As a large and diverse country, Indonesia is inherited by enormous natural
resources which are beneficial for food, renewable energy, medicine and cosmetics.
Several studies on herbs for medicine which emphasized on strategic usage, such
as antioxidant agent, cytotoxic activities and geriatric diseases, was already
published by Artanti et al. (2006), Lotulung
et al. (2008), Setyowati et al. (2008)
and Iswantini et al. (2009). Regarding the cosmetic
purposes, Batubara et al. (2010a) published the
potential use of Indonesian natural product for whitening agent. As a part of
cosmetic herbal, Kepel (Stelechocarpus burahol) is an Indonesian medicinal
plant which empirically famous, especially in the Yogyakarta Palace. This tree
is a symbol of unity and integrity of mental and physical properties of living
organism. Kepel fruit is traditionally known as an oral deodorant or body odor
remover especially for princess in some palace in Java Island (Heriyanto
and Garsetiasih, 2005; Tisnadjaja et al., 2006).
By consuming Kepels fruits, people at middle Java, Indonesia convinced that
their feces and urine odor will be lowered and brought a pleasant fragrance,
such as violet fragrance. The empirical information of Kepel as an oral deodorant
was regarded as a highly beneficial for use as a pharmacological compound to
reduce the fecal and urine odorants which is dominated by Ammonia (NH3)
(Kim and Park, 2008). To confirm above empirical knowledge
of Indonesian people, in vivo and in vitro test of Kepel fruit
as oral deodorant was performed.
The oral deodorant has several pharmacological activities to reduce several
chemical compounds which regarded as the odorant. The odorant emission can be
reduced by it pharmacological properties as an adsorbent which assessed by in
vitro and in vivo methods. The pharmacological properties of an adsorbent
from natural compound were performed by Seedher and Sidhu
(2007) on green tea leaves to chemical pollutants. Moosavi
et al. (2005) emphasized the odor substances which are typically
used for adsorbent activities, such as sulfidril (H2S) compounds.
On the other hand, Bozkurt (2006) published the zeolith
usage for reducing NH3 as an odorant in a farming system. Furthermore,
the information were generated on this research by characterizing the odorants
as NH3 and other sulfidril group such as Methyl Mercaptan (CH3SH).
By in vitro test, a deodorant agent will be assessed by reducing the
odorant emission, such as NH3 and CH3SH. in vivo
test of deodorant agent will assessed the reduction of fecal odorants such as
NH3, Tri-Methyl Amine (TMA) and bacterial intestinal decomposer substances
(phenol, scatole, indole and cresole) (Yamakoshi et al.,
Regarding the fecal odorants also derived from decomposer substance which is
produced by the intestinal bacteria, mostly the Enterobacteriaceae, then an
oral deodorant will be beneficial as a probiotic or prebiotic agent. The probiotic
or prebiotic can reduce the population of several pathogen bacteria in intestinal
tract as well as the Enterobacteria and increase adsorption of nutritious compounds
(Ogueke et al., 2010). By enhancing the probiotic
activity, the population of odorant-producing bacteria will be reduced and finally
the odorant itself will be decreased in feces (Yamakoshi
et al., 2001).
This research aimed on Kepels pharmacological activity as an oral deodorant by in vitro and in vivo test for reducing fecal odorants which are ammonia, methyl-mercaptan, tri-methyl-amine and phenol. Furthermore, an oral deodorant was also determined by its activity in promoting the number of probiotic, such as Bifidobacteria.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Samples: Kepel (Stelechocarpus burahol, annonaceae) fruit was collected on January 2010 and obtained from local cultivation located on Matesih village, Karanganyar city, Middle Java Province, Indonesia. The sample was identified by Herbarium Bogoriense, Cibinong, Indonesia and deposited in Biopharmaca Research Center, Bogor Agricultural University. Furthermore the fruit was sliced, dried, powdered and resulted as a fruits pulp, peel and seed powder. The powders were the main samples which were used to determine the deodorant activities by in vitro and in vivo techniques.
Animals: Eighteen male Sprague Dowley rat (Rattus rattus) were used as laboratory animals for in vivo test. The animals were divided into three groups which are control, samples and prebiotics group. The animal were kept on individual cage and fed by commercial food in 10% proportion amount from its body weight which contain 20% of protein. The animals were daily observed by veterinarian and technician to ensure its welfare according to the 3 Rs (Replacement, Reduction and Refinement) and 5 Fs (Freedom) animal welfare principles.
In vitro test: The in vitro was developed to describe
the oral deodorant mechanism as adsorbent agent. To determine the adsorption
activities, all fruits powder are exposed to NH3 and CH3SH
odorants. Kitagawa precision pump and detection tubes for NH3 and
CH3SH were used to quantify precisely the amount of odorants emission
and the adsorption by the samples. The odorants and samples were arranged in
separated desiccators (Fig. 1) which connected by a three
way-tubing connections. Odorants on liquid form was placed at desiccators A
for 10 min to allow the evaporation; meanwhile the samples were on desiccators
B. After 10 min, the three way tubes were opened and the odorants gas flowed
from desiccators A to B for fifteen min. The odorants were quantified by Kitagawa
precision pump and detection tubes which attached on the desiccators B.
The amount of whole odorant gas was obtained by measuring its concentration without any sample placed on desiccators B while the adsorbed one obtained by placing a sample on desiccators B. The whole odorant and the adsorbed one were symbolized by C and S, respectively. The value of odorant-adsorption activities was termed by deodorant activities. The deodorant activity was calculated by a percentage value which obtained from deduction of C from S, divided by C value and time a hundred percent. The highest deodorant activities which produced by one of the Kepels fruits sample was used for in vivo test.
In vivo test: The in vivo test was directed to discover
the efficacy of Kepels fruit as an oral deodorant regarding its empirical.
These studies adopted the in vivo methods from a published paper by Yamakoshi
et al. (2001). The in vivo tests of the sample and control
group were assessed to analyze certain parameters which are the amount of feces
odorant such as ammonia and trimethyl amine and also intestine decomposed products
such as phenol compound. The in vivo test of the prebiotics group was
assessed by comparing the amount of fecal Bifidobacteria on sample group
to a prebiotics group which received an oral ingestion of prebiotics.
The Kepels dose used an extrapolation dose which adopted from the empirical
dose in human by using an extrapolation table from Laurence
and Bacharah (1964). The determined dose on human which was 100 gram/human,
will be 13 mg kg-1 body weight on rat.
The feces were collected before the treatment, regarded as Day zero (D0) for
the baseline data and followed on the third and seventh day which are D3 and
D7. The fecal ammonia, trimethyl amine and phenol were measured on the D0, D3
and D7 while the probiotic was only on D7.
||NH3 and CH3SH adsorption measurements
The measurement of the fecal odorants followed the SNI 2354.8:2009, Indonesian
standard methods for quantification of total-volatile nitrogen and trimethyl-amine
The result was compared to the control group by statistical methods to obtain the significance difference. The significances were categorized based on day of application odorants and fecal odorants type. Significances on day of application category were determined to predict the appropriate activity time of Kepels pulp fruit powder as an oral deodorant while fecal odorants category will stressed on its activity to a specified odorant.
In vitro test: One of the most probiotics bacteria which used as
an indicator for its activity and function as oral deodorant is bifid bacteria
(Bifidobacter bifidus) (Petschow et al., 1999).
The activity is indicated by the increasing or decreasing number of its population
which quantified as colony forming unit per gram (CFU g-1). The activity
was conducted in two methods which are in vitro and in vivo methods,
adapted from Yamakoshi et al. (2001). Principally
in vitro method was assessed by calculating its population after the
samples addition to Bifidobacteria isolate while the in vivo methods
will be on laboratory animal feces, after an oral digestion of the sample.
In vivo test: The in vivo test of prebiotics activity was performed by quantifying its amount on fecal samples. The feces which were used for the in vivo test came from the D7 feces of control, sample and probiotic group.
Statistical analysis: The results were analyzed by Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS v17.0, Chicago, IL). Descriptive statistics were used to characterize and compare groups. The groups were compared by t-tests and ANOVA for quantitative variables. Significance results were indicated by p value less than five percent (p<0.05).
In vitro test: All of Kepels fruit parts (peel, pulp and seed)
showed activities to reduce the odorant emission in vitro which are above
50 and 70% for NH3 and CH3SH, respectively. The highest
deodorant activity was founded on Kepels fruit pulp which had an adsorption
activity in average to ammonia and methyl-mercaptan emission about 62.96 and
77.78%, respectively (Table 1). The most significant in term
of percentage was performed by fruit pulp on CH3SH odorant which
valued 77.78% emission reduction.
In vivo test: The highest adsorbent activity by in vitro test was performed by Kepels fruit pulp powder and furthermore it was used for in vivo test. in vivo result mainly assessed the fecal odorant concentration after 24 h of Kepels oral application and the fecal odorants are NH3, TMA and phenol. The results were presented in Table 2. From Table 2, the result described a significant lowered fecal odorants concentrations from sample group compare to the control group. The most significant result in term of lowering fecal odorants was performed by Kepels fruit pulp oral consumption on NH3 concentration after 7 days (D7) application where the average concentration was 10 times lower than control group. The fecal NH3 concentration after 7 days oral application was 29.46±12.43 mg/100 g fecal while the control groups values was 313.89±123.76.
||Odorant adsorption activities to ammonia and methyl-mercaptan
||In vivo deodorant activities to fecal odorants
|*Indicate significant differences p<0.05
All of the fecal odorants were decreased significantly (over than 60 for NH3,
64 for TMA, 20% for phenol decreased compared to control) on the day 3 of application
and got less number (over than 90 for NH3, 78 for TMA and 53% for
phenol decreased compared to control) on day 7. The results showed that Kepels
fruit pulp powder which was given by extrapolated human oral dose to rat, was
effectively adsorb the fecal odorants after 3 days of application.
In vitro test: The highest growth of Bifidobacteria from the
in vitro test was performed by the fruit pulp powder. The result on Table
3 describes the comparison of Bifidobacteria population between control
and Kepels part. It showed the potential pharmacological activity of Kepels
fruit peel powder as a prebiotics agent. The Bifidobacterias population
on control group was 5.8x107 colony forming unit every gram feces
(CFU g-1) whereas the Kepels fruit pulp powder was 5.1x109
CFU g-1 feces. It showed that there was a raised one hundred times
more than the control group (Table 3). The second most potential
activity as a prebiotic was the seed which distinct a small number with the
pulp part. The fruit pulp powder was furthermore used for prebiotics in vivo
In vivo test: The result was described in Table 4 which describes the comparison of Bifidobacterias population between Kepels fruit pulp, saline control and prebiotic control. The highest growth of fecal Bifidobacteria population founded on prebiotic control valued 4.8x1010 CFU g-1 while the control group was 3.1x103 CFU g-1. The result indicated that the animal which are used in our studies were physiologically normal in its digestive system. In comparison to the solvent control, the Kepels fruit pulp powder demonstrated significantly a prebiotic activity which valued 3.0x108 CFU g-1. Therefore, it was increase 100.000 times more Bifidobacteria population compared to control.
||Kepels fruit activities to Bifidobacter bifidus growth
||Bifidobacter bifidus population on feces
In vitro test: Generally, all of the researchs results support
the empirical usage of Kepel as deodorant oral by adapting the methods by Yamakoshi
et al. (2001, 2002). So far, there were no
published scientific studies on Kepels plant as an oral deodorant, therefore
the article by Yamakoshi et al. (2001) was regarded
as the most relevant reference. Compared to the article published by Yamakoshi
et al. (2001) on grape seed as an oral deodorant, Kepel fruit also
clearly demonstrated the similar oral deodorant mechanism or activity which
is an adsorbent agent to odorants. The in vitro test result was beneficial
to determine the most significant part of Kepels plants which can be used
for in vivo test candidate.
The highest adsorption value which performed by Kepels pulp fruit can also be interpreted by its activity to reduce the odorant amount up to 42.04 and 22. 22% left. The activity to reduce the odorant by adsorbing its emission demonstrated the pharmacological properties of Kepels fruit pulp as an adsorbent agent.
The molecular weight of ammonia was smaller than methyl-mercaptan which allows it to have a higher volatibility. The higher volatibility will caused a higher emission and fill all the ambient circumstances while methyl-mercaptan gas will be less emitted and tend to precipitate in the samples surface. Above condition can attributed to the differences of deodorant activity of the samples which caused a higher adsorption percentage of methyl-mercaptan in relative to ammonia.
The reasonably-high deodorant activity can be supported by its phytochemical
properties such as tannin and flavonoids compounds. The phytochemical of Kepels
peel fruit was contain several phytochemical properties such as tannin and flavonoid
(Batubara et al., 2010b). Phytochemical properties
describe the secondary metabolites compound which potential as an active compound
(Leboeuf et al., 1982). Flavonoid regarded as
the derivative compound of flavon and it differentiate as anthocyanidine, proantocyanidinne,
flavonol, glyco-flavon, flavanon and isoflavon (Sunarni
et al., 2007).
Since all the Kepels contain flavonoid and tannin, then the deodorant mechanism
can be explained by one of its proantocyanidine compound. According to Yamakoshi
et al. (2001). proantocyanidine has a potential pharmacological activity
as an adsorbent from its procyanidine oligomer molecule. Procyanidine has a
bigger molecular mass which possibly adsorb the odorant. Furthermore, the adsorbent
activity of Kepels peel fruit was conducted by in vivo test to
discover its mechanism as an adsorbent to fecal odorant.
In vivo test: The result of in vivo test was supported
by Yamakoshi et al. (2001) published paper, since
the fecal odorants were lowered and the Bifidobacteria were increased, after
Kepels fruit pulp oral application. The significant result in lowering
all of the fecal odorants demonstrated the efficacy of Kepels fruit as
an intestinal adsorbent (Brander et al., 1991;
Webster, 2001) or oral deodorant. The adsorbent activity
came from of its phytochemical properties which are flavonoid and tannin, specifically
the proanthocyanidine compound. The proanthocyanidine content a bigger oligomer
named procyanidine which possibly adsorb the odorants (Yamakoshi
et al., 2001).
The proantocyanidine itself has chemical structure which allowed a binding with such an odorant such as NH3, from its electrostatic side. The side was distributed in a manner for possible complex of proanthocyanidine and the odorant. The deodorant activity of Kepels peel fruit by in vitro methods which describe it mechanism as an adsorbent was corresponding with the in vivo test result. It clearly demonstrate the correlation between the mechanism as adsorbent and it efficacy as an oral deodorant.
Since proanthocyanidine also promote vascular health (Corder
et al., 2006), then Kepel has another potential pharmacological activities
to promote animal or human health. Publication by Osorio
et al. (2007) and Wiart (2007) stated other
pharmacological activities of Kepel based on family taxon proximity. Ammonia
(NH3) as a physical hazard, plays an important role in health management,
especially on poultry farm since it can be a predisposition factor to respiratory
Based on our results, Kepels fruit pulp demonstrated pharmacological activities as an adsorbent to odorant which made it potentially beneficial not only as an oral deodorant and also as one of health management component in poultry or livestock farm. Its pharmacological activities as an adsorbent to ammonia brought a new perspective to reduce the biohazard through oral consumption.
Prebiotics activity: The in vitro test clearly described the
prebiotic potential activities of Kepels fruits pulp and seed for further
oral application. Based on the result, both in vitro and in vivo
test of Kepels as prebiotics, support the publication by Yamakoshi
et al. (2001) which described the prebiotic activity as a part of
oral deodorant activity. Kepel fruit pulp increase the Bifidobacteria growth
significantly as well as the grape seeds extract which was conducted by
Yamakoshi et al. (2001).
The reasonably high number of fecal Bifidobacter on Kepel fruit pulp powder
group indicated the higher population in intestinal tract which also correlate
with its pharmacological activities as prebiotics in reducing pathogens bacteria,
an-aerobic bacteria and Enterobacteriaceae (Hajati and Rezaei,
2010) as well as preventing inflammation on intestinal tract (Imaoka
et al., 2008). The TMA is known as a gas-odorant which belongs to
amine group and distinguished by the stink and fishy-odor (Kim
and Park, 2008). Beside of TMA, the bacteria also produced others odorants,
such as NH3 itself, hydrogen sulfide (H2S)
and intestinal decomposer products. By promoting the Bifidobacter, the number
of the bacteria which caused the fecal odorant will be reduced and furthermore
the fecal odorant concentration will be lowered significantly. Through, in
vitro and in vivo test of adsorbent and prebiotics activities, Kepel
showed a promising use for human medicine as oral deodorant and also in veterinary
medicine for promoting better health by lowering NH3 emission, especially
in poultry farm (Ghiyasi et al., 2007; Hajati
and Rezaei, 2010).
Kepel fruit pulp was scientifically proven as an oral deodorant through its potential pharmacological activity as fecal odorants adsorbent and prebiotics function by enhancing Bifidobacteria growth.
The studies was deeply in debt with the people at Matesih, Karanganyar, Middle Java province for their indigenous knowledge in consuming kepels fruit as an oral deodorant, Biopharmaca Research Center for samples preparation, Laboratory of Natural Product Chemistry, Gifu University for providing the Kitagawa precision pump and gas detector, the meticulous technicians in fecal odorant analysis, prebiotics and whole in vivo studies at the Division of Analytical Chemistry, Division of Microbiology Health and Division of Pharmacology and Toxicology, IPB Bogor, respectively.