading to the emergence of novel cosmeceuticals for prevention of sagging. The information of present review assists the cosmetics scholar for development of novel herbal antiaging formulation producing the reduction of wrinkles, redness and abnormal discolorations that result from aging. The combination of listed medicinal plant can be produced immensely efficient, low toxicity and cost impressive product compared to synthetic antiaging formulation. This review can put forward revolt in the field of cosmetic market.
to cite this article:
Ram Kumar Sahu, Amit Roy, Munglu Matlam, Vinay Kumar Deshmukh, Jaya Dwivedi and Arvind Kumar Jha, 2013. Review on Skin Aging and Compilation of Scientific Validated Medicinal Plants, Prominence to Flourish a Better Research Reconnoiters in Herbal Cosmetic. Research Journal of Medicinal Plants, 7: 1-22.
Received: December 19, 2012;
Accepted: February 01, 2013;
Published: April 18, 2013
Skin forms a remarkable protective barrier against the external environment
(Costin and Hearing, 2007), helping to regulate temperature
and fluid balance, keeping out harmful microbes and chemicals and offering some
protection against sunlight (Svobodova et al., 2006;
Palm and ODonoghue, 2007; Hussein,
2005). Due to external and internal causes, the collagen fibers and elastic
fibers present in dermal tissue of the skin is modified or damaged which leads
to wrinkles formation and sagging on the skin because the elasticity of the
skin is reduced, it is one of the measure causes for the skin aging (Kuno
and Matsumoto, 2004).
There are two distinct types of skin aging, one of the aging caused due to
the passage of time or by the inherited gene is called chronological or intrinsic
(internal aging). The chronological aging is regulated mainly by androgens and
other hormones. The other type of aging is known as photoaging or extrinsic
(external) aging and is caused by environmental factors, such as exposure to
the suns rays, repetitive facial expressions, gravity, sleeping positions
and smoking (Mukherjee et al., 2011). Almost
90% of skin changes due to chronic sun exposure (Zouboulis
and Boschnakow, 2001). Extrinsic aging is caused by chronic exposure to
UV light so it is also known as photo aging.
MECHANISM OF SKIN AGING
Extrinsic skin aging: Extrinsic skin aging is a collective process and
depends mostly on the degree of sun exposure and skin pigment. With chronic
skin exposure to UV rays, the stratum corneum thickens, the epidermis becomes
acanthotic and there is progressive dysplasia with cellular atypia and anaplasia,
reduction in collagen and degeneration of elastic fibers (Yaar
and Gilchrest, 2007). The following aspects are integrated with photodamaged
Membrane/nuclear signaling: UV irradiation provokes Reactive Oxygen
Species (ROS) which repress the activity of enzyme protein-tyrosine phosphatase
κ. This enzyme maintains cell-surface receptors of skin, including receptors
for Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF), interleukin (IL)-1, keratinocyte growth factor
and Tumour Necrosis Factor (TNF)-α in an inactive (hypophosphorylated)
state (Xu et al., 2006). Activated receptors
impel to intracellular signaling through stimulation of the stress-associated
Mitogen-activated Protein (MAP) kinases p38 and c-Jun amino terminal kinase
(JNK) (Fisher et al., 1998). Kinase activation
induces the transcription of the nuclear transcription complex AP-1(composed
of the proteins c-Jun and c-Fos) (Fisher et al.,
2002). Moreover, singlet oxygen breaks lipid membrane resulting to activation
of AP-1 through ceramide release and leads to the formation of carbonyl groups
(C = O) and accumulation of oxidized damaged dermal proteins. Arachidonic acid
unleashed by oxidized membrane lipids is turned by cyclooxygenase enzymes into
prostaglandins recruiting inflammatory cells to the area (Yaar
and Gilchrest, 2007).
AP-1 increases transcription of MMPs (matrix metalloproteinase) and decreases
expression of the procollagen I and III genes and TGF-β (transforming growth
factor-β) receptors, with a final outcome of reduced dermal matrix formation
and Hence, it reduces the synthesis of collegen (Fisher
et al., 2000).
UV-induced collagen degradation is generally incomplete, leading to the agglomeration
of partially depraved collagen fragments in the dermis and these are conceived
to reduce the structural integrity of the skin. UV also stimulates the Nuclear
Factor (NF) κB transcription factor and through neutrophil recruitment
and MMP-8 release further intensifies matrix degradation. The disabled proteins
incorporating carbonyl groups assemble in the upper portions of the dermis.
In addition, mitochondria betray large DNA deletions and compromised function
(Yaar and Gilchrest, 2007).
Mitochondrial damage: Mitochondria are cellular organelles that generate
energy (ATP) by compelling oxygen. UV effect on the mitochondria electron transport
chain produces abundant ROS that can damage mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). The mitochondrial
genome encodes 13 components of the electron transport chain (Graeber
et al., 1998) and oxidative damage may be foremost to deletions or
rearrangements of the DNA, most likely due to double-strand breaks (Prado
et al., 2003; Srivastava and Moraes, 2005)
which may affect mitochondrial ability to generate energy for the cell. It is
inferred that the consequent decrease in mitochondrial function in photodamaged
skin leads to additional accumulation of ROS and further compromises the cell's
ability to initiate energy.
Protein oxidation: Oxidative damage can also affect proteins and photodamaged
skin exhibits accumulation of ROS-induced devastation in upper dermal proteins
(Sander et al., 2002). Oxidative protein impair
may result in loss or gain of activity (i.e., enzymes), loss of structural protein
function and increased/decreased susceptibility to degradation (Shacter,
2000). While epidermal proteins are routinely hastily degraded by epidermal
methionine sulfoxide reductases, oxidized dermal proteins persist longer (Garmyn
and Yarosh, 2006).
Telomeres: Telomeres are tandem repeats of a short sequence TTAGGG.
It exists in a loop configuration. Telomeres become critically short when these
loop is disrupted by cell division or UV irradiation. During cell division telomeres
cap (the terminal portion of chromosomes, preventing the fusion of telomeres
with each other.) cannot be replicated, so the bases of the telomeres caps are
lost with each cell division and finally enters a state of senescence or apoptosis
(Blackburn, 2001). When telomeres are damaged by UV irradiation
the loops configuration becomes disclosed and through interaction with the Werner
protein activates the tumour suppressor protein p53 and other proteins which
responsible for DNA damage and also induces senescence or apoptosis (Yaar
and Gilchrest, 2007).
Intrinsic skin aging: Intrinsic skin aging also known as natural aging
mostly found in sunprotected area. Basically the molecular mechanisms of both
the type of skin aging (extrinsic and intrinsic) are similar, for example shortening
of telomeres, mutations of mitochondrial DNA, oxidative stress genetic mutations
and decrease of many hormone levels. According to the free-radical theory of
aging, ROS, chiefly commencing from oxidative cell metabolism, play a notable
role in both chronological aging and photoaging (Fisher
et al., 2002). In spite of several antioxidative mechanisms, which
decline with increasing age, abound with ROS damage composed of cell's components.
This damage induces to increasing ROS and decreasing antioxidative capacities
and finally to cellular aging (Makrantonak and Zouboulis,
2007). ROS influence the transcription factor c-Jun via MAPK (mitogen-activated
protein kinases) in extrinsic and intrinsic skin aging. This induction triggers
transcription factor called activator protein 1(AP-1), which leads to the expression
of matrix metalloproteinases MMP-1 (interstitial collagenase), MMP-3 (stromelysin
1) and MMP-9 (gelatinase b) (Chung et al., 2000).
In tendering with these outcomes elevated levels of partially degraded collagen
are present in intrinsically aged skin similar to photoaged skin. In intrinsically
aged skin expression of the Connective Tissue Growth Factor (CTGF) and Transforming
Growth Factor (TGF)-β/Smad signalling are reduced due to which expression
of type I procollagen also become less (Quan et al.,
2009; Kohl et al., 2011).
Hormonal changes can also alter intrinsic skin aging. The exhibition of sex
hormones in the gonads, the pituitary and adrenal glands already gradually decline
in the mid-twenties. The hormone oestrogens and progesterone start dwindling
during menopause. In particular, the imperfection in oestrogens and androgens
cause dryness, wrinkling, epidermal atrophy, collagen breakdown and loss of
elasticity (Kohl et al., 2011).
HERBAL COSMETIC PREVENTING SKIN AGING
Herbal cosmetics play a leading role in impeding and reversing aging of skin.
Ingredients present in herbal cosmetic impact biological functions of skin and
it also provide required nutrition for the healthy skin. The application of
herbal antiaging products has been proliferated to many folds in personal-care
practice and over, there is a noteworthy demand for the herbal cosmetics. All
this occurred due to the extravagant use of synthetic based products in the
last one and half century; their production and usage cause human health imperiled
with several adverse effects leading to innumerable. It also incited substantial
pollution and disturbed our eco-system. Now a day Personal care industry is
more focalize on herbal based cosmetics as it is a fast growing segment in the
world. Herbal cosmetics are not pondered under the preview of Drugs and Regulations
of Food and Drug Administrations (Kapoor, 2005).
The imperative efforts are constrained to associate the medicinal plants with
possible mechanism based on scientifically validated, leading towards the emergence
of novel cosmeceuticals for prevention of sagging. Medicinal plants restraining
skin aging are listed in Table 1.
In the field of cosmetic antiaging are mostly demarcated as an agent who preventing
and eliminating the wrinkles and sags of the skin (Kuno and
Matsumoto, 2004). Over the years, many various compounds and formulations
have been used in eradication of skin aging (Farooqi et
The compositions of synthetic antiaging formulations include ingredients that
are not always eco-friendly and are for that reason economically unviable. Some
of the prior art antiaging formulations also contain components that are ultimately
harmful to the skin (Farooqi et al., 2002). The
natural skin-care products are quickly absorbed by the superficial layers in
the skin and are hypo-allergenic in nature. However, the active ingredients
of synthetic skin care product produce an adverse effect on skin such as allergic
contact dermatitis, irritant contact dermatitis, phototoxic and photo-allergic
reactions (Mukherjee et al., 2011). Additionally,
the natural herbs have despicable mammalian toxicity and can be handled safely.
This makes the use of natural formulation by manufacture of skin-care products
attractive and is becoming common (Farooqi et al.,
2002). Manifold herbs, notably fruits, vegetables and whole grains comprise
antioxidants, polyphenols scavenging free radicals and eradicate byproducts
of metabolism. Today, herbal cosmetics are in demand in whole world due to its
significant impact on skin aging.
The over exposure of UV radiation to skin cause's DNA damage and reducing cellular
DNA repair capacity, are sources of photoaging. It has been proclaimed that
paeoniflorin obtained from Paeonia lactiflora produces protective effects
on UV-induced DNA damage (Lee et al., 2006a).
This suggests that topical application of Paeoniae lactiflora extracts
could improve the ability of the skin to repair DNA damage and prevent from
The anthocyanins like cyanidin-3-glucoside, petunidin-3-glucoside, malvidin-3-glucoside
and delphinidin-3-glucoside obtained from the berries of Vaccinium uliginosum
diminished UV-induced augmented-release of IL-6 and IL-8 by suppressing the
function of enzyme protein-tyrosine phosphatase κ. The inhibition of secretion
of IL may validate to be a worthwhile means to achieve protection against UV
|| List of antiaging plants manifests chemical constituents
and possible mechanism of action
Botanical antioxidants have been notified to have a good potential as antiaging
agents. For example, dietary grape seed proanthocyanidins arose in inhibition
of the expressions of Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen (PCNA) and cyclooxygenase-2
(COX-2) in the skin. Flavonoids are the largest group among plants with active
properties; more than, 5000 flavonoids have been extracted and identified (Chiu
et al., 2009), decrease the early activation of signaling pathway
in response to UV induced injury.
The quercetin, polyphenol, flavonoid and flavonol, ellagic acids are obtained
from natural resources, produces the free radical scavenging activity, inhibition
of elastase activity and MMP expression and increase of expression of procollagen
type I (Kim et al., 2007a, 2008a;
Maity et al., 2011; Moon
et al., 2005). Moreover, active constituents having antioxidant properties
obtained from plant extracts, inhibit elastase, hyaluronidase, collagen synthesis,
lipid peroxidation activity, protein expression of procollagen and prevent MMP
gene induction and due to this fibrillin fibre length elongated to maintain
elasticity of skin (Satardekar and Deodhar, 2010; Aslam
et al., 2006). The above characters of ingredients help to minimize
the environmental effects and stress to the skin. Moreover, it also improve
texture, firmness and elasticity, counteract dryness, smooth out wrinkles, minimize
age spots, improve color and increase moisture content of the skin.
Skin aging may be categorized as intrinsic and extrinsic. The anti-aging cream must include a unique composition with DNA repair and cellular repair molecules. The bioactive components such as flavonoids, polyphenols, tannins, quercetin etc from a variety of plant sources are combined actively to reduce wrinkles, reverse sun damage, diminish redness and abnormal pigment and improve the signs in the various categories of skin aging. The information of present review assists the cosmetics scientists for development of novel herbal antiaging formulation producing the reduction of wrinkles, redness and abnormal discolorations that result from aging. The combination of listed medicinal plant can be produced immensely efficient, low toxicity and cost impressive product compared to synthetic antiaging formulation.
The provision of such high-pitched information will authenticate the scholar for further development of herbal cosmetic, in order that more societal people can benefit from a more widely available, safer and more certified practice of herbal cosmetics in the future. This review can put forward revolt in the field of cosmetic market.
Authors pay indebtedness to Columbia Institute of Pharmacy, Raipur for providing library and online journal facilities.
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